10th Anniversary of Nanomaterials—Recent Advances in Biology and Medicines

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 32189

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are celebrating the 10th anniversary of Nanomaterials with a Special Issue in the Section “Biology and Medicines” (ISSN 2079-4991; CODEN: NANOKO) in 2020.

On behalf of the Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Dr. Shirley Chiang, members of the Editorial Office, and ourselves, we would like to take this opportunity to thank our authors and reviewers for their valuable contributions and for ensuring that Nanomaterials is a successful and respected journal in its field. To highlight this anniversary, we are launching a Special Issue that will cover various topics related to biomedical applications. We intend to keep the scope of this Special Issue broad and encourage submissions addressing nanomaterials i) with antimicrobial/antiviral effects, ii) used in bioimaging or as biosensors, iii) evaluated as delivery platforms for small molecules, genes or proteins, iv) serving as implants, and v) developed for photoablation and photothermal therapy.

Prof. Dr. Eleonore Fröhlich
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial nanoparticles
  • Antiviral nanomaterials
  • Biomedical imaging
  • Biosensors
  • Contrast agents
  • Diagnostics
  • Drug/gene/protein delivery
  • Hyperthermia therapy
  • Magnetic nanoparticles
  • Multifunctional nanoparticles
  • Personalized nanomedicines
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Prosthetics/implants

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 7485 KiB  
Article
Copper-Silver Nanohybrids: SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitory Surfaces
by Dina A. Mosselhy, Lauri Kareinen, Ilkka Kivistö, Kirsi Aaltonen, Jenni Virtanen, Yanling Ge and Tarja Sironen
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071820 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3537
Abstract
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains a severe health threat. The COVID-19 infections occurring in humans and animals render human-animal interfaces hot spots for spreading the pandemic. Lessons from the past point towards the antiviral properties of copper formulations; however, [...] Read more.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains a severe health threat. The COVID-19 infections occurring in humans and animals render human-animal interfaces hot spots for spreading the pandemic. Lessons from the past point towards the antiviral properties of copper formulations; however, data showing the “contact-time limit” surface inhibitory efficacy of copper formulations to contain SARS-CoV-2 are limited. Here, we show the rapid inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 after only 1 and 5 min on two different surfaces containing copper-silver (Cu-Ag) nanohybrids. We characterized the nanohybrids’ powder and surfaces using a series of sophisticated microscopy tools, including transmission and scanning electron microscopes (TEM and SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). We used culturing methods to demonstrate that Cu-Ag nanohybrids with high amounts of Cu (~65 and 78 wt%) and lower amounts of Ag (~7 and 9 wt%) inhibited SARS-CoV-2 efficiently. Collectively, the present work reveals the rapid SARS-CoV-2 surface inhibition and the promising application of such surfaces to break the SARS-CoV-2 transmission chain. For example, such applications could be invaluable within a hospital or live-stock settings, or any public place with surfaces that people frequently touch (i.e., public transportation, shopping malls, elevators, and door handles) after the precise control of different parameters and toxicity evaluations. Full article
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15 pages, 1893 KiB  
Article
Targeting NF-κB with Nanotherapy in a Mouse Model of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma
by Daniel A. Rauch, John C. Harding, Lee Ratner, Samuel A. Wickline and Hua Pan
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061582 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3403
Abstract
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive, clonal malignancy of mature T cells caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Although it is a rare tumor type, it serves as an excellent model of a virus driven process that transforms cells and [...] Read more.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive, clonal malignancy of mature T cells caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Although it is a rare tumor type, it serves as an excellent model of a virus driven process that transforms cells and engenders a highly malignant tumor that is extraordinarily difficult to treat. The viral transcriptional transactivator (Tax) in the HTLV-1 genome directly promotes tumorigenesis, and Tax-induced oncogenesis depends on its ability to constitutively activate NF-κB signaling. Accordingly, we developed and evaluated a nano-delivery system that simultaneously inhibits both canonical (p65) and noncanonical (p100) NF-κB signaling pathways locally in tumors after systemic administration. Our results demonstrate that siRNA is delivered rapidly to ATLL tumors after either i.p. or i.v. injection. The siRNA treatment significantly reduced both p65 and p100 mRNA and protein expression. Anti-NF-κB nanotherapy significantly inhibited tumor growth in two distinct tumor models in mice: a spontaneous Tax-driven tumor model, and a Tax tumor cell transplant model. Moreover, siRNA nanotherapy sensitized late-stage ATLL tumors to the conventional chemotherapeutic agent etoposide, indicating a pleiotropic benefit for localized siRNA nanotherapeutics. Full article
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13 pages, 3079 KiB  
Article
Molecularly Imprinted Magnetic Fluorescent Nanocomposite-Based Sensor for Selective Detection of Lysozyme
by Xin Zhang, Bo Tang, Yansong Li, Chengbin Liu, Pengfei Jiao and Yuping Wei
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061575 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2801
Abstract
A new strategy for the design and construction of molecularly imprinted magnetic fluorescent nanocomposite-based-sensor is proposed. This multifunctional nanocomposite exhibits the necessary optics, magnetism and biocompatibility for use in the selective fluorescence detection of lysozyme. The magnetic fluorescent nanocomposites are prepared by combining [...] Read more.
