From Biomass to Nanomaterials

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "2D and Carbon Nanomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 August 2024 | Viewed by 17845

Special Issue Editors

Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China
Interests: lignocellulose; nanomaterials from biomass; natural polymers; functional materials
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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Natural Materials technology, Åbo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku, Finland
Interests: bio-based materials; nanocellulose; lignin; 3D printing

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Guest Editor
Green Processes Research Centre and Biorefining Research Institute, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON P7B5E1, Canada
Interests: production of advanced cellulose-based materials; modification of lignin and hemicelluloses to produce value-added products; advanced colloid and interface science

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials (particularly for cellulose nanomaterials and lignin nanoparticles) derived from biomass have attracted much attention from both academia and industry due to their unique nanostructure and physicochemical properties. Distint from inorganic nanomaterials, nanomaterials from biomass also have good renewability, biocompatibility and biodegrability. Therefore, nanomaterials from biomass have a wide variety of potential applications, such as paper and paperboard for high-quality packaging; rheology modifiers for coatings, paints, foods and drinks; functional fillers for rubber and polymer composites; drug delivery and wound dressing in medicine; moisturizing factors for cosmetics; adsorbents for water treatment; bio-ink for 3D printing; and building blocks for optical, electronic and smart devices. Certainly, the present issues (such as high-cost production, low concentrations of samples, poor re-dispersibility, low durability (particularly in high moisture), and safety evaluation) are still challenging, which should be well addressed.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials will present comprehensive research outlining the progress in the chemistry, modification, preparation and application of cellulosic nanomaterials and lignin nanoparticles. We invite authors to contribute original research articles and review articles covering the state of the art in the theoretical research and applications of nanomaterials from biomass.

Prof. Dr. Bin Li
Prof. Dr. Chunlin Xu
Prof. Dr. Pedram Fatehi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • biomass
  • cellulose nanomaterials
  • nanocellulose
  • lignin nanoparticles
  • green chemistry
  • application

