State-of-the-Art Nanomaterials for Energy Storage/Conversion and Catalysis in Spain

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy and Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2023) | Viewed by 13215

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Inorganic and Technical Chemistry, UNED, Calle de Bravo Murillo, 38, 28015 Madrid, Spain
Interests: identification of catalytic surface sites; doped graphenic materials used as support metallic nanoparticles; transformations of chemicals produced from the biomass into hydrocarbons; and acid catalysts derived from polyoxometalates
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, C/Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: nanomaterials; nanocatalysis; C1 chemistry; production of hydrocarbons; hydrogen production; biomass valorization reactions; carbon nanostructures; carbon-based catalysts
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With this Special Issue, we aim to collect recent research studies developed in the Spanish Scientific Community, related with new nanomaterials applied to energy storage/conversion and/or as catalytic materials. Although Spain is a country with a not remarkably high population and with moderate technological–industrial potential, the scientific production capacity of its researchers on the subject of this Special Issue is remarkable. Research topics included in this call include but are not limited to the following:

  • Design, preparation, and characterization of nanomaterials for batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, solar cells, catalysts, photocatalysts, and sensors;
  • Structure and morphology of nanomaterials in relationship with their performance and with reaction mechanisms;
  • Applications in energy storage, energy conversion, hydrogen production, synthesis of chemicals, treatment of environmental waste materials, detecting toxic or hazardous materials, etc.

All research studies in the above categories are suitable for submission for this Special Issue if they have been mainly carried out in Spain or by Spanish researchers. Any international collaborative research with Spanish researchers is also welcome.

Another aim of this Special Issue, apart from introducing state-of-the-art research on the topic “Nanomaterials for Energy Storage/Conversion and Catalysis in Spain”, will be to promote collaborative investigations between Spanish and international researchers in this area whose development can definitively contribute to achieve the desired sustainability of our societies during the 21st century.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Guerrero-Ruiz
Prof. Dr. Inmaculada Rodríguez-Ramos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanomaterials for energy storage
  • Nanomaterials for energy conversion
  • Nanomaterials for hydrogen production
  • Nanomaterials as heterogeneous catalysts
  • Photocatalyzed processes
  • Battery
  • Supercapacitor
  • Solar cell
  • Fuel cell
  • Sensor
  • Highly selective catalysts
  • Environmental catalysis
  • Biomass valorization catalysts

