Nanomaterials for Advanced Optics and Photonics

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanophotonics Materials and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 18120

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INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati, Italy
Interests: carbon nanotubes; material sciences; nanotechnology; multifunctional materials; nano carbon; biomedical applications
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The recent advances in the field of novel optical spectral detection of biologically important molecules, particularly antibodies to corona-type viruses, requires developing high-sensitivity detection means, even down to single antibodies, along with fast spectral measurements, promising to yield results much more quickly than polymerase chain reactions. The extraordinary sensing performance provided by optical and spectroscopic techniques, catching the analyte molecules at the near-field's hot-point sites, is provided by special nanostructured composite substrates consisting of nanostructured metals with plasmonic properties and layers of two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, hBN, or transition metal dichalcogenides. This optimizes the electron transfer effects from composite substrates to the detected analyte, motivating further research in the areas of surface nanoplasmonics, (localized) surface plasmon resonance, and surface-enhanced (coherent/infrared absorption) Raman spectroscopy, for the detection of biological molecules such as DNA constituents and antibodies for corona-type viruses. In addition, photonic crystals constitute a flourishing area of research and innovation for the detection of extremely small amounts of analytes, even down to a few molecules, thus promising to yield radical new sensing technologies that will dramatically expand the application range of advanced biosensors and diagnostic agents with diversified and specific characteristics in terms of composition and functionality. The scope of this Special Issue covers a very broad range of aspects, including fundamental concepts of biosensing using nanomaterials, their synthesis, engineering their sensing properties based on advanced optics and photonics, and exploring their emerging applications in medical diagnostics, industry, environmental control, and food analysis. Last but not least, laser-induced periodic surface structures can be used to produce sensors or gas storage applications.

Prof. Dr. Stefano Bellucci
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Advanced materials
  • Optical sensors
  • Photonic sensors
  • Nanophotonics
  • Non-linear optics and nano-optics
  • Surface nanoplasmonics
  • (Localized) surface plasmon resonance
  • Surfacee-enhanced (coherent/infrared absorption) Raman spectroscopy
  • Laser-induced periodic surface structures

