Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 September 2022) | Viewed by 26190

Special Issue Editor

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, China
Interests: Xenes; phosphorene; functional nanostructures; optoelectronics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Investigations into semiconductor nanomaterials from both an academic and industrial point of view are of great significance. Xenes such as MXenes, phosphorene, tellurene, antimonene, and bismuthene are important semiconductors that offer extraordinary properties, including high photoconductivity, anisotropic thermal conductivity, and high piezoelectric and thermoelectric response. Challenges in the precise synthesis, large-scale fabrication and structure–property relationship of Xenes, and in the production of high-performance functional nanodevices based on Xenes are of great value to overcome for modern devices. Studies of Xenes and Xene-based functional nanostructures in (opto)electronics, energy storage and storage, sensors, catalysis, ferromagnetics, thermoelectrics, biomedical applications, etc., are currently fascinating yet challenging research topics, which are expected to rapidly promote the development of new designs of high-performance devices.

This Special Issue welcomes contributions devoted to the design, characterization, and application of Xene-related nanostructures (not limited to nanostructures), mainly those focused on the precise synthesis and characterization and large-scale production of Xene-related nanostructures and their versatile applications for next-generation devices.

Prof. Dr. Weichun Huang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Xenes
  • phosphorene
  • antimonene
  • bismuthene
  • tellurene
  • selenium
  • functional nanostructures
  • optoelectronics
  • batteries
  • supercapacitors
  • sensors
  • biomedical applications

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 203 KiB  
Editorial
Emerging Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(3), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13030517 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Investigations into semiconductor nanomaterials from both an academic and industrial point of view are of great significance [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

13 pages, 3347 KiB  
Article
Bismuth Quantum Dot (Bi QD)/Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Nanocomposites with Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Activity for Dental Applications
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(21), 3911; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12213911 - 05 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
In the oral microenvironment, bacteria colonies are easily aggregated on the tooth-restoration surface, in the manner of a biofilm, which usually consists of heterogeneous structures containing clusters of a variety of bacteria embedded in an extracellular matrix, leading to serious recurrent caries. In [...] Read more.
In the oral microenvironment, bacteria colonies are easily aggregated on the tooth-restoration surface, in the manner of a biofilm, which usually consists of heterogeneous structures containing clusters of a variety of bacteria embedded in an extracellular matrix, leading to serious recurrent caries. In this contribution, zero-dimensional (0D) bismuth (Bi) quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by a facile solvothermal method were directly employed to fabricate a Bi QD/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-modified tooth by simple curing treatment. The result demonstrates that the as-fabricated Bi QD/PDMS-modified tooth at 37 °C for 120 min not only showed significantly improved hydrophobic performance with a water contact angle of 103° and 115° on the tooth root and tooth crown, respectively, compared to that (~20° on the tooth root, and ~5° on the tooth crown) of the pristine tooth, but also exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against S. mutans, superior biocompatibility, and biosafety. In addition, due to the highly photothermal effect of Bi QDs, the antibacterial activity of the as-fabricated Bi QD/PDMS-modified tooth could be further enhanced under illumination, even at a very low power density (12 mW cm−2). Due to the facile fabrication, excellent hydrophobicity, superior antibacterial activity, and biocompatibility and biosafety of the Bi QD/PDMS-modified tooth, it is envisioned that the Bi QD/PDMS-modified tooth with a fascinating self-cleaning and antibacterial performance can pave the way to new designs of versatile multifunctional nanocomposites to prevent secondary caries in the application of dental restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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10 pages, 2823 KiB  
Article
Two-Dimensional Selenium Nanosheet-Based Sponges with Superior Hydrophobicity and Excellent Photothermal Performance
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(21), 3756; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12213756 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
Photothermally assisted superhydrophobic materials play an important role in a variety of applications, such as oil purification, waste oil collection, and solar desalination, due to their facile fabrication, low-cost, flexibility, and tunable thermal conversion. However, the current widely used superhydrophobic sponges with photothermal [...] Read more.