A new strategy for the design and construction of molecularly imprinted magnetic fluorescent nanocomposite-based-sensor is proposed. This multifunctional nanocomposite exhibits the necessary optics, magnetism and biocompatibility for use in the selective fluorescence detection of lysozyme. The magnetic fluorescent nanocomposites are prepared by combining carboxyl- functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles with l-cysteine-modified zinc sulfide quantum dots (MNP/QDs). Surface molecular imprinting technology was employed to coat the lysozyme molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) layer on the MNP/QDs to form a core-shell structure. The molecularly imprinted MNP/QDs (MNP/QD@MIPs) can rapidly separate the target protein and then use fluorescence sensing to detect the protein; this reduces the background interference, and the selectivity and sensitivity of the detection are improved. The molecularly imprinted MNP/QDs sensor presented good linearity over a lysozyme concentration range from 0.2 to 2.0 μM and a detection limit of 4.53 × 10−3 μM for lysozyme. The imprinting factor of the MNP/QD@MIPs was 4.12, and the selectivity coefficient ranged from 3.19 to 3.85. Furthermore, the MNP/QD@MIPs sensor was applied to detect of lysozyme in human urine and egg white samples with recoveries of 95.40–103.33%. Experimental results showed that the prepared MNP/QD@MIPs has potential for selective magnetic separation and fluorescence sensing of target proteins in biological samples. Full article
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12 pages, 1334 KiB  
Article
Gold Nanoclusters Display Low Immunogenic Effect in Microglia Cells
by Joanna Sobska, Magdalena Waszkielewicz, Anna Podleśny-Drabiniok, Joanna Olesiak-Banska, Wojciech Krężel and Katarzyna Matczyszyn
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051066 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles hold a great promise for both clinical and preclinical applications. The major factors impeding such applications are toxicity of new nanomaterials including e.g., pro-apoptotic activities or inflammatory effects, but also their potential to accumulate in the body or inadequate absorption, distribution, [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles hold a great promise for both clinical and preclinical applications. The major factors impeding such applications are toxicity of new nanomaterials including e.g., pro-apoptotic activities or inflammatory effects, but also their potential to accumulate in the body or inadequate absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) profiles. Since such adverse effects depend on the size, form and coating of nanomaterials, the search for new, less toxic nanomaterials with low tendency to accumulate is highly active domain of research. Here, we describe optical and biological properties of Au18 gold nanoclusters (NCs), small gold nanoparticles composed of 18 atoms of gold and stabilized with glutathione ligands. These nanoclusters may be suitable for in vivo applications owing to their low toxicity and biodistribution profile. Specifically, using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test in P19 cell line we found that Au18 NCs display low toxicity in vitro. Importantly, using primary microglial cells we showed that at low concentrations Au18 NCs display anti-inflammatory signaling on evidence of reduced interleukin 1-β (IL1-β) levels and unchanged levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) or Ym1/2. Such effect was dose dependent as higher concentrations of Au18 NCs induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of anti-inflammatory cytokine Ym1/2, pointing, thus, to global inflammatory activity. Finally, we also showed that within 3 days Au18 NCs can be completely eliminated from the liver reported as the major target organ for accumulation of gold nanoparticles. These data point to a potential of gold nanoparticles for further biomedical studies. Full article
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21 pages, 3349 KiB  
Article
Screening for Effects of Inhaled Nanoparticles in Cell Culture Models for Prolonged Exposure
by Claudia Meindl, Kristin Öhlinger, Verena Zrim, Thomas Steinkogler and Eleonore Fröhlich
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030606 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2572
Abstract
Respiratory exposure of humans to environmental and therapeutic nanoparticles repeatedly occurs at relatively low concentrations. To identify adverse effects of particle accumulation under realistic conditions, monocultures of Calu-3 and A549 cells and co-cultures of A549 and THP-1 macrophages in the air–liquid interphase culture [...] Read more.
