Brain Health Initiative: Advocacy in Global Neurology

Editors


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Collection Editor
School of Public Health and Psychology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
Interests: mental health; neuropsychology; methodology; statistics

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Lead Psychiatrist, Adult in Patient Psychiatry Unit, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Interests: psychosis; mood; anxiety disorders; cognitive behavioral psychotherapy

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Neurological disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide. Stroke, headache disorders, traumatic brain injuries, and neuroinfections lead to 80% of the deaths in low- to middle-income countries worldwide, as discussed at the 73rd World Health Assembly (WHO), December 2020. There are significant gaps in many issues ( lack of equity, lack of access to medications and services, lack of neurologists, lack of opportunities to training and education, stigma, poor health literacy, to name a few) related to the disorders affecting the nervous system, making this aspect an important priority for the global neurology community.

It is worth noting that nearly 90% of neurological disorders, such as stroke, can be prevented. Prevention is clearly better than cure. The mental health impact of neurological diseases is immense, and clear mental health action plans are needed in most situations. 

How can we advocate for universal health coverage? 

What can we do to mitigate the long-term effect of COVID-19, such as Post COVID-19 Neurological Syndrome?

Advocacy is key to many of these aspects. We invite you to submit your local, regional, national, and international advocacy work concerning brain health now. We welcome submissions from academics, clinicians, policymakers, political leaders, and students from various inter-disciplines to the Special Issue “Brain Health Initiative: Advocacy in Neurology”.

Prof. Dr. Tissa Wijeratne
Dr. Leila Karimi
Dr. Dilani Wijeratne
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Brain health
  • Global Neurology
  • Disability
  • Prevention

Published Papers (5 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

7 pages, 836 KiB  
Case Report
Fremanezumab and Non-High-Dose Galcanezumab for Comorbid Cluster Headache in Patients with Migraine: Three Cases
by Kenta Kashiwagi, Masahito Katsuki, Shin Kawamura, Senju Tachikawa, Atsuko Ono and Akihito Koh
Neurol. Int. 2023, 15(1), 318-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint15010020 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
A new treatment option for cluster headache (CH) prevention is needed. Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ligands are used as a preventative treatment for migraine. Considering the CGRP’s role in the CH attack’s ignition and upkeep, fremanezumab and galcanezumab have [...] Read more.
A new treatment option for cluster headache (CH) prevention is needed. Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ligands are used as a preventative treatment for migraine. Considering the CGRP’s role in the CH attack’s ignition and upkeep, fremanezumab and galcanezumab have been evaluated for CH preventative treatment. However, only high-dose (300 mg) galcanezumab has been approved for episodic CH prevention. We herein report three cases of migraine and comorbid CH with previous failures of preventive treatments. Two cases were treated with fremanezumab and one with non-high-dose galcanezumab. All three cases showed good results, not only for migraine, but also for CH attacks. This report suggests the efficacy of CGRP-mABs for CH prevention. Our cases differed from cases in the phase 3 trials of CGRP-mABs for CH prevention in two ways: first, our patients had both migraine and comorbid CH, and second, we used a combination of CGRP-mABs with preventative drugs, such as verapamil and/or prednisolone, to treat CH. Future accumulation of real-world data may prove the efficacy of CGRP-mABs for CH prevention. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