Photothermally assisted superhydrophobic materials play an important role in a variety of applications, such as oil purification, waste oil collection, and solar desalination, due to their facile fabrication, low-cost, flexibility, and tunable thermal conversion. However, the current widely used superhydrophobic sponges with photothermal properties are usually impaired by a high loading content of photothermal agents (e.g., gold or silver nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes), low photothermal efficiency, and require harmful processes for modification. Here, a one-pot, simple composite consisting of two-dimensional (2D) selenium (Se) nanosheets (NSs) and commercially used melamine sponge (MS) is rationally designed and successfully fabricated by a facile dip-coating method via physical adsorption between 2D Se NSs and MS. The loading content of 2D Se NSs on the skeleton of the MS can be well controlled by dipping cycle. The results demonstrate that after the modification of 2D Se NSs on the MS, the wettability transition from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity can be easily achieved, even at a very low loading of 2D Se NSs, and the highly stable photothermal conversion of the as-fabricated composites can be realized with a maximum temperature of 111 ± 3.2 °C due to the excellent photothermal effect of 2D Se NSs. It is anticipated that this composite will afford new design strategies for multifunctional porous structures for versatile applications, such as high-performance solar desalination and photothermal sterilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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10 pages, 1762 KiB  
Article
Femtosecond Pulsed Fiber Laser by an Optical Device Based on NaOH-LPE Prepared WSe2 Saturable Absorber
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(16), 2747; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162747 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
We report on all-optical devices prepared from WSe2 combined with drawn tapered fibers as saturable absorbers to achieve ultrashort pulse output. The saturable absorber with a high damage threshold and high saturable absorption characteristics is prepared for application in erbium-doped fiber lasers [...] Read more.
We report on all-optical devices prepared from WSe2 combined with drawn tapered fibers as saturable absorbers to achieve ultrashort pulse output. The saturable absorber with a high damage threshold and high saturable absorption characteristics is prepared for application in erbium-doped fiber lasers by the liquid phase exfoliation method for WSe2, and the all-optical device exhibited strong saturable absorption characteristics with a modulation depth of 15% and a saturation intensity of 100.58 W. The net dispersion of the erbium-doped fiber laser cavity is ~−0.1 ps2, and a femtosecond pulse output with a bandwidth of 11.4 nm, a pulse width of 390 fs, and a single-pulse capability of 42 pJ is obtained. Results indicate that the proposed WSe2 saturable absorbers are efficient, photonic devices to realize stable fiber lasers. The results demonstrate that the WSe2 saturable absorber is an effective photonic device for realizing stable fiber lasers, which have a certain significance for the development of potential photonic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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7 pages, 1391 KiB  
Article
Femtosecond Pulsed Fiber Laser Based on Graphdiyne-Modified Tapered Fiber
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12122050 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
We report the application of saturable absorbers prepared from graphdiyne-modified tapered fibers to an erbium-doped fiber laser to achieve a femtosecond pulse output. Graphdiyne quantum dots are successfully prepared by the Glaser–Hay method. The graphdiyne-based all-fiber saturable absorber device exhibited strongly saturable absorption [...] Read more.
We report the application of saturable absorbers prepared from graphdiyne-modified tapered fibers to an erbium-doped fiber laser to achieve a femtosecond pulse output. Graphdiyne quantum dots are successfully prepared by the Glaser–Hay method. The graphdiyne-based all-fiber saturable absorber device exhibited strongly saturable absorption characteristics with a modulation depth of 18.06% and a saturation intensity of 103.5 W. The net dispersion of the erbium-doped fiber laser cavity is ~0.016 ps2, and a femtosecond pulse output with a bandwidth of 26.3 nm, a pulse width of 135.8 fs, and a single pulse capability of 54 pJ is obtained. This work lays the foundation for the application of the nonlinear optical material, graphdiyne, in ultrafast photonics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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12 pages, 4858 KiB  
Article
2D BP/InSe Heterostructures as a Nonlinear Optical Material for Ultrafast Photonics
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111809 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
The BP/InSe heterojunction has attracted the attention of many fields in successful combined high hole mobility of black phosphorus (BP) and high electron mobility of indium selenide (InSe), and enhanced the environmental stability of BP. Nevertheless, photonics research on the BP/InSe heterostructure was [...] Read more.