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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27 pages, 5685 KiB  
Article
Topological Defects Created by Gamma Rays in a Carbon Nanotube Bilayer
by Halina Grushevskaya, Andrey Timoshchenko and Ihor Lipnevich
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(3), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13030410 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Graphene sheets are a highly radiation-resistant material for prospective nuclear applications and nanoscale defect engineering. However, the precise mechanism of graphene radiation hardness has remained elusive. In this paper, we study the origin and nature of defects induced by gamma radiation in a [...] Read more.
Graphene sheets are a highly radiation-resistant material for prospective nuclear applications and nanoscale defect engineering. However, the precise mechanism of graphene radiation hardness has remained elusive. In this paper, we study the origin and nature of defects induced by gamma radiation in a graphene rolled-up plane. In order to reduce the environmental influence on graphene and reveal the small effects of gamma rays, we have synthesized a novel graphene-based nanocomposite material containing a bilayer of highly aligned carbon nanotube assemblies that have been decorated by organometallic compounds and suspended on nanoporous Al2O3 membranes. The bilayer samples were irradiated by gamma rays from a 137Cs source with a fluence rate of the order of 105 m2s1. The interaction between the samples and gamma quanta results in the appearance of three characteristic photon escape peaks in the radiation spectra. We explain the mechanism of interaction between the graphene sheets and gamma radiation using a pseudo-Majorana fermion graphene model, which is a quasi-relativistic N=3-flavor graphene model with a Majorana-like mass term. This model admits the existence of giant charge carrier currents that are sufficient to neutralize the impact of ionizing radiation. Experimental evidence is provided for the prediction that the 661.7-keV gamma quanta transfer enough energy to the electron subsystem of graphene to bring about the deconfinement of the bound pseudo-Majorana modes and involve C atoms in a vortical motion of the electron density flows in the graphene plane. We explain the radiation hardness of graphene by the topological non-triviality of the pseudo-Majorana fermion configurations comprising the graphene charge carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Advanced Optics and Photonics)
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11 pages, 1574 KiB  
Article
Polarization Control in Integrated Silicon Waveguides Using Semiconductor Nanowires
by Ali Emre Kaplan, Valerio Vitali, Valeria Demontis, Francesco Rossella, Andrea Fontana, Samuele Cornia, Periklis Petropoulos, Vittorio Bellani, Cosimo Lacava and Ilaria Cristiani
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(14), 2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12142438 - 16 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
In this work, we show the design of a silicon photonic-based polarization converting device based on the integration of semiconduction InP nanowires on the silicon photonic platform. We present a comprehensive numerical analysis showing that full polarization conversion (from quasi-TE modes to quasi-TM [...] Read more.
In this work, we show the design of a silicon photonic-based polarization converting device based on the integration of semiconduction InP nanowires on the silicon photonic platform. We present a comprehensive numerical analysis showing that full polarization conversion (from quasi-TE modes to quasi-TM modes, and vice versa) can be achieved in devices exhibiting small footprints (total device lengths below 20 µm) with minimal power loss (<2 dB). The approach described in this work can pave the way to the realization of complex and re-configurable photonic processors based on the manipulation of the state of polarization of guided light beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Advanced Optics and Photonics)
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10 pages, 2276 KiB  
Article
Quantum Dot-Induced Blue Shift of Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy
by Than Thi Nguyen, Vien Thi Tran, Joo Seon Seok, Jun-Ho Lee and Heongkyu Ju
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12122076 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1837
Abstract
We experimentally demonstrate the spectral blue shift of surface plasmon resonance through the resonant coupling between quantum dots (QDs) and surface plasmons, surprisingly in contrast to the conventionally observed red shift of plasmon spectroscopy. Multimode optical fibers are used for extended resonant coupling [...] Read more.
We experimentally demonstrate the spectral blue shift of surface plasmon resonance through the resonant coupling between quantum dots (QDs) and surface plasmons, surprisingly in contrast to the conventionally observed red shift of plasmon spectroscopy. Multimode optical fibers are used for extended resonant coupling of surface plasmons with excited states of QDs adsorbed to the plasmonic metal surface. The long-lived nature of excited QDs permits QD-induced negative change in the local refractive index near the plasmonic metal surface to cause such a blue shift. The analysis utilizes the physical causality-driven optical dispersion relation, the Kramers–Kronig (KK) relation, attempting to understand the abnormal behavior of the QDs-induced index dispersion extracted from blue shift measurement. Properties of QDs’ gain spectrally resonating with plasmons can account for such blue shift, though their absorbance properties never allow the negative index change for the blue shift observed according to the KK relation. We also discuss the limited applicability of the KK relation and possible QDs gain saturation for the experiment–theory disagreement. This work may contribute to the understanding of the photophysical properties critical for plasmonic applications, such as plasmonic local index engineering required in analyte labeling QDs coupled with plasmons for biomedical imaging or assay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Advanced Optics and Photonics)
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18 pages, 70372 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Temperature Fluorescence Brightness of Zn@Si Core-Shell Quantum Dots Produced via a Unified Strategy
by Mohammad S. Almomani, Naser M. Ahmed, Marzaini Rashid, M. K. M. Ali, H. Akhdar, O. Aldaghri and K. H. Ibnaouf
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113158 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
Despite many dedicated efforts, the fabrication of high-quality ZnO-incorporated Zinc@Silicon (Zn@Si) core–shell quantum dots (ZnSiQDs) with customized properties remains challenging. In this study, we report a new record for the brightness enhancement of ZnSiQDs prepared via a unified top-down and bottom-up strategy. The [...] Read more.
Despite many dedicated efforts, the fabrication of high-quality ZnO-incorporated Zinc@Silicon (Zn@Si) core–shell quantum dots (ZnSiQDs) with customized properties remains challenging. In this study, we report a new record for the brightness enhancement of ZnSiQDs prepared via a unified top-down and bottom-up strategy. The top-down approach was used to produce ZnSiQDs with uniform sizes and shapes, followed by the bottom-up method for their re-growth. The influence of various NH4OH contents (15 to 25 µL) on the morphology and optical characteristics of ZnSiQDs was investigated. The ZnSiQDs were obtained from the electrochemically etched porous Si (PSi) with Zn inclusion (ZnPSi), followed by the electropolishing and sonication in acetone. EFTEM micrographs of the samples prepared without and with NH4OH revealed the existence of spherical ZnSiQDs with a mean diameter of 1.22 to 7.4 nm, respectively. The emission spectra of the ZnSiQDs (excited by 365 nm) exhibited bright blue, green, orange-yellow, and red luminescence, indicating the uniform morphology related to the strong quantum confinement ZnSiQDs. In addition, the absorption and emission of the ZnSiQDs prepared with NH4OH were enhanced by 198.8% and 132.6%, respectively. The bandgap of the ZnSiQDs conditioned without and with NH4OH was approximately 3.6 and 2.3 eV, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Advanced Optics and Photonics)
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Review

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22 pages, 3175 KiB  
Review
Nanomaterials: Synthesis and Applications in Theranostics
by Gokul Paramasivam, Vishnu Vardhan Palem, Thanigaivel Sundaram, Vickram Sundaram, Somasundaram Chandra Kishore and Stefano Bellucci
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123228 - 28 Nov 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 9180
Abstract
Nanomaterials are endowed with unique features and essential properties suitable for employing in the field of nanomedicine. The nanomaterials can be classified as 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D based on their dimensions. The nanomaterials can be malleable and ductile and they can be [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials are endowed with unique features and essential properties suitable for employing in the field of nanomedicine. The nanomaterials can be classified as 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D based on their dimensions. The nanomaterials can be malleable and ductile and they can be drawn into wires and sheets. Examples of nanomaterials are quantum dots (0D), nanorods, nanowires (1D), nanosheets (2D), and nanocubes (3D). These nanomaterials can be synthesized using top-down and bottom-up approaches. The achievements of 0D and 1D nanomaterials are used to detect trace heavy metal (e.g., Pb2+) and have higher sensitivity with the order of five as compared to conventional sensors. The achievements of 2D and 3D nanomaterials are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents with multifunctional ability in imaging systems such as PET, SPECT, etc. These imaging modalities can be used to track the drug in living tissues. This review comprises the state-of-the-art of the different dimensions of the nanomaterials employed in theranostics. The nanomaterials with different dimensions have unique physicochemical properties that can be utilized for therapy and diagnosis. The multifunctional ability of the nanomaterials can have a distinct advantage that is used in the field of theranostics. Different dimensions of the nanomaterials would have more scope in the field of nanomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Advanced Optics and Photonics)
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