The Importance of Non-coding RNAs in Epithelial Cancers

A special issue of Non-Coding RNA (ISSN 2311-553X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2023) | Viewed by 7989

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, JMS Building, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
Interests: microRNAs; lncRNAs; circRNAs; epithelial cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is becoming clear that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are not simply bioproducts obtained by random transcriptional activity, but play an essential role in health and disease. In contrast to messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ncRNAs are characterized by the absence of a productive open reading frame; therefore, it is the RNA itself that regulates gene expression at either transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels. Growing experimental evidence shows that various classes of ncRNAs play an important role in epithelial cancer initiation and progression, acting either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Aberrant expression of ncRNAs has been linked to all stages of cancer development, from its initiation to tumorigenesis and cancer proliferation as well as invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, it has been shown that these molecules have the potential to be therapeutically targeted and have both prognostic and diagnostic potential. For this Special Issue of Non-Coding RNAs, we cordially invite experts in the field of non-coding RNA and cancer to provide their current vision of the role of ncRNA molecules in epithelial cancer and their possible use as cancer biomarkers.

Dr. Leandro Castellano
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • non-coding RNAs
  • lncRNAs
  • microRNAs
  • biomarker
  • cancer
  • tumorigenesis
  • epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)
  • invasion
  • metastasis

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 1799 KiB  
Article
LADON, a Natural Antisense Transcript of NODAL, Promotes Tumour Progression and Metastasis in Melanoma
by Annie Dutriaux, Serena Diazzi, Chiara Bresesti, Sylvie Hardouin, Frédérique Deshayes, Jérôme Collignon and Domenico Flagiello
Non-Coding RNA 2023, 9(6), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna9060071 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1968
Abstract
The TGFβ family member NODAL, repeatedly required during embryonic development, has also been associated with tumour progression. Our aim was to clarify the controversy surrounding its involvement in melanoma tumour progression. We found that the deletion of the NODAL exon 2 in a [...] Read more.
The TGFβ family member NODAL, repeatedly required during embryonic development, has also been associated with tumour progression. Our aim was to clarify the controversy surrounding its involvement in melanoma tumour progression. We found that the deletion of the NODAL exon 2 in a metastatic melanoma cell line impairs its ability to form tumours and colonize distant tissues. However, we show that this phenotype does not result from the absence of NODAL, but from a defect in the expression of a natural antisense transcript of NODAL, here called LADON. We show that LADON expression is specifically activated in metastatic melanoma cell lines, that its transcript is packaged in exosomes secreted by melanoma cells, and that, via its differential impact on the expression of oncogenes and tumour suppressors, it promotes the mesenchymal to amoeboid transition that is critical for melanoma cell invasiveness. LADON is, therefore, a new player in the regulatory network governing tumour progression in melanoma and possibly in other types of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Importance of Non-coding RNAs in Epithelial Cancers)
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Review

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20 pages, 1993 KiB  
Review
FLVCR1-AS1 and FBXL19-AS1: Two Putative lncRNA Candidates in Multiple Human Cancers
by Mohsen Sheykhhasan, Hamid Tanzadehpanah, Amirhossein Ahmadieh Yazdi, Hanie Mahaki, Reihaneh Seyedebrahimi, Mohammad Akbari, Hamed Manoochehri, Naser Kalhor and Paola Dama
Non-Coding RNA 2023, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna9010001 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2406
Abstract
(1) Background: Mounting evidence supports the idea that one of the most critical agents in controlling gene expression could be long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Upregulation of lncRNA is observed in the different processes related to pathologies, such as tumor occurrence and development. Among [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Mounting evidence supports the idea that one of the most critical agents in controlling gene expression could be long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Upregulation of lncRNA is observed in the different processes related to pathologies, such as tumor occurrence and development. Among the crescent number of lncRNAs discovered, FLVCR1-AS1 and FBXL19-AS1 have been identified as oncogenes in many cancer progression and prognosis types, including cholangiocarcinoma, gastric cancer, glioma and glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and osteosarcoma. Therefore, abnormal FBXL19-AS1 and FLVCR1-AS1 expression affect a variety of cellular activities, including metastasis, aggressiveness, and proliferation; (2) Methods: This study was searched via PubMed and Google Scholar databases until May 2022; (3) Results: FLVCR1-AS1 and FBXL19-AS1 participate in tumorigenesis and have an active role in impacting several signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, and EMT; (4) Conclusions: Our review focuses on the possible molecular mechanisms in a variety of cancers regulated by FLVCR1-AS1 and FBXL19-AS1. It is not surprising that there has been significant interest in the possibility that these lncRNAs might be used as biomarkers for diagnosis or as a target to improve a broader range of cancers in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Importance of Non-coding RNAs in Epithelial Cancers)
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18 pages, 2254 KiB  
Review
Polymeric Carriers for Delivery of RNA Cancer Therapeutics
by Sofía Mirón-Barroso, Joana S. Correia, Adam E. Frampton, Mark P. Lythgoe, James Clark, Laura Tookman, Silvia Ottaviani, Leandro Castellano, Alexandra E. Porter, Theoni K. Georgiou and Jonathan Krell
Non-Coding RNA 2022, 8(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna8040058 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2787
Abstract
As research uncovers the underpinnings of cancer biology, new targeted therapies have been developed. Many of these therapies are small molecules, such as kinase inhibitors, that target specific proteins; however, only 1% of the genome encodes for proteins and only a subset of [...] Read more.
As research uncovers the underpinnings of cancer biology, new targeted therapies have been developed. Many of these therapies are small molecules, such as kinase inhibitors, that target specific proteins; however, only 1% of the genome encodes for proteins and only a subset of these proteins has ‘druggable’ active binding sites. In recent decades, RNA therapeutics have gained popularity due to their ability to affect targets that small molecules cannot. Additionally, they can be manufactured more rapidly and cost-effectively than small molecules or recombinant proteins. RNA therapeutics can be synthesised chemically and altered quickly, which can enable a more personalised approach to cancer treatment. Even though a wide range of RNA therapeutics are being developed for various indications in the oncology setting, none has reached the clinic to date. One of the main reasons for this is attributed to the lack of safe and effective delivery systems for this type of therapeutic. This review focuses on current strategies to overcome these challenges and enable the clinical utility of these novel therapeutic agents in the cancer clinic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Importance of Non-coding RNAs in Epithelial Cancers)
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