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 5410 KiB  
Article
Bifunctional P-Containing RuO2 Catalysts Prepared from Surplus Ru Co-Ordination Complexes and Applied to Zn/Air Batteries
by Sebastián Lorca, Javier Torres, José L. Serrano, José Pérez, José Abad, Florencio Santos and Antonio J. Fernández Romero
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13010115 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
An innovative synthetic route that involves the thermal treatment of selected Ru co−ordination complexes was used to prepare RuO2-based materials with catalytic activity for oxygen reduction (ORR) and oxygen evolution (OER) reactions. Extensive characterization confirmed the presence of Ru metal and [...] Read more.
An innovative synthetic route that involves the thermal treatment of selected Ru co−ordination complexes was used to prepare RuO2-based materials with catalytic activity for oxygen reduction (ORR) and oxygen evolution (OER) reactions. Extensive characterization confirmed the presence of Ru metal and RuP3O9 in the materials, with an improved electrocatalytic performance obtained from calcinated [(RuCl2(PPh3)3]. A mechanistic approach for the obtention of such singular blends and for the synergetic contribution of these three species to electrocatalysis is suggested. Catalysts added to carbon−based electrodes were also tested in all−solid and flooded alkaline Zn/air batteries. The former displayed a specific discharge capacity of 10.5 A h g−1 at 250 mA g−1 and a power density of 4.4 kW kg−1 cm−2. Besides, more than 800 discharge/charge cycles were reached in the flooded alkaline Zn/air battery Full article
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15 pages, 4828 KiB  
Article
Supported Nanostructured MoxC Materials for the Catalytic Reduction of CO2 through the Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction
by Arturo Pajares, Xianyun Liu, Joan R. Busacker, Pilar Ramírez de la Piscina and Narcís Homs
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(18), 3165; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12183165 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
MoxC-based catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 were prepared, characterized and studied in the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) at 548–673 K and atmospheric pressure, using CO2:H2 = 1:1 and CO [...] Read more.
MoxC-based catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 were prepared, characterized and studied in the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) at 548–673 K and atmospheric pressure, using CO2:H2 = 1:1 and CO2:H2 = 1:3 mol/mol reactant mixtures. The support used determined the crystalline MoxC phases obtained and the behavior of the supported nanostructured MoxC catalysts in the RWGS. All catalysts were active in the RWGS reaction under the experimental conditions used; CO productivity per mol of Mo was always higher than that of unsupported Mo2C prepared using a similar method in the absence of support. The CO selectivity at 673 K was above 94% for all the supported catalysts, and near 99% for the SiO2-supported. The MoxC/SiO2 catalyst, which contains a mixture of hexagonal Mo2C and cubic MoC phases, exhibited the best performance for CO production. Full article
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13 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Carbon Support and Conditions on the Carbothermal Synthesis of Cu-Molybdenum Carbide and Its Application on CO2 Hydrogenation to Methanol
by Ana Belén Dongil, Elodie Blanco, Juan José Villora-Picó, Antonio Sepúlveda-Escribano and Inmaculada Rodríguez-Ramos
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(7), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071048 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2095
Abstract
The synthesis of methanol by carbon dioxide hydrogenation has been studied using copper-molybdenum carbides supported on high surface area graphite, reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. The synthesis conditions and the effect of the support were studied. The catalysts were prepared in situ [...] Read more.
The synthesis of methanol by carbon dioxide hydrogenation has been studied using copper-molybdenum carbides supported on high surface area graphite, reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. The synthesis conditions and the effect of the support were studied. The catalysts were prepared in situ using H2 or He at 600 °C or 700 °C. Both molybdenum carbide and oxycarbide were obtained. A support with less reactive carbon resulted in lower proportion of carbide obtained. The best results were achieved over a 5 wt.% Cu and 10 wt.% Mo on high surface area graphite that reached 96.3% selectivity to methanol. Full article
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14 pages, 3709 KiB  
Article
Coherent Integration of Organic Gel Polymer Electrolyte and Ambipolar Polyoxometalate Hybrid Nanocomposite Electrode in a Compact High-Performance Supercapacitor
by Jun-Jie Zhu, Luis Martinez-Soria and Pedro Gomez-Romero
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030514 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
We report a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) supercapacitor concept with improved pathways for ion transport, thanks to a facile creation of a coherent continuous distribution of the electrolyte throughout the electrode. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was chosen as the polymer framework for organic electrolytes. [...] Read more.
