Antiviral Nanomaterials in Biomedical and Healthcare Applications

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2022) | Viewed by 4675

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering and Technology, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
Interests: antiviral and antimicrobial nanoparticles; biomedical applications; healthcare applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Instituto de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Biotecnología Sanitaria de Elche (IDiBE), Universidad Miguel Hernández (UMH), Elche, 03202 Alicante, Spain
Interests: antiviral activity; polymeric nanomaterials; controlled release; biopolymer formulations; antimicrobial compounds; immunomodulators
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The emergence of COVID-19 has resulted in profound global health challenges. SARS-CoV-2 has now spread throughout the world, with the result being the COVID-19 pandemic. Over a million lives have been lost while waiting for effective antivirals and vaccines. The sanitisers, washing liquids, facemasks, PPE, and numerous items are currently our only weapons, and their antiviral capabilities are far from comprehensive.

SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Betacoronavirus genus that also includes SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Given its RNA genome and propensity for mutation, the consequent emergence of resistant viral strains is expected upon prolonged use of antivirals, which could compromise the efficacy of antiviral therapies, and probably vaccines as well, within a very short period. Antiviral nanomaterials, with their unique physiochemical properties, may be sources of novel antiviral alternatives that can contribute to the development of a wide spectrum of various antiviral agents in the fight against COVID-19.

In addition, we must not ignore secondary infections that are largely caused by AMR due to the exposure to deadly “superbugs” as part of hospital-acquired infections when COVID-19 patients are hospitalised. All of these considerations heighten the need for antiviral nanoparticles that effectively block the development and spread of COVID-19 which, to date, has proven uncontainable and continues to spread throughout the world.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials on antiviral nanoparticles (AVNPs)/nanomaterials intends to promote high-level research outcomes to inspire exploration and discovery of novel antiviral nanomaterials as alternatives in a collective endeavour to combat the immense challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Focused applications in healthcare and biomedicals are of interest, and the nanoparticles can be of metal, ceramic, polymers, minerals, or organics such as proteins, etc. The objectives are to inactivate or inhibit the pathogenesis of viruses that may infect people and/or animals such as flu, SARS-CoV1/2, or other types of coronaviruses.

Dr. Guogang Ren
Dr. Alberto Falco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antiviral nanoparticles
  • antiviral materials
  • antiviral fabrics
  • antiviral films
  • flu and coronavirus
  • MERS
  • SARS-CoV-1
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19
  • healthcare
  • biomedicals
  • hospitals
  • face mask
  • PPE and filters

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 2852 KiB  
Article
Antiviral Activities of High Energy E-Beam Induced Copper Nanoparticles against H1N1 Influenza Virus
by Taesung Ha, Thi Tuyet Mai Pham, Mikyung Kim, Yeon-Hee Kim, Ji-Hyun Park, Ji Hae Seo, Kyung-Min Kim and Eunyoung Ha
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(2), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020268 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
The pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 in the year of 2020 that drastically changed everyone’s life has raised the urgent and intense need for the development of more efficacious antiviral material. This study was designed to develop copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) as an antiviral [...] Read more.
The pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 in the year of 2020 that drastically changed everyone’s life has raised the urgent and intense need for the development of more efficacious antiviral material. This study was designed to develop copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) as an antiviral agent and to validate the antiviral activities of developed copper NP. The Cu NPs were synthesized using a high energy electron beam, and the characteristic morphologies and antiviral activities of Cu NPs were evaluated. We found that Cu NPs are of spherical shape and uniformly distributed, with a diameter of around 100 nm, as opposed to the irregular shape of commercially available copper microparticles (Cu MPs). An X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of Cu and no copper oxide II and I in the Cu NPs. A virus inactivation assay revealed no visible viral DNA after 10- and 30-min treatment of H1N1 virus with the Cu NPs. The infectivity of the Cu NPs-treated H1N1 virus significantly decreased compared with that of the Cu MPs-treated H1N1 virus. The viability of A549 bronchial and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells infected with Cu NPs-treated H1N1 was significantly higher than those infected with Cu MPs-treated H1N1 virus. We also found cells infected with Cu NPs-treated H1N1 virus exhibited a markedly decreased presence of virus nucleoprotein (NuP), an influenza virus-specific structural protein, compared with cells infected with Cu MPs-treated H1N1 virus. Taken together, our study shows that Cu NPs are a more effective and efficacious antiviral agent compared with Cu MPs and offer promising opportunities for the prevention of devastatingly infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Nanomaterials in Biomedical and Healthcare Applications)
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14 pages, 16759 KiB  
Article
Antiviral Efficacy of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles against the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
by Simon P. Graham, Yuen-Ki Cheong, Summer Furniss, Emma Nixon, Joseph A. Smith, Xiuyi Yang, Rieke Fruengel, Sabha Hussain, Monika A. Tchorzewska, Roberto M. La Ragione and Guogang Ren
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082120 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) are responsible for one of the most economically important diseases affecting the global pig industry. On-farm high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems can effectively reduce airborne transmission of PRRSV and the incidence of PRRS, but they [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) are responsible for one of the most economically important diseases affecting the global pig industry. On-farm high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems can effectively reduce airborne transmission of PRRSV and the incidence of PRRS, but they are costly, and their adoption is limited. Therefore, there is a need for low-cost alternatives, such as antimicrobial filters impregnated with antiviral nanoparticles (AVNP). During the past 10 years, tailored intermetallic/multi-elemental AVNP compositions have demonstrated effective performance against human viruses. In this study, a panel of five AVNP was evaluated for viricidal activity against PRRSV. Three AVNP materials: AVNP2, copper nanoparticles (CuNP), and copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONP), were shown to exert a significant reduction (>99.99%) in virus titers at 1.0% (w/v) concentration. Among the three, CuNP was the most effective at lower concentrations. Further experiments revealed that AVNP generated significant reductions in viral titers within just 1.5 min. For an optimal reduction in viral titers, direct contact between viruses and AVNP was required. This was further explained by the inert nature of these AVNP, where only negligible leaching concentrations of Ag/Cu ions (0.06–4.06 ppm) were detected in AVNP supernatants. Real-time dynamic light scatting (DLS) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses suggested that the mono-dispersive hydrodynamic behavior of AVNPs may have enhanced their antiviral activity against PRRSV. Collectively, these data support the further evaluation of these AVNP as candidate nanoparticles for incorporation into antimicrobial air-filtration systems to reduce transmission of PRRSV and other airborne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Nanomaterials in Biomedical and Healthcare Applications)
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