Development and Evaluation of Nanostructured Electrochemical Sensors

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanoelectronics, Nanosensors and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 11569

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Messina, I-98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: synthesis of novel sensing materials; nanostructured materials for chemical and electrochemical sensing; metal oxide semiconductor-based gas sensors; biosensors; fabrication of chemical sensors; environmental sensors; automotive gas sensors; biomedical sensors
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Guest Editor
Centre for Regional and Rural Futures, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia
Interests: Lab on a chip; electrochemiluminescence; electrochemical sensors and biosensing; point of care diagnostics; additive manufacturing; electro-materials; nanostructured electrodes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last decade, electrochemical sensing has made enormous progress, with developments in creating sensors with improved selectivity, sensitivity, and versatility. One major factor driving this development has been the progress in the area of conductive nanostructured materials, nanoparticles, and nanofibers, giving access to sensing interfaces with tailored electrochemical and chemical properties, including enhanced electrocatalytic properties, enhanced surface areas (providing enhanced electrochemical area and area for the immobilization of biochemical sensing elements), access to novel biomaterial immobilization and signal transduction approaches, as well as the incorporation of tandem sensing strategies such as electrochemical Ramen spectroscopy. Examples of these materials include 2D conductive materials such as graphene and newly emergent 2D nanomaterials such as Xenes and other novel nanosheet-based materials, conductive fibers, particles such as hybrid metallic nanoparticles, and sensing interfaces including a variety of these materials providing synergistic effects.

For this Special Issue we invite investigators to submit original research articles, letters, as well as review and prospective view articles on fundamental developments in nanostructured electrochemical sensing interfaces, as well as new applications and material synthesis and characterization. This Issue will have a particular focus on novel electrochemiluminescence based biosensing strategies and nanomaterials for electrochemiluminescence, including low cost and point-of-care diagnostics.

Prof. Dr. Giovanni Neri
Dr. Egan Doeven
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrochemical sensors
  • nanomaterials
  • 2D materials
  • nanostructured sensors
  • electrochemical biosensors
  • point-of-care diagnostics
  • electrochemiluminescence

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 493 KiB  
Article
Sensing Electrochemical Signals Using a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond
by Hossein T. Dinani, Enrique Muñoz and Jeronimo R. Maze
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020358 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2611
Abstract
Chemical sensors with high sensitivity that can be used under extreme conditions and can be miniaturized are of high interest in science and industry. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is an ideal candidate as a nanosensor due to the long coherence time [...] Read more.
Chemical sensors with high sensitivity that can be used under extreme conditions and can be miniaturized are of high interest in science and industry. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is an ideal candidate as a nanosensor due to the long coherence time of its electron spin and its optical accessibility. In this theoretical work, we propose the use of an NV center to detect electrochemical signals emerging from an electrolyte solution, thus obtaining a concentration sensor. For this purpose, we propose the use of the inhomogeneous dephasing rate of the electron spin of the NV center (1/T2) as a signal. We show that for a range of mean ionic concentrations in the bulk of the electrolyte solution, the electric field fluctuations produced by the diffusional fluctuations in the local concentration of ions result in dephasing rates that can be inferred from free induction decay measurements. Moreover, we show that for a range of concentrations, the electric field generated at the position of the NV center can be used to estimate the concentration of ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of Nanostructured Electrochemical Sensors)
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17 pages, 4165 KiB  
Article
Impedimetric Detection of Femtomolar Levels of Interleukin 6, Interleukin 8, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Based on Thermally Modified Nanotubular Titanium Dioxide Arrays
by Katarzyna Arkusz and Ewa Paradowska
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2399; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122399 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2356
Abstract
An inexpensive, easy to prepare, and label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based biosensor has been developed for the selective detection of human interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (CXCL8, IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα)—potential inflammatory cancer biomarkers. We describe a, so far, newly developed and [...] Read more.
An inexpensive, easy to prepare, and label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based biosensor has been developed for the selective detection of human interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (CXCL8, IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα)—potential inflammatory cancer biomarkers. We describe a, so far, newly developed and unexplored method to immobilize antibodies onto a titanium dioxide nanotube (TNT) array by physical adsorption. Immobilization of anti-IL-6, anti-IL-8, and anti-TNFα on TNT and the detection of human IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The impedimetric immunosensor demonstrates good selectivity and high sensitivity against human biomarker analytes and can detect IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα at concentrations as low as 5 pg/mL, equivalent to the standard concentration of these proteins in human blood. The calibration curves evidenced that elaborated biosensors are sensitive to three cytokines within 5 ÷ 2500 pg/mL in the 0.01 M phosphate-buffered saline solution (pH 7.4). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of Nanostructured Electrochemical Sensors)
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16 pages, 4958 KiB  
Article
Disposable and Low-Cost Electrode Based on Graphene Paper-Nafion-Bi Nanostructures for Ultra-Trace Determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II)
by Antonino Scandurra, Francesco Ruffino, Mario Urso, Maria Grazia Grimaldi and Salvo Mirabella
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081620 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
There is a huge demand for rapid, reliable and low-cost methods for the analysis of heavy metals in drinking water, particularly in the range of sub-part per billion (ppb). In the present work, we describe the preparation, characterization and analytical performance of the [...] Read more.
There is a huge demand for rapid, reliable and low-cost methods for the analysis of heavy metals in drinking water, particularly in the range of sub-part per billion (ppb). In the present work, we describe the preparation, characterization and analytical performance of the disposable sensor to be employed in Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV) for ultra-trace simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead. The electrode consists of graphene paper-perfluorosulfonic ionomer-bismuth nano-composite material. The electrode preparation implies a key step aimed to enhance the Bi3+ adsorption into nafion film, prior to the bismuth electro-deposition. Finely dispersed bismuth nanoparticles embedded in the ionomer film are obtained. The electrode was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The electrode shows a linear response in the 5–100 ppb range, a time-stability tested up to almost three months, and detection limits up to 0.1 ppb for both Pb2+ and Cd2+. The electrode preparation method is simple and low in cost and the obtained analytical performance is very competitive with the state of art for the SWASV determination of Pb2+ and Cd2+ in solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of Nanostructured Electrochemical Sensors)
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Review

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21 pages, 5262 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Chemical Sensors Using Porphyrin-Carbon Nanostructure Hybrid Materials
by Gabriele Magna, Federica Mandoj, Manuela Stefanelli, Giuseppe Pomarico, Donato Monti, Corrado Di Natale, Roberto Paolesse and Sara Nardis
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040997 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3166
Abstract
Porphyrins and carbon nanomaterials are among the most widely investigated and applied compounds, both offering multiple options to modulate their optical, electronic and magnetic properties by easy and well-established synthetic manipulations. Individually, they play a leading role in the development of efficient and [...] Read more.
Porphyrins and carbon nanomaterials are among the most widely investigated and applied compounds, both offering multiple options to modulate their optical, electronic and magnetic properties by easy and well-established synthetic manipulations. Individually, they play a leading role in the development of efficient and robust chemical sensors, where they detect a plethora of analytes of practical relevance. But even more interesting, the merging of the peculiar features of these single components into hybrid nanostructures results in novel materials with amplified sensing properties exploitable in different application fields, covering the areas of health, food, environment and so on. In this contribution, we focused on recent examples reported in literature illustrating the integration of different carbon materials (i.e., graphene, nanotubes and carbon dots) and (metallo)porphyrins in heterostructures exploited in chemical sensors operating in liquid as well as gaseous phase, with particular focus on research performed in the last four years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of Nanostructured Electrochemical Sensors)
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