We report a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) supercapacitor concept with improved pathways for ion transport, thanks to a facile creation of a coherent continuous distribution of the electrolyte throughout the electrode. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was chosen as the polymer framework for organic electrolytes. A permeating distribution of the GPE into the electrodes, acting both as integrated electrolyte and binder, as well as thin separator, promotes ion diffusion and increases the active electrode–electrolyte interface, which leads to improvements both in capacitance and rate capability. An activation process induced during the first charge–discharge cycles was detected, after which, the charge transfer resistance and Warburg impedance decrease. We found that a GPE thickness of 12 μm led to optimal capacitance and rate capability. A novel hybrid nanocomposite material, formed by the tetraethylammonium salt of the 1 nm-sized phosphomolybdate cluster and activated carbon (AC/TEAPMo12), was shown to improve its capacitive performance with this gel electrolyte arrangement. Due to the homogeneous dispersion of PMo12 clusters, its energy storage process is non-diffusion-controlled. In the symmetric capacitors, the hybrid nanocomposite material can perform redox reactions in both the positive and the negative electrodes in an ambipolar mode. The volumetric capacitance of a symmetric supercapacitor made with the hybrid electrodes increased by 40% compared to a cell with parent AC electrodes. Due to the synergy between permeating GPE and the hybrid electrodes, the GPE hybrid symmetric capacitor delivers three times more energy density at higher power densities and equivalent cycle stability compared with conventional AC symmetric capacitors. Full article
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21 pages, 5472 KiB  
Article
TiO2-Supported Pd as an Efficient and Stable Catalyst for the Mild Hydrotreatment of Tar-Type Compounds
by Zaher Raad, Joumana Toufaily, Tayssir Hamieh and Marcelo E. Domine
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092380 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
The mild hydrotreatment of a model mixture of tar-type compounds (i.e., naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthylene, and phenanthrene) to produce partially hydrogenated products in the range of C9–C15 was studied over Pd supported on TiO2 possessing different crystalline phases. Pd-based catalysts were prepared and [...] Read more.
The mild hydrotreatment of a model mixture of tar-type compounds (i.e., naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthylene, and phenanthrene) to produce partially hydrogenated products in the range of C9–C15 was studied over Pd supported on TiO2 possessing different crystalline phases. Pd-based catalysts were prepared and characterized by ICP analysis, XRD, N2 adsorption isotherms, HR-TEM, and NH3-TPD, among others. The hydrotreatment activity and selectivity towards the desired hydrogenated products (i.e., tetralin and others) increased with both the acidity and surface area of the catalyst, along with the presence of small and well distributed Pd nanoparticles. For the selected 1.3 wt% Pd/TiO2 nano catalyst, the operational conditions for maximizing tar conversion were found to be 275 °C, 30 bar of H2, and 0.2 g of catalyst for 7 h. The catalyst revealed remarkable hydrotreatment activity and stability after several reuses with practically no changes in TiO2 structure, quite low carbon deposition, and any Pd leaching detected, thus maintaining both a small Pd particle size and adequate distribution, even after regeneration of the catalyst. Additionally, the Pd/TiO2 nano catalyst was demonstrated to be more active than other commonly used metal/alumina and more selective than metal/USY zeolites in the mild hydrotreatment of tar-type compounds, thus providing an efficient catalytic route for obtaining partially hydrogenated C9–C15 hydrocarbons useful as jet-fuel components or additives (improvers), as well as chemicals and solvents for industrial applications. Full article
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18 pages, 2733 KiB  
Article
NOx Storage on BaTi0.8Cu0.2O3 Perovskite Catalysts: Addressing a Feasible Mechanism
by Vicente Albaladejo-Fuentes, María-Salvadora Sánchez-Adsuar, James A. Anderson and María-José Illán-Gómez
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082133 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
The NOx storage mechanism on BaTi0.8Cu0.2O3 catalyst were studied using different techniques. The results obtained by XRD, ATR, TGA and XPS under NOx storage–regeneration conditions revealed that BaO generated on the catalyst by decomposition of Ba2TiO [...] Read more.
The NOx storage mechanism on BaTi0.8Cu0.2O3 catalyst were studied using different techniques. The results obtained by XRD, ATR, TGA and XPS under NOx storage–regeneration conditions revealed that BaO generated on the catalyst by decomposition of Ba2TiO4 plays a key role in the NOx storage process. In situ DRIFTS experiments under NO/O2 and NO/N2 show that nitrites and nitrates are formed on the perovskite during the NOx storage process. Thus, it seems that, as for model NSR catalysts, the NOx storage on BaTi0.8Cu0.2O3 catalyst takes place by both “nitrite” and “nitrate” routes, with the main pathway being highly dependent on the temperature and the time on stream: (i) at T < 350 °C, NO adsorption leads to nitrites formation on the catalyst and (ii) at T > 350 °C, the catalyst activity for NO oxidation promotes NO2 generation and the nitrate formation. Full article
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