Respiratory exposure of humans to environmental and therapeutic nanoparticles repeatedly occurs at relatively low concentrations. To identify adverse effects of particle accumulation under realistic conditions, monocultures of Calu-3 and A549 cells and co-cultures of A549 and THP-1 macrophages in the air–liquid interphase culture were exposed repeatedly to 2 µg/cm2 20 nm and 200 nm polystyrene particles with different functionalization. Particle accumulation, transepithelial electrical resistance, dextran (3–70 kDa) uptake and proinflammatory cytokine secretion were determined over 28 days. Calu-3 cells showed constant particle uptake without any change in barrier function and cytokine release. A549 cells preferentially ingested amino- and not-functionalized particles combined with decreased endocytosis. Cytokine release was transiently increased upon exposure to all particles. Carboxyl-functionalized demonstrated higher uptake and higher cytokine release than the other particles in the A549/THP-1 co-cultures. The evaluated respiratory cells and co-cultures ingested different amounts and types of particles and caused small (partly transient) effects. The data suggest that the healthy cells can adapt to low doses of non-cytotoxic particles. Full article
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16 pages, 2340 KiB  
Article
Aminodextran Coated CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles for Combined Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Hyperthermia
by Sumera Khizar, Nasir M. Ahmad, Naveed Ahmed, Sadia Manzoor, Muhammad A. Hamayun, Nauman Naseer, Michele K. L. Tenório, Noureddine Lebaz and Abdelhamid Elaissari
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112182 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3244
Abstract
Aminodextran (AMD) coated magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized via electrostatic adsorption of aminodextran onto magnetic nanoparticles and their potential theranostic application is evaluated. The uncoated and aminodextran-coated nanoparticles are characterized to determine their hydrodynamic size, morphology, chemical composition, zeta potential and magnetization. [...] Read more.
Aminodextran (AMD) coated magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized via electrostatic adsorption of aminodextran onto magnetic nanoparticles and their potential theranostic application is evaluated. The uncoated and aminodextran-coated nanoparticles are characterized to determine their hydrodynamic size, morphology, chemical composition, zeta potential and magnetization. The aminodextran containing cobalt ferrite nanoparticles of nanometer size are positively charged in the pH range from 3 to 9 and exhibit saturation magnetization of 50 emu/g. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicates capability for diagnostics and a reduction in intensity with an increase in nanoparticle amount. The hyperthermia capability of the prepared particles shows their potential to generate suitable local heat for therapeutic purposes. There is a rise of 7 °C and 9 °C at 327 kHz and 981 kHz respectively and specific absorption rates (SAR) of aminodextran-coated nanoparticles are calculated to be 259 W/g and 518 W/g at the given frequencies larger than uncoated nanoparticles (0.02 W/g). The development of novel aminodextran coated magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles has significant potential to enable and improve personalized therapy regimens, targeted cancer therapies and ultimately to overcome the prevalence of nonessential and overdosing of healthy tissues and organs. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 3063 KiB  
Review
Nonviral Locally Injected Magnetic Vectors for In Vivo Gene Delivery: A Review of Studies on Magnetofection
by Artem A. Sizikov, Marianna V. Kharlamova, Maxim P. Nikitin, Petr I. Nikitin and Eugene L. Kolychev
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051078 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4719