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

14 pages, 3820 KiB  
Article
Regioselectively Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofibril Models from Dissolving Pulp: C6 via TEMPO Oxidation and C2,C3 via Periodate–Chlorite Oxidation
by Mengzhe Guo, James D. Ede, Christie M. Sayes, Jo Anne Shatkin, Nicole Stark and You-Lo Hsieh
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(5), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14050479 - 06 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 633
Abstract
Regioselective C6 and C2,C3 carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) have been robustly generated from dissolving pulp, a readily available source of unmodified cellulose, via stoichiometrically optimized 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated and sequential sodium periodate-sodium chlorite (PC) oxidation coupled with high-speed blending. Both regioselectively optimized carboxylated CNF [...] Read more.
Regioselective C6 and C2,C3 carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) have been robustly generated from dissolving pulp, a readily available source of unmodified cellulose, via stoichiometrically optimized 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated and sequential sodium periodate-sodium chlorite (PC) oxidation coupled with high-speed blending. Both regioselectively optimized carboxylated CNF series possess the widest ranges of comparable charges (0.72–1.48 mmol/g for T-CNFs vs. 0.72–1.10 mmol/g for PC-CNFs), but similar ranges of thickness (1.3–2.4 nm for T-CNF, 1.8–2.7 nm PC-CNF), widths (4.6–6.6 nm T-CNF, 5.5–5.9 nm PC-CNF), and lengths (254–481 nm T-CNF, 247–442 nm PC-CNF). TEMPO-mediated oxidation is milder and one-pot, thus more time and process efficient, whereas the sequential periodate–chlorite oxidation produces C2,C3 dialdehyde intermediates that are amenable to further chemical functionalization or post-reactions. These two well-characterized regioselectively carboxylated CNF series represent coherent cellulose nanomaterial models from a single woody source and have served as references for their safety study toward the development of a safer-by-design substance evaluation tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Biomass to Nanomaterials)
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12 pages, 4531 KiB  
Communication
Antibacterial Hydrophilic ZnO Microstructure Film with Underwater Oleophobic and Self-Cleaning Antifouling Properties
by Yannan Li, Yu Xue, Jie Wang, Dan Zhang, Yan Zhao and Jun-Jie Liu
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14020150 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Super-hydrophilic and oleophobic functional materials can prevent pollution or adsorption by repelling oil, and have good circulation. However, traditional strategies for preparing these functional materials either use expensive fabrication machines or contain possibly toxic organic polymers, which may prohibit the practical application. The [...] Read more.
Super-hydrophilic and oleophobic functional materials can prevent pollution or adsorption by repelling oil, and have good circulation. However, traditional strategies for preparing these functional materials either use expensive fabrication machines or contain possibly toxic organic polymers, which may prohibit the practical application. The research of multifunctional ZnO microstructures or nanoarrays thin films with super-hydrophilic, antifouling, and antibacterial properties has not been reported yet. Moreover, the exploration of underwater oleophobic and self-cleaning antifouling properties in ZnO micro/nanostructures is still in its infancy. Here, we prepared ZnO microstructured films on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates (F-ZMF) for the development of advanced self-cleaning type super-hydrophilic and oleophobic materials. With the increase of the accelerators, the average size of the F-ZMF microstructures decreased. The F-ZMF shows excellent self-cleaning performance and hydrophilic (water contact angle ≤ 10°) and oleophobic characteristics in the underwater antifouling experiment. Under a dark condition, F-ZMF-4 showed good antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) with inhibition rates of 99.1% and 99.9%, respectively. This study broadens the application scope of ZnO-based material and provides a novel prospect for the development of self-cleaning super-hydrophilic and oleophobic materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Biomass to Nanomaterials)
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11 pages, 6822 KiB  
Article
In-Situ Grown NiMn2O4/GO Nanocomposite Material on Nickel Foam Surface by Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method and Used as Supercapacitor Electrode
by Shusen Wang, Xiaomei Du, Sen Liu, Yingqing Fu and Naibao Huang
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(17), 2487; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13172487 - 04 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
The NiMn2O4/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite material was in situ grown on the surface of a nickel foam 3D skeleton by combining the solvent method with the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and annealing; then, its performance was investigated as a superior [...] Read more.
The NiMn2O4/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite material was in situ grown on the surface of a nickel foam 3D skeleton by combining the solvent method with the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and annealing; then, its performance was investigated as a superior supercapacitor electrode material. When nickel foam was soaked in GO aqueous or treated in nickel ion and manganese ion solution by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and annealing, gauze GO film or flower-spherical NiMn2O4 was formed on the nickel foam surface. If the two processes were combined in a different order, the final products on the nickel surface had a remarkably different morphology and phase structure. When GO film was first formed, the final products on the nickel surface were the composite of NiO and Mn3O4, while NiMn2O4/GO nanocomposite material can be obtained if NiMn2O4 was first formed (immersed in 2.5 mg/L GO solution). In a 6M KOH solution, the specific capacitance of the latter reached 700 F/g at 1 A/g which was superior to that of the former (only 35 F/g). However, the latter’s specific capacitance was still inferior to that of in-situ grown NiMn2O4 on nickel foam (802 F/g). Though the gauze-formed GO film, almost covering the preformed flower-spherical NiMn2O4, can also contribute a certain specific capacitance, it also restricted the electrolyte diffusion and contact with NiMn2O4, accounting for the performance decrease of the NiMn2O4/GO nanocomposite. A convenient method was raised to fabricate the nanocomposite of carbon and double metal oxides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Biomass to Nanomaterials)