10 pages, 1016 KiB  
Systematic Review
Relevance of Fluorodopa PET Scan in Dopamine Responsive Dystonia and Juvenile Parkinsonism: A Systematic Review
by Juan A. Moncayo, Maite Vargas, Juan F. Ortiz, Pablo Granda, Alex S. Aguirre, Jennifer Argudo, Willians Tambo, Gabriela Garofalo, Christian John Capirig, Melisa German-Montenegro and Luis G. Rueda
Neurol. Int. 2022, 14(4), 997-1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint14040079 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2155
Abstract
Background: Dopamine Responsive Dystonia (DRD) and Juvenile Parkinsonism (JP) are two diseases commonly presenting with parkinsonian symptoms in young patients. Current clinical guidelines offer a diagnostic approach based on molecular analysis. However, developing countries have limitations in terms of accessibility to these tests. [...] Read more.
Background: Dopamine Responsive Dystonia (DRD) and Juvenile Parkinsonism (JP) are two diseases commonly presenting with parkinsonian symptoms in young patients. Current clinical guidelines offer a diagnostic approach based on molecular analysis. However, developing countries have limitations in terms of accessibility to these tests. We aimed to assess the utility of imaging equipment, usually more available worldwide, to help diagnose and improve patients’ quality of life with these diseases. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review in English using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) protocols. We only used human clinical trials about dopamine responsive dystonia and juvenile parkinsonism patients in which a fluorodopa (FD) positron emission tomography (PET) scan was performed to identify its use in these diseases. Results: We included six studies that fulfilled our criteria. We found a clear pattern of decreased uptake in the putamen and caudate nucleus in JP cases. At the same time, the results in DRD were comparable to normal subjects, with only a slightly decreased marker uptake in the previously mentioned regions by the FD PET scan. Conclusions: We found a distinctive pattern for each of these diseases. Identifying these findings with FD PET scans can shorten the delay in making a definitive diagnosis when genetic testing is unavailable, a common scenario in developing countries. Full article
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9 pages, 250 KiB  
Article
Financial Incapacity of Patients with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease: What Neurologists Need to Know about Where the Impairment Lies
by Vaitsa Giannouli and Magda Tsolaki
Neurol. Int. 2022, 14(1), 90-98; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint14010008 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
Research in the last decade has focused on assessing financial capacity and incapacity mainly in old age, but new research has turned to address the question of how financial incapacity can be predicted by cognitive factors. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Research in the last decade has focused on assessing financial capacity and incapacity mainly in old age, but new research has turned to address the question of how financial incapacity can be predicted by cognitive factors. The aim of this study was to identify which cognitive domains predict financial capacity and the relevant cognitive skills of patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in order to assist neurologists in functional assessment and further patient referral. In this study, 109 patients diagnosed with mild AD were examined with a number of neuropsychological tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Functional Rating Scale for Symptoms of Dementia (FRSSD), Functional Cognitive Assessment Scale (FUCAS), Trail Making Test (TMT)-Part B, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT)-copy condition and delayed recall condition, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Boston Naming Test, Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT), digit span forward and backward, WAIS-R digit symbol substitution test, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and the Legal Capacity for Property Law Transactions Assessment Scale (LCPLTAS). LCPLTAS total score and relevant subdomains were best predicted only by the score of one item coming from MMSE: subtraction of serial sevens. This is the only measure of arithmetic testing in use for the Greek geriatric population. Financial capacity is severely impaired in the group of mild AD patients. In order to prevent financial exploitation cases, neurologists, neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, and geriatrists should pay close attention to the information from the relevant arithmetic question of MMSE, as it is one of the most widely administered screening tests in clinical settings. Full article

2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

14 pages, 1365 KiB  
Article
Stroke Aetiology and Collateral Status in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Receiving Reperfusion Therapy—A Meta-Analysis
by Akansha Sinha, Peter Stanwell, Roy G. Beran, Zeljka Calic, Murray C. Killingsworth and Sonu M. M. Bhaskar
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(4), 608-621; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13040060 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4011
Abstract
Background: The interplay between collateral status and stroke aetiology may be crucial in the evaluation and management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Our understanding of this relationship and its level of association remains sub-optimal. This study sought to examine the association of pre-intervention [...] Read more.
Background: The interplay between collateral status and stroke aetiology may be crucial in the evaluation and management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Our understanding of this relationship and its level of association remains sub-optimal. This study sought to examine the association of pre-intervention collateral status with stroke aetiology, specifically large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and cardio-embolism (CE), in AIS patients receiving reperfusion therapy, by performing a meta-analysis. Methods: Relevant search terms were explored on Medline/PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases. Studies were included using the following inclusion criteria: (a) patients aged 18 or above; (b) AIS patients; (c) patients receiving reperfusion therapy; (d) total cohort size of >20, and (e) qualitative or quantitative assessment of pre-intervention collateral status on imaging using a grading scale. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association of aetiology with pre-intervention collateral status, and forest plots of risk ratio (RR) were generated. Results: A meta-analysis was conducted on seven studies, with a cumulative cohort of 1235 patients, to assess the association of pre-intervention collateral status with stroke aetiology. Patients with LAA were associated significantly with an increased rate of good collaterals (RR 1.24; 95% CI 1.04–1.50; p = 0.020, z = 2.33). Contrarily, CE aetiology was associated significantly with a decreased rate of good collaterals (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71–0.98; p = 0.027, z = −2.213). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that, in AIS patients receiving reperfusion therapy, LAA and CE aetiologies are associated significantly with collateral status. Full article
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2 pages, 177 KiB  
Editorial
Keep S’Myelin: World Brain Day 2021 Editorial for Residents and Junior Doctors Page—Neurology International MDPI
by Lakshini Gunasekera and Tissa Wijeratne
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 402-403; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030039 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Every five minutes someone in the world is diagnosed with multiple sclerosis [...] Full article
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