The BP/InSe heterojunction has attracted the attention of many fields in successful combined high hole mobility of black phosphorus (BP) and high electron mobility of indium selenide (InSe), and enhanced the environmental stability of BP. Nevertheless, photonics research on the BP/InSe heterostructure was insufficient, while both components are considered promising in the field. In this work, a two-dimensional (2D) BP/InSe heterostructure was fabricated using the liquid-phase exfoliation method. Its linear and non-linear optical (NLO) absorption was characterized by ultraviolet−visible−infrared and Open-aperture Z-scan technology. On account of the revealed superior NLO properties, an SA based on 2D BP/InSe was prepared and embedded into an erbium-doped fiber laser, traditional soliton pulses were observed at 1.5 μm with the pulse duration of 881 fs. Furthermore, harmonic mode locking of bound solitons and dark-bright soliton pairs were also obtained in the same laser cavity due to the cross-coupling effect. The stable mode-locked operation can be maintained for several days, which overcome the low air stability of BP. This contribution further proves the excellent optical properties of 2D BP/InSe heterostructure and provides new probability of developing nano-photonics devices for the applications of double pulses laser source and long-distance information transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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9 pages, 3227 KiB  
Article
Highly Sensitive Photothermal Fiber Sensor Based on MXene Device and Vernier Effect
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050766 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
A photothermal fiber sensor based on a microfiber knot resonator (MKR) and the Vernier effect is proposed and demonstrated. An MXene Ti3C2Tx nanosheet was deposited onto the ring of an MKR using an optical deposition method [...] Read more.
A photothermal fiber sensor based on a microfiber knot resonator (MKR) and the Vernier effect is proposed and demonstrated. An MXene Ti3C2Tx nanosheet was deposited onto the ring of an MKR using an optical deposition method to prepare photothermal devices. An MXeneMKR and a bare MKR were used as the sensing part and reference part, respectively, of a Vernier-cascade system. The optical and photothermal properties of the bare MKR and the MXeneMKR were tested. Ti3C2Tx was applied to a photothermal fiber sensor for the first time. The experimental results showed that the modulation efficiency of the MXeneMKR was 0.02 nm/mW, and based on the Vernier effect, the modulation efficiency of the cascade system was 0.15 nm/mW. The sensitivity was amplified 7.5 times. Our all-fiber photothermal sensor has many advantages such as low cost, small size, and good system compatibility. Our sensor has broad application prospects in many fields. The proposed stable MKR device based on two-dimensional-material modification provides a new solution for improving the sensitivity of optical fiber sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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10 pages, 3647 KiB  
Article
Tin Oxide (SnO2) Nanoparticles: Facile Fabrication, Characterization, and Application in UV Photodetectors
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040632 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2424
Abstract
Tin oxide (SnO2) nanomaterials are of great interest in many fields such as catalytic, electrochemical, and biomedical applications, due to their low cost, suitable stability characteristics, high photosensitivity, etc. In this contribution, SnO2 NPs were facilely fabricated by calcination of [...] Read more.
