Advanced Nanomaterials for Quantum Technology, Sensor and Health Therapy Applications

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 26917

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Intense interest in nanostructured materials is fueled by the tremendous economic and technological benefits anticipated from nanotechnology and nanodevices. Nanostructured materials have demonstrated great potential for applications in optoelectronics, sensors and cancer therapy. The advance in these areas will affect our daily life from how we design a fast computer, to how we preserve the environment, and how we diagnose and treat disease and pollution.

This Special Issue aims to cover a broad range of subjects, from nanomaterials for quantum technology applications to sensor and health science applications. The format of welcomed articles includes full papers, communications, and reviews. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Nanomaterials for quantum technology applications;
  • Nanomaterials for sensor applications;
  • Nanomaterials for health science

Prof. Dr. Sotirios Baskoutas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 175 KiB  
Editorial
Advanced Nanomaterials for Quantum Technology, Sensor and Health Therapy Applications
by Sotirios Baskoutas
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(9), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13091506 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 813
Abstract
The intense interest in nanostructured materials is fueled by the tremendous economic and technological benefits anticipated to be achieved by nanotechnology and nanodevices [...] Full article

Research

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7 pages, 621 KiB  
Article
Nanoscale Waveguide Beam Splitter in Quantum Technologies
by Dmitry Makarov, Ksenia Makarova, Yuliana Tsykareva, Sergey Kapustin, Anastasia Kharlamova, Eugeny Gusarevich and Andrey Goshev
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(22), 4030; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12224030 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Usually in quantum optics, the theory of large- and small-scale waveguide beam splitters is the same. In this paper, it is shown that the theory of the nanoscale waveguide beamsplitter has a significant difference from a similar device, but of a larger scale. [...] Read more.
Usually in quantum optics, the theory of large- and small-scale waveguide beam splitters is the same. In this paper, it is shown that the theory of the nanoscale waveguide beamsplitter has a significant difference from a similar device, but of a larger scale. It is shown that the previously known theory of the waveguide beam splitter is a particular case of the theory presented here. The wave function at the output ports of the nanoscale beam splitter is analyzed. The results obtained are sensitive to the size of the beam splitter, the coupling parameter of the two waveguides, and the degree of nonmonochromaticity of the photons entering the first and second ports of the beam splitter. The results are important for quantum technologies using a nanosized beam splitter. Full article
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13 pages, 2940 KiB  
Article
Thermal and Medium Stability Study of Polyvidone-Modified Graphene Oxide-Coated Gold Nanorods with High Photothermal Efficiency
by Thabang Calvin Lebepe and Oluwatobi Samuel Oluwafemi
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(19), 3382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12193382 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Coating gold nanorods (AuNRs) with different materials, such as polymers and graphene-based materials, has improved their biocompatibility. However, these materials have been shown to cause the instability of AuNRs in thermal and culture mediums. In addressing this issue, we herein report the synthesis, [...] Read more.
Coating gold nanorods (AuNRs) with different materials, such as polymers and graphene-based materials, has improved their biocompatibility. However, these materials have been shown to cause the instability of AuNRs in thermal and culture mediums. In addressing this issue, we herein report the synthesis, thermal and culture medium stability, and photothermal profiling of Polyvidone (PVP)-modified graphene oxide (GO)-coated AuNRs (mGO@AuNRs). The AuNRs, with a size of 40.70 nm × 9.16 nm and absorbing at 820 nm, were coated with PVP, GO, and mGO. The colloidal stability of the nanocomposites was tested in three commonly used cell culture mediums: the Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 (RPMI-1640), Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium, (DMEM) and Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) using UV-Vis-NIR and dynamic light scattering. The GO-based nanocomposites were stable compared to PVP@AuNRs and AuNRs in all mediums. The photothermal profiling of mGO@AuNRs showed higher heat production, with the photothermal conversion efficiency of 54.8%, which is higher than the bare AuNRs, GO@AuNRs, and PVP@AuNRs. In addition, the mGO@AuNRs also showed good thermal stability at 70 °C for more than 24 h. These results present the dual coating of PVP and GO as excellent stabilising agents for AuNRs with good photothermal profiling. Full article
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9 pages, 2629 KiB  
Article
Design and Simulation of Efficient SnS-Based Solar Cell Using Spiro-OMeTAD as Hole Transport Layer
by Pooja Tiwari, Maged F. Alotaibi, Yas Al-Hadeethi, Vaibhava Srivastava, Bassim Arkook, Sadanand, Pooja Lohia, Dilip Kumar Dwivedi, Ahmad Umar, Hassan Algadi and Sotirios Baskoutas
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(14), 2506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12142506 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
In the present paper, the theoretical investigation of the device structure ITO/CeO2/SnS/Spiro-OMeTAD/Mo of SnS-based solar cell has been performed. The aim of this work is to examine how the Spiro-OMeTAD HTL affects the performance of SnS-based heterostructure solar cell. Using SCAPS-1D [...] Read more.