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used in nanobiomedicine for diagnostics and the treatment of diseases, and as carriers for various drugs. The unique magnetic properties of “magnetic” drugs allow their delivery in a targeted tumor or tissue upon application of a magnetic field. [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used in nanobiomedicine for diagnostics and the treatment of diseases, and as carriers for various drugs. The unique magnetic properties of “magnetic” drugs allow their delivery in a targeted tumor or tissue upon application of a magnetic field. The approach of combining magnetic drug targeting and gene delivery is called magnetofection, and it is very promising. This method is simple and efficient for the delivery of genetic material to cells using magnetic nanoparticles controlled by an external magnetic field. However, magnetofection in vivo has been studied insufficiently both for local and systemic routes of magnetic vector injection, and the relevant data available in the literature are often merely descriptive and contradictory. In this review, we collected and systematized the data on the efficiency of the local injections of magnetic nanoparticles that carry genetic information upon application of external magnetic fields. We also investigated the efficiency of magnetofection in vivo, depending on the structure and coverage of magnetic vectors. The perspectives of the development of the method were also considered. Full article
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19 pages, 1690 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Nanomaterial-Based Aptasensors in Medical Diagnosis and Therapy
by Olubunmi O. Ayodele, Adeyinka O. Adesina, Sajedeh Pourianejad, Jared Averitt and Tetyana Ignatova
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040932 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3163
Abstract
Rapid and accurate diagnosis of various biomarkers associated with medical conditions including early detection of viruses and bacteria with highly sensitive biosensors is currently a research priority. Aptamer is a chemically derived recognition molecule capable of detecting and binding small molecules with high [...] Read more.
Rapid and accurate diagnosis of various biomarkers associated with medical conditions including early detection of viruses and bacteria with highly sensitive biosensors is currently a research priority. Aptamer is a chemically derived recognition molecule capable of detecting and binding small molecules with high specificity and its fast preparation time, cost effectiveness, ease of modification, stability at high temperature and pH are some of the advantages it has over traditional detection methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Higher sensitivity and selectivity can further be achieved via coupling of aptamers with nanomaterials and these conjugates called “aptasensors” are receiving greater attention in early diagnosis and therapy. This review will highlight the selection protocol of aptamers based on Traditional Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) and the various types of modified SELEX. We further identify both the advantages and drawbacks associated with the modified version of SELEX. Furthermore, we describe the current advances in aptasensor development and the quality of signal types, which are dependent on surface area and other specific properties of the selected nanomaterials, are also reviewed. Full article
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36 pages, 9462 KiB  
Review
Opportunities for Persistent Luminescent Nanoparticles in Luminescence Imaging of Biological Systems and Photodynamic Therapy
by Douglas L. Fritzen, Luidgi Giordano, Lucas C. V. Rodrigues and Jorge H. S. K. Monteiro
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102015 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5548
Abstract
The use of luminescence in biological systems allows us to diagnose diseases and understand cellular processes. Persistent luminescent materials have emerged as an attractive system for application in luminescence imaging of biological systems; the afterglow emission grants background-free luminescence imaging, there is no [...] Read more.
The use of luminescence in biological systems allows us to diagnose diseases and understand cellular processes. Persistent luminescent materials have emerged as an attractive system for application in luminescence imaging of biological systems; the afterglow emission grants background-free luminescence imaging, there is no need for continuous excitation to avoid tissue and cell damage due to the continuous light exposure, and they also circumvent the depth penetration issue caused by excitation in the UV-Vis. This review aims to provide a background in luminescence imaging of biological systems, persistent luminescence, and synthetic methods for obtaining persistent luminescent materials, and discuss selected examples of recent literature on the applications of persistent luminescent materials in luminescence imaging of biological systems and photodynamic therapy. Finally, the challenges and future directions, pointing to the development of compounds capable of executing multiple functions and light in regions where tissues and cells have low absorption, will be discussed. Full article
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