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Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Health Outcomes

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Prebiotics and Probiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2024) | Viewed by 9236

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
2. Food Laboratory of Zhongyuan, China Agricultural University, Luohe 462300, China
Interests: probiotics; extracellular vesicles; ulcerative colitis; inflammatory; gut microbiota

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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality, Department of Nutrition and Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100093, China
Interests: lactobacillus; probiotics; gut health

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Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
Interests: bacteriocin; probiotic; lactic acid bacteria; food safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when consumed in adequate amounts, offer a variety of health benefits. Recent research has shown that probiotics have anti-inflammatory effects and can improve health outcomes in several ways. Inflammation is a normal immune response to infection or injury. However, chronic inflammation can lead to a variety of health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics have been shown to modulate the immune system and reduce inflammation in a number of ways, including by decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to collect original research manuscripts and reviews on the effects of probiotics on inflammation and health outcomes. The articles in this issue cover a range of topics, including the use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, the effects of probiotics on gut microbiota and metabolic health, and the potential use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of other inflammatory diseases.

Dr. Zhengyuan Zhai
Prof. Dr. Yanling Hao
Prof. Dr. Huaxi Yi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • probiotics
  • organic metabolites
  • antioxidant molecules
  • human health
  • Lactobacillus
  • inflammation
  • immunology
  • disease