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18 pages, 3735 KiB  
Article
Functionalisation of Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Membranes with PEDOT and PPy for Electronic Controlled Drug Release
by Beatriz Lago, Miguel Brito, Cristina M. M. Almeida, Isabel Ferreira and Ana Catarina Baptista
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(9), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13091493 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1262
Abstract
Controlled drug release via electrical stimulation from drug-impregnated fibres was studied using electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) membranes and encapsulated ibuprofen (IBU). This research outlines the influence of polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-functionalised CA membranes and their suitability for dermal electronic-controlled drug release. Micro [...] Read more.
Controlled drug release via electrical stimulation from drug-impregnated fibres was studied using electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) membranes and encapsulated ibuprofen (IBU). This research outlines the influence of polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-functionalised CA membranes and their suitability for dermal electronic-controlled drug release. Micro Raman analysis confirmed polymer functionalisation of CA membranes and drug incorporation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images evidenced the presence of PPy and PEDOT coatings. The kinetic of drug release was analysed, and the passive and active release was compared. In the proposed systems, the drug release is controlled by very low electrical potentials. A potential of −0.3 V applied to membranes showed the ibuprofen retention, and a positive potential of +0.3 V, +0.5 V, or +0.8 V, depending on the conductive polymer and membrane configuration, enhanced the drug release. A small adhesive patch was constructed to validate this system for cutaneous application and verified an “ON/OFF” ibuprofen release pattern from membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Biomass to Nanomaterials)
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13 pages, 5992 KiB  
Article
All-Tunicate Cellulose Film with Good Light Management Properties for High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells
by Chen Jiang, Meiyan Wu, Fang Zhang, Chao Liu, Mingliang Sun and Bin Li
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(7), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13071221 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Tunicate nanocellulose with its unique properties, such as excellent mechanical strength, high crystallinity, and good biodegradability, has potential to be used for the preparation of light management film with tunable transmittance and haze. Herein, we prepared a whole tunicate cellulose film with tunable [...] Read more.
Tunicate nanocellulose with its unique properties, such as excellent mechanical strength, high crystallinity, and good biodegradability, has potential to be used for the preparation of light management film with tunable transmittance and haze. Herein, we prepared a whole tunicate cellulose film with tunable haze levels, by mixing tunicate microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) and tunicate cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). Then, the obtained whole tunicate cellulose film with updated light management was used to modify the organic solar cell (OSC) substrate, aiming to improve the light utilization efficiency of OSC. Results showed that the dosage of MFC based on the weight of CNF was an important factor to adjust the haze and light transmittance of the prepared cellulose film. When the dosage of MFC was 3 wt.%, the haze of the obtained film increased 74.2% compared to the pure CNF film (39.2%). Moreover, the optimized tunicate cellulose film exhibited excellent mechanical properties (e.g., tensile strength of 168 MPa, toughness of 5.7 MJ/m3) and high thermal stability, which will be beneficial to the workability and durability of OSC. More interestingly, we applied the obtained whole tunicate cellulose film with a high haze (68.3%) and high light transmittance (85.0%) as an additional layer to be adhered to the glass substrate of OSC, and a notable improvement (6.5%) of the power conversion efficiency was achieved. With the use of biodegradable tunicate cellulose, this work provides a simple strategy to enhance light management of the transparent substrate of OSC for improving power conversion efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Biomass to Nanomaterials)
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16 pages, 22835 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Vegetable Waste from Leek, Lettuce, and Artichoke to Produce Highly Concentrated Lignocellulose Micro- and Nanofibril Suspensions
by Jose Luis Sanchez-Salvador, Mariana P. Marques, Margarida S. C. A. Brito, Carlos Negro, Maria Concepcion Monte, Yaidelin A. Manrique, Ricardo J. Santos and Angeles Blanco
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(24), 4499; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12244499 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1863
Abstract
Vegetable supply in the world is more than double than vegetable intake, which supposes a significant waste of vegetables, in addition to the agricultural residues produced. As sensitive food products, the reasons for this waste vary from the use of only a part [...] Read more.
Vegetable supply in the world is more than double than vegetable intake, which supposes a significant waste of vegetables, in addition to the agricultural residues produced. As sensitive food products, the reasons for this waste vary from the use of only a part of the vegetable due to its different properties to the product appearance and market image. An alternative high-added-value application for these wastes rich in cellulose could be the reduction in size to produce lignocellulose micro- and nanofibrils (LCMNF). In this sense, a direct treatment of greengrocery waste (leek, lettuce, and artichoke) to produce LCMNFs without the extraction of cellulose has been studied, obtaining highly concentrated suspensions, without using chemicals. After drying the wastes, these suspensions were produced by milling and blending at high shear followed by several passes in the high-pressure homogenizer (up to six passes). The presence of more extractives and shorter fiber lengths allowed the obtention of 5–5.5% leek LCMNF suspensions and 3.5–4% lettuce LCMNF suspensions, whereas for artichoke, only suspensions of under 1% were obtained. The main novelty of the work was the obtention of a high concentration of micro- and nanofiber suspension from the total waste without any pretreatment. These high concentrations are not obtained from other raw materials (wood or annual plants) due to the clogging of the homogenizer, requiring the dilution of the sample up to 1% or the use of chemical pretreatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Biomass to Nanomaterials)