Tin oxide (SnO2) nanomaterials are of great interest in many fields such as catalytic, electrochemical, and biomedical applications, due to their low cost, suitable stability characteristics, high photosensitivity, etc. In this contribution, SnO2 NPs were facilely fabricated by calcination of tin (II) oxalate in air, followed by a liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) method. Size-selected SnO2 NPs were easily obtained using a liquid cascade centrifugation (LCC) technique. The as-obtained SnO2 NPs displayed strong absorption in the UV region (~300 nm) and exhibited narrower absorption characteristics with a decrease in NP size. The as-fabricated SnO2 NPs were, for the first time, directly deposited onto a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film with a regular Ag lattice to fabricate a flexible working electrode for a photoelectrochemical (PEC)-type photodetector. The results demonstrated that the SnO2-NP-based electrode showed the strongest photoresponse signal in an alkaline electrolyte compared with those in neutral and acidic electrolytes. The maximum photocurrent density reached 14.0 μA cm−2, significantly outperforming black phosphorus nanosheets and black phosphorus analogue nanomaterials such as tin (II) sulfide nanosheets and tellurene. The as-fabricated SnO2 NPs with relatively larger size had better self-powered photoresponse performance. In addition, the as-fabricated SnO2-NP-based PEC photodetector exhibited strong cycling stability for on/off switching behavior under ambient conditions. It is anticipated that SnO2 nanostructures, as building blocks, can offer diverse availabilities for high-performance self-powered optoelectronic devices to realize a carbon-neutral or carbon-free environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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11 pages, 3830 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Sensitivity with High−Reflective−Index Guided−Wave Nanomaterials for a Long−Range Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010168 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
A guided−wave long−range surface plasmon resonance (GW−LRSPR) sensor was proposed in this investigation. In the proposed sensor, high−refractive−index (RI) dielectric films (i.e., CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite, silicon) served as the guided−wave (GW) layer, which was combined with the long−range surface [...] Read more.
A guided−wave long−range surface plasmon resonance (GW−LRSPR) sensor was proposed in this investigation. In the proposed sensor, high−refractive−index (RI) dielectric films (i.e., CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite, silicon) served as the guided−wave (GW) layer, which was combined with the long−range surface plasmon resonance (LRSPR) structure to form the GW−LRSPR sensing structure. The theoretical results based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) demonstrated that the LRSPR signal was enhanced by the additional high#x2212;RI GW layer, which was called the GW−LRSPR signal. The achieved GW−LRSPR signal had a strong ability to perceive the analyte. By optimizing the low− and high−RI dielectrics in the GW−LRSPR sensing structure, we obtained the highest sensitivity (S) of 1340.4 RIU−1 based on a CH3NH3PbBr3 GW layer, and the corresponding figure of merit (FOM) was 8.16 × 104 RIU−1 deg−1. Compared with the conventional LRSPR sensor (S = 688.9 RIU−1), the sensitivity of this new type of sensor was improved by nearly 94%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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12 pages, 5024 KiB  
Article
Electromagnetic Interference Shielding of 2D Transition Metal Carbide (MXene)/Metal Ion Composites
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 2929; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112929 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
In this work, Ti3C2, which has a loosely packed accordion-like structure in transition metal carbide (MXene) form, is fabricated and adsorbed by three metal ions (Fe3+/Co2+/Ni2+). The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance of [...] Read more.
In this work, Ti3C2, which has a loosely packed accordion-like structure in transition metal carbide (MXene) form, is fabricated and adsorbed by three metal ions (Fe3+/Co2+/Ni2+). The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance of Ti3C2 and Ti3C2:Fe3+/Co2+/Ni2+ films is researched in detail, demonstrating that the EMI shielding effectiveness can be improved by adsorbing by Fe3+/Co2+/Ni2+ ions because the metal ion adsorbing can improve the absorption efficiency via electromagnetic wave scattering. The studied Ti3C2:Fe3+/Co2+/Ni2+ films can be used as good EMI shielding materials for communications, electronics, military, and other applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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9 pages, 1472 KiB  
Article
Flexible Tellurium-Based Electrode for High-Performance Lithium-Tellurium Battery
by and
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 2903; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112903 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Low-dimensional nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention for next-generation flexible energy devices owing to their excellent electrochemical properties and superior flexibility. Herein, uniform Tellurium nanotubes (Te NTs) were prepared through a facile hydrothermal method, and then a flexible and freestanding electrode was fabricated with [...] Read more.