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 12662 KiB  
Article
The Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 Probiotic Microcapsule Prevents DSS-Induced Colitis through Improving Intestinal Integrity and Reducing Colonic Inflammation in Mice
by Han Wang, Yaxuan Sun, Xuan Ma, Tianyu Yang and Feng Wang
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071055 - 04 Apr 2024
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Probiotics, recognized as beneficial and active microorganisms, often face challenges in maintaining their functionality under harsh conditions such as exposure to stomach acid and bile salts. In this investigation, we developed probiotic microcapsules and assessed their protective effects and underlying mechanisms in a [...] Read more.
Probiotics, recognized as beneficial and active microorganisms, often face challenges in maintaining their functionality under harsh conditions such as exposure to stomach acid and bile salts. In this investigation, we developed probiotic microcapsules and assessed their protective effects and underlying mechanisms in a murine model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis using male C57BL/6J mice. The administration of the probiotic microcapsules significantly mitigated body weight loss, prevented colon length shortening, decreased the disease activity index scores, and reduced histopathological scores in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Concurrently, the microencapsulated probiotics preserved intestinal barrier integrity by upregulating the expressions of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin, as well as the mucus layer component MUC-2. Moreover, the treatment with probiotic microcapsules suppressed the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway in the context of DSS-induced colitis. In conclusion, these findings support the utilization of probiotic microcapsules as a potential functional food ingredient to maintain the permeability of the intestinal barrier and alleviate colonic inflammation in UC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Health Outcomes)
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15 pages, 745 KiB  
Article
Effects of Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation on Serum Bone Turnover Markers in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
by Marut Vanitchanont, Sakda Arj-Ong Vallibhakara, Areepan Sophonsritsuk and Orawin Vallibhakara
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030461 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2019
Abstract
Probiotics have been found to have beneficial effects on bone metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation on bone turnover markers were evaluated after 12 weeks. Forty postmenopausal women with osteopenia were included and randomly divided into [...] Read more.
Probiotics have been found to have beneficial effects on bone metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation on bone turnover markers were evaluated after 12 weeks. Forty postmenopausal women with osteopenia were included and randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group received multispecies probiotics, while the control group received identical placebo sachets daily. The baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. Still, the median serum bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) was slightly higher in the multispecies probiotic group than in the placebo group (0.35 (0.12, 0.53) vs. 0.16 (0.06, 0.75); p-value = 0.004). After 12 weeks, the mean difference in serum CTX at baseline versus 12 weeks was significantly different between the multispecies probiotic and placebo groups (−0.06 (−0.29, 0.05) vs. 0.04 (−0.45, 0.67); p-value < 0.001). The multispecies probiotic group showed a significant decrease in serum CTX at 12 weeks compared with baseline (p-value 0.026). However, the placebo group showed no significant change in serum CTX (p-value 0.18). In conclusion, multispecies probiotics may have a preventive effect on bone through their antiresorptive effect in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Health Outcomes)
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16 pages, 2374 KiB  
Article
A Ropy Exopolysaccharide-Producing Strain Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Bi-OTA128 Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice
by Hui Wang, Xinyuan Zhang, Xinfang Kou, Zhengyuan Zhai and Yanling Hao
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4993; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234993 - 01 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease associated with overactive inflammation and gut dysbiosis. Owing to the beneficial effects of bifidobacteria on IBD treatment, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammation effects of an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Bi-OTA128 through a [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease associated with overactive inflammation and gut dysbiosis. Owing to the beneficial effects of bifidobacteria on IBD treatment, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammation effects of an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Bi-OTA128 through a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice model. B. pseudocatenulatum treatment improved DSS-induced colitis symptoms and maintained intestinal barrier integrity by up-regulating MUC2 and tight junctions’ expression. The oxidative stress was reduced after B. pseudocatenulatum treatment by increasing the antioxidant enzymes of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in colon tissues. Moreover, the overactive inflammatory responses were also inhibited by decreasing the pro-inflammatory cytokines of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, but increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine of IL-10. The EPS-producing strain Bi-OTA128 showed better effects than that of a non-EPS-producing stain BLYR01-7 in modulating DSS-induced gut dysbiosis. The Bi-OTA128 treatment increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium and decreased the maleficent bacteria Escherichia-Shigella, Enterorhabuds, Enterobacter, and Osillibacter associated with intestinal inflammation. Notably, the genera Clostridium sensu stricto were only enriched in Bi-OTA128-treated mice, which could degrade polysaccharides to produce acetic acid and butyrate in the gut. This finding demonstrated a cross-feeding effect induced by the EPS-producing strain in gut microbiota. Collectively, these results highlighted the anti-inflammatory effects of the EPS-producing strain B. pseudocatenulatum Bi-OTA128 on DSS-induced colitis, which could be used as a candidate probiotic supporting recovery from ongoing colitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Health Outcomes)
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14 pages, 748 KiB  
Article
Antigingivitis and Antiplaque Effects of Oral Probiotic Containing the Streptococcus salivarius M18 Strain: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Ksenia Babina, Dilara Salikhova, Vladlena Doroshina, Irina Makeeva, Alexandr Zaytsev, Matvey Uvarichev, Maria Polyakova and Nina Novozhilova
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 3882; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15183882 - 06 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
We aimed to assess the effect of oral probiotic containing the Streptococcus salivarius M18 strain on gingival inflammation, bleeding on probing, and oral biofilm. Sixty-one consenting participants aged between 18 and 25 with gingivitis were recruited in this double-blind, parallel-group study and randomly [...] Read more.
We aimed to assess the effect of oral probiotic containing the Streptococcus salivarius M18 strain on gingival inflammation, bleeding on probing, and oral biofilm. Sixty-one consenting participants aged between 18 and 25 with gingivitis were recruited in this double-blind, parallel-group study and randomly divided into the probiotic group (n = 31) and the placebo group (n = 30). Fifty-seven participants completed the entire study protocol, 27 in the probiotic group and 30 in the placebo group. The outcomes were assessed after 4 weeks of intervention and 4 weeks of follow-up. There was a significant decrease in the Gingival Index, with the effect size of 0.58 [95%CI 0.05–1.10], and Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein Plaque Index, with the effect size of 0.55 [95%CI: 0.02–1.07], in the probiotic group after the intervention. However, after a 4-week follow-up, the only significant treatment outcome was improved gingival condition according to the Gingival Index. The Gingival Bleeding Index also decreased significantly in the probiotic group after the intervention period; after the follow-up, this parameter did not differ significantly in both groups from the baseline values. In the placebo group, there were no significant improvements in the assessed parameters throughout this study. No serious side effects were registered. Within the limitations of this study, we conclude that the use of oral probiotic containing the Streptococcus salivarius M18 strain resulted in a significant improvement in gingival condition and oral hygiene level in young adults with gingivitis. Trial registration NCT05727436. Funding: none. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Health Outcomes)
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16 pages, 17330 KiB  
Article
Lactobacillus paracasei ET-22 Suppresses Dental Caries by Regulating Microbiota of Dental Plaques and Inhibiting Biofilm Formation
by Meng Guo, Jianmin Wu, Weilian Hung, Zhe Sun, Wen Zhao, Hanglian Lan, Zhi Zhao, Guna Wuri, Bing Fang, Liang Zhao and Ming Zhang
Nutrients 2023, 15(15), 3316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153316 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Dental caries is a common and multifactorial biofilm disease that is associated with dietary habits and microbiota. Among the various pathogens inducing caries, S. mutans is the most extensively studied. Promoting oral health with probiotics has gained considerable attention. Lactobacillus paracasei (L. [...] Read more.
Dental caries is a common and multifactorial biofilm disease that is associated with dietary habits and microbiota. Among the various pathogens inducing caries, S. mutans is the most extensively studied. Promoting oral health with probiotics has gained considerable attention. Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei) strains were reported to modulate the gut microbiota and enhance host resistance to disease. Our previous research has found that L. paracasei ET-22 (ET-22) could inhibit S. mutans biofilms in vitro. However, the preventive effect in vivo and functional mechanism of ET-22 on dental caries were unclear. In this study, the preventive effects of ET-22 on dental caries in mice were checked. Meanwhile, the functional mechanism of ET-22 was further investigated. Results showed that the supplementation of ET-22 in drinking water significantly improved the caries scoring of mice. The microbiota of dental plaques revealed that the live and heat-killed ET-22 similarly regulated the microbial structure in plaque biofilms. Functional prediction of PICRUSt showed that the addition of live and heat-killed ET-22 may inhibit biofilm formation. By the in vitro trials, the live and heat-killed ET-22 indeed inhibited the construction of S. mutans biofilms and EPS productions of biofilms. This evidence suggests that ET-22 can restrain dental caries by regulating the microbiota of dental plaques and inhibiting biofilm formation, which may be partly mediated by the body components of ET-22. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Health Outcomes)
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Review