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13 pages, 2325 KiB  
Article
Amphiphilic Lignin Nanoparticles Made from Lignin-Acrylic Acid-Methyl Methacrylate Copolymers
by Yingchao Wang, Niloofar Alipoormazandarani, Lauren Skye Puumala, Weijue Gao, Shanshan Liu, Fangong Kong, Qiang Wang and Pedram Fatehi
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(15), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12152612 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
In this study, a novel amphiphilic KL-AA-MMA nanoparticle was prepared through the graft copolymerization of kraft lignin (KL) with acrylic acid (AA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA), using potassium persulfate as an initiator in a water/dimethyl sulfoxide solvent medium, which was followed by the [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel amphiphilic KL-AA-MMA nanoparticle was prepared through the graft copolymerization of kraft lignin (KL) with acrylic acid (AA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA), using potassium persulfate as an initiator in a water/dimethyl sulfoxide solvent medium, which was followed by the nanoprecipitation technique using dimethylformamide as a solvent and deionized water as an antisolvent. The successful graft polymerization was verified by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 31P-NMR, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses; and the grafting yield of the generated KL-AA-MMA copolymer ranged from 68.2% to 96.5%. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation revealed the formation of amorphous KL-AA-MMA nanoparticles. Additionally, KL-AA-MMA9 nanoparticles with the highest yield exhibited the minimum hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity of 261 nm and 0.153, respectively. Moreover, the amphiphilicity of KL-AA-MMA nanoparticles was significantly improved by the grafting of MMA monomers. Finally, the adsorption performance of KL-AA-MMA nanoparticles at the xylene interface was evaluated by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The results demonstrated that the most amphiphilic sample, KL-AA-MMA9 nanoparticles, with the smallest hydrodynamic size displayed the highest adsorption on the oil/water interface. This product provides a wide range of applications in oil/water emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Biomass to Nanomaterials)
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16 pages, 27957 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Properties of Tree-Branched Cellulose Nanofibers (CNFs) via Acid Hydrolysis Assisted with Pre-Disintegration Treatment
by Jun Li, Dongyan Liu, Junsheng Li, Fei Yang, Guoxin Sui and Yu Dong
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12122089 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
In this paper, the novel morphology of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) with a unique tree-branched structure was discovered by using acid hydrolysis assisted with pre-disintegration treatment from wood pulps. For comparison, the pulps derived from both softwood and hardwood were utilized to extract nanocellulose [...] Read more.
In this paper, the novel morphology of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) with a unique tree-branched structure was discovered by using acid hydrolysis assisted with pre-disintegration treatment from wood pulps. For comparison, the pulps derived from both softwood and hardwood were utilized to extract nanocellulose in order to validate the feasibility of proposed material fabrication technique. The morphology, crystalline structures, chemical structures, and thermal stability of nanocellulose were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Prior to acid hydrolysis, softwood and hardwood pulps underwent the disintegration treatment in the fiber dissociator. It has been found that nanocellulose derived from disintegrated pulps possesses much longer fiber length (approximately 5–6 μm) and more evident tree-branched structures along with lower degree of crystallinity when compared with those untreated counterparts. The maximum mass loss rate of CNFs takes place at the temperature level of approximately 225 °C, and appears to be higher than that of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs), which might be attributed to an induced impact of amorphous content. On the other hand, disintegration treatment is quite beneficial to the enhancement of tensile strength of nanocellulose films. This study elaborates a new route of material fabrication toward the development of well-tailored tree-branched CNFs in order to broaden the potential widespread applications of nanocellulose with diverse morphological structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Biomass to Nanomaterials)
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14 pages, 4013 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Incorporation of Nano-Sized Cellulose Formate on the End Quality of Polylactic Acid Composite Film
by Yidong Zhang, Chao Liu, Meiyan Wu, Zhenqiu Li and Bin Li
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010001 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2693
Abstract
Polylactic acid (PLA) films with good sustainable and biodegradable properties have been increasingly explored recently, while the poor mechanical property of PLA limits its further application. Herein, three kinds of nano-sized cellulose formate (NCF: cellulose nanofibril (CNF), cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), and regenerated cellulose [...] Read more.
Polylactic acid (PLA) films with good sustainable and biodegradable properties have been increasingly explored recently, while the poor mechanical property of PLA limits its further application. Herein, three kinds of nano-sized cellulose formate (NCF: cellulose nanofibril (CNF), cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), and regenerated cellulose formate (CF)) with different properties were fabricated via a one-step formic acid (FA) hydrolysis of tobacco stalk, and the influence of the properties of NCF with different morphologies, crystallinity index (CrI), and degree of substitution (DS) on the end quality of PLA composite film was systematically compared. Results showed that the PLA/CNC film showed the highest increase (106%) of tensile strength compared to the CNF- and CF-based films, which was induced by the rod-like CNC with higher CrI. PLA/CF film showed the largest increase (50%) of elongation at the break and more even surface, which was due to the stronger interfacial interaction between PLA and the CF with higher DS. Moreover, the degradation property of PLA/CNF film was better than that of other composite films. This fundamental study was very beneficial for the development of high-quality, sustainable packaging as an alternative to petroleum-based products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Biomass to Nanomaterials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

