Effect of Lifestyle and Dietary Interventions for People with Chronic Kidney Disease

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 2 July 2024 | Viewed by 6306

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Medical, Indigenous and Health Science, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Interests: nutrition and dietetics; nephrology and urology; health counselling; clinical nutrition; public health nutrition; health services research

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chronic kidney disease is a global health problem.  Suboptimal dietary patterns and low physical activity levels are important lifestyle-related elements that can contribute to negative health outcomes in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD)

While it is unlikely that there will be one optimal lifestyle approach for people with CKD, there is an urgent need to explore components of successful lifestyle interventions and to test differing combinations of dose, intensity, duration and context to determine efficacy. Lifestyle modifications may, therefore, ultimately improve the risk factor profile and progression of this condition.

This Special Issue of Nutrients is dedicated to highlighting the potential clinical, health system, financial and patient relevant outcomes that lifestyle modification may have in people with chronic kidney disease. We are pleased to accept both original articles and reviews on this topic.

Dr. Kelly Lambert
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • lifestyle
  • diet
  • dietary patterns
  • exercise
  • physical activity
  • lifestyle intervention

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 500 KiB  
Article
Dietary Patterns, Dietary Adequacy and Nutrient Intake in Adults Commencing Peritoneal Dialysis: Outcomes from a Longitudinal Cohort Study
by Kelly Lambert, Michele Ryan, Jade Flanagan, Georgie Broinowski, Maryann Nicdao, Jordan Stanford and Katrina Chau
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050663 - 27 Feb 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: Optimal dietary intake is integral to good health in people receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). We investigated how dietary patterns, dietary adequacy and nutrient intake may change over time in people commencing PD. (2) Methods: Participants were attending the PD training unit [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Optimal dietary intake is integral to good health in people receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). We investigated how dietary patterns, dietary adequacy and nutrient intake may change over time in people commencing PD. (2) Methods: Participants were attending the PD training unit for the commencement of peritoneal dialysis, aged ≥18 years and willing to complete food records. Misreporters were excluded from the analysis. Dietary intake was compared at PD commencement and at 12 months. Intake was also compared to reference standards. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis. (3) Results: There were no significant changes between baseline and 12 months for grains, fruit, vegetables and meat. Dairy and added sugar intake was significantly lower (p = 0.01). The intake of energy and protein was adequate and did not change. There was a significant reduction in dietary phosphorus and calcium, and increased vitamin C intake. Three dietary patterns were identified: the ‘Bread and Cereal’ pattern; ‘Milk and Potatoes’ pattern; and the ‘Semi Vegetarian’ pattern. (4) Conclusions: In this longitudinal cohort study, the diet quality was suboptimal and there were limited changes in intake after the commencement of PD. Further exploration of how dietary patterns may impact outcomes and quality of life is warranted. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 849 KiB  
Review
Food to Prevent Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease
by Diana Moldovan, Crina Rusu, Alina Potra, Dacian Tirinescu, Maria Ticala and Ina Kacso
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050617 - 23 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Vascular calcification (VC) is a consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is of paramount importance regarding the survival of CKD patients. VC is far from being controlled with actual medication; as a result, in recent years, diet modulation has become more compelling. [...] Read more.
Vascular calcification (VC) is a consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is of paramount importance regarding the survival of CKD patients. VC is far from being controlled with actual medication; as a result, in recent years, diet modulation has become more compelling. The concept of medical nutritional therapy points out the idea that food may prevent or treat diseases. The aim of this review was to evaluate the influence of food habits and nutritional intervention in the occurrence and progression of VC in CKD. Evidence reports the harmfulness of ultra-processed food, food additives, and animal-based proteins due to the increased intake of high absorbable phosphorus, the scarcity of fibers, and the increased production of uremic toxins. Available data are more supportive of a plant-dominant diet, especially for the impact on gut microbiota composition, which varies significantly depending on VC presence. Magnesium has been shown to prevent VC but only in experimental and small clinical studies. Vitamin K has drawn considerable attention due to its activation of VC inhibitors. There are positive studies; unfortunately, recent trials failed to prove its efficacy in preventing VC. Future research is needed and should aim to transform food into a medical intervention to eliminate VC danger in CKD. Full article
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14 pages, 1655 KiB  
Review
Dieta de la Milpa: A Culturally-Concordant Plant-Based Dietary Pattern for Hispanic/Latine People with Chronic Kidney Disease
by Annabel Biruete, Gabriela Leal-Escobar, Ángeles Espinosa-Cuevas, Luis Mojica and Brandon M. Kistler
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050574 - 20 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) disproportionately affects minorities in the United States, including the Hispanic/Latine population, and is a public health concern in Latin American countries. An emphasis on healthy dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets, [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) disproportionately affects minorities in the United States, including the Hispanic/Latine population, and is a public health concern in Latin American countries. An emphasis on healthy dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets, has been suggested as they are associated with a lower incidence of CKD, slower CKD progression, and lower mortality in kidney failure. However, their applicability may be limited in people from Latin America. The Dieta de la Milpa (Diet of the Cornfield) was recently described as the dietary pattern of choice for people from Mesoamerica (Central Mexico and Central America). This dietary pattern highlights the intake of four plant-based staple foods from this geographical region, corn/maize, common beans, pumpkins/squashes, and chilies, complemented with seasonal and local intake of plant-based foods and a lower intake of animal-based foods, collectively classified into ten food groups. Limited preclinical and clinical studies suggest several health benefits, including cardiometabolic health, but there is currently no data concerning CKD. In this narrative review, we describe and highlight the potential benefits of the Dieta de la Milpa in CKD, including acid-base balance, protein source, potassium and phosphorus management, impact on the gut microbiota, inflammation, and cultural appropriateness. Despite these potential benefits, this dietary pattern has not been tested in people with CKD. Therefore, we suggest key research questions targeting measurement of adherence, feasibility, and effectiveness of the Dieta de la Milpa in people with CKD. Full article
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