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56 pages, 4576 KiB  
Review
The Anti-Inflammatory and Curative Exponent of Probiotics: A Comprehensive and Authentic Ingredient for the Sustained Functioning of Major Human Organs
by Muhammad Safiullah Virk, Muhammad Abdulrehman Virk, Yufeng He, Tabussam Tufail, Mehak Gul, Abdul Qayum, Abdur Rehman, Arif Rashid, John-Nelson Ekumah, Xu Han, Junxia Wang and Xiaofeng Ren
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040546 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Several billion microorganisms reside in the gastrointestinal lumen, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Among them, probiotics were primarily used to cure digestive disorders such as intestinal infections and diarrhea; however, with a paradigm shift towards alleviating health through food, their importance is [...] Read more.
Several billion microorganisms reside in the gastrointestinal lumen, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Among them, probiotics were primarily used to cure digestive disorders such as intestinal infections and diarrhea; however, with a paradigm shift towards alleviating health through food, their importance is large. Moreover, recent studies have changed the perspective that probiotics prevent numerous ailments in the major organs. Probiotics primarily produce biologically active compounds targeting discommodious pathogens. This review demonstrates the implications of using probiotics from different genres to prevent and alleviate ailments in the primary human organs. The findings reveal that probiotics immediately activate anti-inflammatory mechanisms by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-11, and IL-13, and hindering pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α by involving regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper cells (Th cells). Several strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium breve have been listed among the probiotics that are excellent in alleviating various simple to complex ailments. Therefore, the importance of probiotics necessitates robust research to unveil the implications of probiotics, including the potency of strains, the optimal dosages, the combination of probiotics, their habitat in the host, the host response, and other pertinent factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Health Outcomes)
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