In the present paper, the theoretical investigation of the device structure ITO/CeO2/SnS/Spiro-OMeTAD/Mo of SnS-based solar cell has been performed. The aim of this work is to examine how the Spiro-OMeTAD HTL affects the performance of SnS-based heterostructure solar cell. Using SCAPS-1D simulation software, various parameters of SnS-based solar cell such as work function, series and shunt resistance and working temperature have been investigated. With the help of Spiro-OMeTAD, the suggested cell’s open-circuit voltage was increased to 344 mV. The use of Spiro-OMeTAD HTL in the SnS-based solar cell resulted in 14% efficiency increase, and the proposed heterojunction solar cell has 25.65% efficiency. The cell’s performance is determined by the carrier density and width of the CeO2 ETL (electron transport layer), SnS absorber layer and Spiro-OMeTAD HTL (hole transport layer). These data reveal that the Spiro-OMeTAD solar cells could have been a good HTL (hole transport layer) in regards to producing SnS-based heterojunction solar cell with high efficiency and reduced cost. Full article
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14 pages, 3674 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of Silicon Quantum Dots as a Biomarker for the Bioimaging of Tear Film
by Sidra Sarwat, Fiona Jane Stapleton, Mark Duncan Perry Willcox, Peter B. O’Mara, Richard David Tilley, J. Justin Gooding and Maitreyee Roy
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12121965 - 8 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2533
Abstract
This study investigated the fluorescence and biocompatibility of hydrophilic silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) that are doped with scandium (Sc-SiQDs), copper (Cu-SiQDs), and zinc (Zn-SiQDs), indicating their feasibility for the bioimaging of tear film. SiQDs were investigated for fluorescence emission by the in vitro [...] Read more.
This study investigated the fluorescence and biocompatibility of hydrophilic silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) that are doped with scandium (Sc-SiQDs), copper (Cu-SiQDs), and zinc (Zn-SiQDs), indicating their feasibility for the bioimaging of tear film. SiQDs were investigated for fluorescence emission by the in vitro imaging of artificial tears (TheraTears®), using an optical imaging system. A trypan blue exclusion test and MTT assay were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of SiQDs to cultured human corneal epithelial cells. No difference was observed between the fluorescence emission of Sc-SiQDs and Cu-SiQDs at any concentration. On average, SiQDs showed stable fluorescence, while Sc-SiQDs and Cu-SiQDs showed brighter fluorescence emissions than Zn-SiQDs. Cu-SiQDs and Sc-SiQDs showed a broader safe concentration range than Zn-SiQDs. Cu-SiQDs and Zn-SiQDs tend to aggregate more substantially in TheraTears® than Sc-SiQDs. This study elucidates the feasibility of hydrophilic Sc-SiQDs in studying the tear film’s aqueous layer. Full article
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23 pages, 3167 KiB  
Article
Unconventional Thermal and Magnetic-Field-Driven Changes of a Bipartite Entanglement of a Mixed Spin-(1/2,S) Heisenberg Dimer with an Uniaxial Single-Ion Anisotropy
by Hana Vargová and Jozef Strečka
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3096; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113096 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
The concept of negativity is adapted in order to explore the quantum and thermal entanglement of the mixed spin-(1/2,S) Heisenberg dimers in presence of an external magnetic field. The mutual interplay between the spin size S, XXZ exchange and uniaxial [...] Read more.