Low-dimensional nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention for next-generation flexible energy devices owing to their excellent electrochemical properties and superior flexibility. Herein, uniform Tellurium nanotubes (Te NTs) were prepared through a facile hydrothermal method, and then a flexible and freestanding electrode was fabricated with Te NTs as active materials and a small amount of nanofibrillated celluloses (NFCs) as a flexible matrix through a vacuum filtration method without adding extra conductive carbon or a binder. The resulting Te-based electrode exhibits a high volumetric capacity of 1512 mAh cm−3 at 200 mA g−1, and delivers admirable cyclic stability (capacity retention of 104% over 300 cycles) and excellent rate performance (833 mAh cm−3 at 1000 mA g−1), which benefits from the unique structure and intrinsically superior conductivity of Te NTs. After bending 50 times, the Te-based electrode delivers a desirable volumetric capacity of 1117 mAh cm−3, and remains 93% of initial capacity after 100 cycles. The results imply that the Te-based electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical properties and superior flexibility simultaneously, which can serve as a potential candidate for the flexible lithium batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

18 pages, 2290 KiB  
Review
Infrared Light Emission Devices Based on Two-Dimensional Materials
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(17), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12172996 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have garnered considerable attention due to their advantageous properties, including tunable bandgap, prominent carrier mobility, tunable response and absorption spectral band, and so forth. The above-mentioned properties ensure that 2D materials hold great promise for various high-performance infrared (IR) applications, [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have garnered considerable attention due to their advantageous properties, including tunable bandgap, prominent carrier mobility, tunable response and absorption spectral band, and so forth. The above-mentioned properties ensure that 2D materials hold great promise for various high-performance infrared (IR) applications, such as night vision, remote sensing, surveillance, target acquisition, optical communication, etc. Thus, it is of great significance to acquire better insight into IR applications based on 2D materials. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of 2D materials in IR light emission device applications. First, we introduce the background and motivation of the review, then the 2D materials suitable for IR light emission are presented, followed by a comprehensive review of 2D-material-based spontaneous emission and laser applications. Finally, further development directions and challenges are summarized. We believe that milestone investigations of 2D-material-based IR light emission applications will emerge soon, which are beneficial for 2D-material-based nano-device commercialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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42 pages, 13683 KiB  
Review
MXene-Based Materials for Solar Cell Applications
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3170; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123170 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5153
Abstract
MXenes are a class of two-dimensional nanomaterials with exceptional tailor-made properties, making them promising candidates for a wide variety of critical applications from energy systems, optics, electromagnetic interference shielding to those advanced sensors, and medical devices. Owing to its mechano-ceramic nature, MXenes have [...] Read more.
MXenes are a class of two-dimensional nanomaterials with exceptional tailor-made properties, making them promising candidates for a wide variety of critical applications from energy systems, optics, electromagnetic interference shielding to those advanced sensors, and medical devices. Owing to its mechano-ceramic nature, MXenes have superior thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties. Recently, MXene-based materials are being extensively explored for solar cell applications wherein materials with superior sustainability, performance, and efficiency have been developed in demand to reduce the manufacturing cost of the present solar cell materials as well as enhance the productivity, efficiency, and performance of the MXene-based materials for solar energy harvesting. It is aimed in this review to study those MXenes employed in solar technologies, and in terms of the layout of the current paper, those 2D materials candidates used in solar cell applications are briefly reviewed and discussed, and then the fabrication methods are introduced. The key synthesis methods of MXenes, as well as the electrical, optical, and thermoelectric properties, are explained before those research efforts studying MXenes in solar cell materials are comprehensively discussed. It is believed that the use of MXene in solar technologies is in its infancy stage and many research efforts are yet to be performed on the current pitfalls to fill the existing voids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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