34 pages, 4141 KiB  
Review
Development of Processes and Catalysts for Biomass to Hydrocarbons at Moderate Conditions: A Comprehensive Review
by Reem Shomal and Ying Zheng
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(21), 2845; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13212845 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1131
Abstract
This comprehensive review explores recent catalyst advancements for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of aromatic oxygenates derived from lignin, with a specific focus on the selective production of valuable aromatics under moderate reaction conditions. It addresses critical challenges in bio-crude oil upgrading, encompassing issues related [...] Read more.
This comprehensive review explores recent catalyst advancements for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of aromatic oxygenates derived from lignin, with a specific focus on the selective production of valuable aromatics under moderate reaction conditions. It addresses critical challenges in bio-crude oil upgrading, encompassing issues related to catalyst deactivation from coking, methods to mitigate deactivation, and techniques for catalyst regeneration. The study investigates various oxygenates found in bio-crude oil, such as phenol, guaiacol, anisole, and catechol, elucidating their conversion pathways during HDO. The review emphasizes the paramount importance of selectively generating arenes by directly cleaving C–O bonds while avoiding unwanted ring hydrogenation pathways. A comparative analysis of different bio-crude oil upgrading processes underscores the need to enhance biofuel quality for practical applications. Additionally, the review focuses on catalyst design for HDO. It compares six major catalyst categories, including metal sulfides, transition metals, metal phosphides, nitrides, carbides, and oxides, to provide insights for efficient bio-crude oil upgrading toward sustainable and eco-friendly energy alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Biomass to Nanomaterials)
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22 pages, 4632 KiB  
Review
Tailoring Functionality of Nanocellulose: Current Status and Critical Challenges
by Yidong Zhang, Wangfang Deng, Meiyan Wu, Mehdi Rahmaninia, Chunlin Xu and Bin Li
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(9), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13091489 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
Nanocellulose (NC) isolated from natural cellulose resources, which mainly includes cellulose nanofibril (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), has garnered increased attention in recent decades due to its outstanding physical and chemical properties. Various chemical modifications have been developed with the aim of surface-modifying [...] Read more.
Nanocellulose (NC) isolated from natural cellulose resources, which mainly includes cellulose nanofibril (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), has garnered increased attention in recent decades due to its outstanding physical and chemical properties. Various chemical modifications have been developed with the aim of surface-modifying NC for highly sophisticated applications. This review comprehensively summarizes the chemical modifications applied to NC so far in order to introduce new functionalities to the material, such as silanization, esterification, oxidation, etherification, grafting, coating, and others. The new functionalities obtained through such surface-modification methods include hydrophobicity, conductivity, antibacterial properties, and absorbability. In addition, the incorporation of NC in some functional materials, such as films, wearable sensors, cellulose nanospheres, aerogel, hydrogels, and nanocomposites, is discussed in relation to the tailoring of the functionality of NC. It should be pointed out that some issues need to be addressed during the preparation of NC and NC-based materials, such as the low reactivity of these raw materials, the difficulties involved in their scale-up, and their high energy and water consumption. Over the past decades, some methods have been developed, such as the use of pretreatment methods, the adaptation of low-cost starting raw materials, and the use of environmentally friendly chemicals, which support the practical application of NC and NC-based materials. Overall, it is believed that as a green, sustainable, and renewable nanomaterial, NC is will be suitable for large-scale applications in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Biomass to Nanomaterials)
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