The concept of negativity is adapted in order to explore the quantum and thermal entanglement of the mixed spin-(1/2,S) Heisenberg dimers in presence of an external magnetic field. The mutual interplay between the spin size S, XXZ exchange and uniaxial single-ion anisotropy is thoroughly examined with a goal to tune the degree and thermal stability of the pairwise entanglement. It turns out that the antiferromagnetic spin-(1/2,S) Heisenberg dimers exhibit higher degree of entanglement and higher threshold temperature in comparison with their ferromagnetic counterparts when assuming the same set of model parameters. The increasing spin magnitude S accompanied with an easy-plane uniaxial single-ion anisotropy can enhance not only the thermal stability but simultaneously the degree of entanglement. It is additionally shown that the further enhancement of a bipartite entanglement can be achieved in the mixed spin-(1/2,S) Heisenberg dimers, involving half-odd-integer spins S. Under this condition the thermal negativity saturates at low-enough temperatures in its maximal value regardless of the magnitude of half-odd-integer spin S. The magnetic field induces consecutive discontinuous phase transitions in the mixed spin-(1/2,S) Heisenberg dimers with S>1, which are manifested in a surprising oscillating magnetic-field dependence of the negativity observed at low enough temperature. Full article
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12 pages, 18216 KiB  
Article
Optical Efficiency Enhancement of Nanojet-Based Dielectric Double-Material Color Splitters for Image Sensor Applications
by Oksana Shramkova, Valter Drazic, Bobin Varghese, Laurent Blondé and Valerie Allié
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3036; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113036 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
We propose a new type of color splitter, which guides a selected bandwidth of incident light towards the proper photosensitive area of the image sensor by exploiting the nanojet (NJ) beam phenomenon. Such splitting can be performed as an alternative to filtering out [...] Read more.
We propose a new type of color splitter, which guides a selected bandwidth of incident light towards the proper photosensitive area of the image sensor by exploiting the nanojet (NJ) beam phenomenon. Such splitting can be performed as an alternative to filtering out part of the received light on each color subpixel. We propose to split the incoming light thanks to a new type of NJ-based near-field focusing double-material element with an insert. To suppress crosstalk, we use a Deep-Trench Isolation (DTI) structure. We demonstrate that the use of a dielectric insert block allows for reduction in the size of the color splitting element. By changing the position of the DTI, the functionality of separating blue, green and red light can be improved. Full article
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14 pages, 1733 KiB  
Article
Accurate Truncations of Chain Mapping Models for Open Quantum Systems
by Mónica Sánchez-Barquilla and Johannes Feist
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082104 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
The dynamics of open quantum systems are of great interest in many research fields, such as for the interaction of a quantum emitter with the electromagnetic modes of a nanophotonic structure. A powerful approach for treating such setups in the non-Markovian limit is [...] Read more.
The dynamics of open quantum systems are of great interest in many research fields, such as for the interaction of a quantum emitter with the electromagnetic modes of a nanophotonic structure. A powerful approach for treating such setups in the non-Markovian limit is given by the chain mapping where an arbitrary environment can be transformed to a chain of modes with only nearest-neighbor coupling. However, when long propagation times are desired, the required long chain lengths limit the utility of this approach. We study various approaches for truncating the chains at manageable lengths while still preserving an accurate description of the dynamics. We achieve this by introducing losses to the chain modes in such a way that the effective environment acting on the system remains unchanged, using a number of different strategies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that extending the chain mapping to allow next-nearest neighbor coupling permits the reproduction of an arbitrary environment, and adding longer-range interactions does not further increase the effective number of degrees of freedom in the environment. Full article
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17 pages, 2095 KiB  
Article
Efficient Biexciton Preparation in a Quantum Dot—Metal Nanoparticle System Using On-Off Pulses
by Athanasios Smponias, Dionisis Stefanatos and Emmanuel Paspalakis
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1859; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071859 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
We consider a hybrid nanostructure composed by semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a metallic nanoparticle and investigate the efficient creation of biexciton state in the quantum dot, when starting from the ground state and using linearly polarized laser pulses with on-off modulation. With [...] Read more.
