The Role of Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Chronic Diseases

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2024 | Viewed by 2539

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Interests: diet; endocrinology; genetics; chronic disease; clinical trial

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chronic diseases place a heavy burden on healthcare. Thus, it is important to identify effective strategies for their prevention and treatment. Diet—an important component in daily life—plays a key role in chronic disease prevention and treatment. In addition, cardiometabolic risk factors, such as lipids, blood pressure, and sex hormones, may also be affected by dietary factors, and affect the risk of chronic diseases. Thus, this Special Issue will focus on the role of dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.

Authors are encouraged to submit original research articles or reviews addressing diet, cardiometabolic risk factors, and chronic diseases at mechanistic, observational, and epidemiological levels.

Dr. Jie Jane Zhao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • diet
  • biomarkers
  • chronic disease
  • epidemiology
  • original study
  • review
  • clinical trial

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Exploration of Metabolic Biomarkers Linking Red Meat Consumption to Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality in the UK Biobank
by Bohan Fan, Xin Huang and Jie V. Zhao
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081865 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
Growing evidence suggests that red meat consumption is a risk factor for cardiovascular health, with potential sex disparity. The metabolic mechanisms have not been fully understood. Using the UK Biobank, first we examined the associations of unprocessed red meat and processed meat with [...] Read more.
Growing evidence suggests that red meat consumption is a risk factor for cardiovascular health, with potential sex disparity. The metabolic mechanisms have not been fully understood. Using the UK Biobank, first we examined the associations of unprocessed red meat and processed meat with ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality overall and by sex using logistic regression. Then, we examined the overall and sex-specific associations of red meat consumption with metabolites using multivariable regression, as well as the associations of selected metabolites with IHD mortality using logistic regression. We further selected metabolic biomarkers that are linked to both red meat consumption and IHD, with concordant directions. Unprocessed red meat and processed meat consumption was associated with higher IHD mortality overall and in men. Thirteen metabolites were associated with both unprocessed red meat and IHD mortality overall and showed a consistent direction, including triglycerides in different lipoproteins, phospholipids in very small very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), docosahexaenoic acid, tyrosine, creatinine, glucose, and glycoprotein acetyls. Ten metabolites related to triglycerides and VLDL were positively associated with both unprocessed red meat consumption and IHD mortality in men, but not in women. Processed meat consumption showed similar results with unprocessed red meat. Triglycerides in lipoproteins, fatty acids, and some nonlipid metabolites may play a role linking meat consumption to IHD. Triglycerides and VLDL-related lipid metabolism may contribute to the sex-specific associations. Sex differences should be considered in dietary recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Chronic Diseases)

Other

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20 pages, 1524 KiB  
Systematic Review
High Serum Phosphate Is Associated with Cardiovascular Mortality and Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Carolina Torrijo-Belanche, Belén Moreno-Franco, Ainara Muñoz-Cabrejas, Naiara Calvo-Galiano, José Antonio Casasnovas, Carmen Sayón-Orea and Pilar Guallar-Castillón
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111599 - 24 May 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The aim of the study was to examine the existing published results of the association between elevated serum phosphate concentrations and cardiovascular mortality, along with the CVD incidence and subclinical coronary [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The aim of the study was to examine the existing published results of the association between elevated serum phosphate concentrations and cardiovascular mortality, along with the CVD incidence and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, in primary prevention among non-selected samples of the general population. (2) Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out using literature obtained from PubMed, SCOPUS, and the Web Of Science until March 2024 and following the PRISMA guidelines. Relevant information was extracted and presented. Random and fixed effects models were used to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio (HR) with their 95% coefficient interval (CI), and I2 was used to assess heterogeneity. (3) Results: Twenty-five studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis (11 cross-sectional and 14 cohort studies). For cardiovascular mortality, which included 7 cohort studies and 41,764 adults, the pooled HR was 1.44 (95% CIs 1.28, 1.61; I2 0%) when the highest versus the reference level of serum phosphate concentrations were compared. For CVDs, which included 8 cohort studies and 61,723 adults, the pooled HR was 1.12 (95% CIs 0.99, 1.27; I2 51%). For subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, which included 11 cross-sectional studies and 24,820 adults, the pooled OR was 1.44 (95% CIs 1.15, 1.79; I2 88%). (4) Conclusions: The highest serum phosphate concentrations were positively associated with a 44% increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Chronic Diseases)
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