We consider a hybrid nanostructure composed by semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a metallic nanoparticle and investigate the efficient creation of biexciton state in the quantum dot, when starting from the ground state and using linearly polarized laser pulses with on-off modulation. With numerical simulations of the coupled system density matrix equations, we show that a simple on-off-on pulse-sequence, previously derived for the case of an isolated quantum dot, can efficiently prepare the biexciton state even in the presence of the nanoparticle, for various interparticle distances and biexciton energy shifts. The pulse durations in the sequence are obtained from the solution of a transcendental equation. Full article
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23 pages, 6773 KiB  
Article
Quantum Confined Stark Effect on the Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of SiGe/Si Semi Oblate and Prolate Quantum Dots Grown in Si Wetting Layer
by Varsha, Mohamed Kria, Jawad El Hamdaoui, Laura M. Pérez, Vinod Prasad, Mohamed El-Yadri, David Laroze and El Mustapha Feddi
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061513 - 8 Jun 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2895
Abstract
We have studied the parallel and perpendicular electric field effects on the system of SiGe prolate and oblate quantum dots numerically, taking into account the wetting layer and quantum dot size effects. Using the effective-mass approximation in the two bands model, we computationally [...] Read more.
We have studied the parallel and perpendicular electric field effects on the system of SiGe prolate and oblate quantum dots numerically, taking into account the wetting layer and quantum dot size effects. Using the effective-mass approximation in the two bands model, we computationally calculated the extensive variation of dipole matrix (DM) elements, bandgap and non-linear optical properties, including absorption coefficients, refractive index changes, second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation as a function of the electric field, wetting layer size and the size of the quantum dot. The redshift is observed for the non-linear optical properties with the increasing electric field and an increase in wetting layer thickness. The sensitivity to the electric field toward the shape of the quantum dot is also observed. This study is resourceful for all the researchers as it provides a pragmatic model by considering oblate and prolate shaped quantum dots by explaining the optical and electronic properties precisely, as a consequence of the confined stark shift and wetting layer. Full article
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10 pages, 2579 KiB  
Article
Exciton-Related Raman Scattering, Interband Absorption and Photoluminescence in Colloidal CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Quantum Dots Ensemble
by Grigor A. Mantashian, Paytsar A. Mantashyan, Hayk A. Sarkisyan, Eduard M. Kazaryan, Gabriel Bester, Sotirios Baskoutas and David B. Hayrapetyan
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051274 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3122
Abstract
By using the numerical discretization method within the effective-mass approximation, we have theoretically investigated the exciton-related Raman scattering, interband absorption and photoluminescence in colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots ensemble. The interband optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra have been revealed for CdSe/CdS quantum dots, [...] Read more.
By using the numerical discretization method within the effective-mass approximation, we have theoretically investigated the exciton-related Raman scattering, interband absorption and photoluminescence in colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots ensemble. The interband optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra have been revealed for CdSe/CdS quantum dots, taking into account the size dispersion of the ensemble. Numerical calculation of the differential cross section has been presented for the exciton-related Stokes–Raman scattering in CdSe/CdS quantum dots ensemble with different mean sizes. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 8706 KiB  
Review
Iron-Based Hollow Nanoplatforms for Cancer Imaging and Theranostics
by Shun Luo, Shuijie Qin, Gerile Oudeng and Li Zhang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(17), 3023; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12173023 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
Over the past decade, iron (Fe)-based hollow nanoplatforms (Fe-HNPs) have attracted increasing attention for cancer theranostics, due to their high safety and superior diagnostic/therapeutic features. Specifically, Fe-involved components can serve as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) and Fenton-like/photothermal/magnetic hyperthermia (MTH) therapy [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, iron (Fe)-based hollow nanoplatforms (Fe-HNPs) have attracted increasing attention for cancer theranostics, due to their high safety and superior diagnostic/therapeutic features. Specifically, Fe-involved components can serve as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) and Fenton-like/photothermal/magnetic hyperthermia (MTH) therapy agents, while the cavities are able to load various small molecules (e.g., fluorescent dyes, chemotherapeutic drugs, photosensitizers, etc.) to allow multifunctional all-in-one theranostics. In this review, the recent advances of Fe-HNPs for cancer imaging and treatment are summarized. Firstly, the use of Fe-HNPs in single T1-weighted MRI and T2-weighted MRI, T1-/T2-weighted dual-modal MRI as well as other dual-modal imaging modalities are presented. Secondly, diverse Fe-HNPs, including hollow iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (NPs), hollow matrix-supported IO NPs, hollow Fe-complex NPs and hollow Prussian blue (PB) NPs are described for MRI-guided therapies. Lastly, the potential clinical obstacles and implications for future research of these hollow Fe-based nanotheranostics are discussed. Full article
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