Nanomaterials and Textiles

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanocomposite Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 May 2024 | Viewed by 8934

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Mönchengladbach, Germany
Interests: functi onal textiles; high performance fibers; textile mate rials; dyeing; printing; spectroscopy; sol gel technology; polymers; coatings; radiation protection; pigments; particles; natural materials; material science; chemistry

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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

When nanomaterials meet textiles, innovative new materials meet successful conventional fiber-based materials. This Special Issue will give an overview on all kinds of nanomaterials and their advantageous applications on textile-based materials for the realization of new materials with advanced or completely new properties. Prominent examples in this field are related to nanoparticular (sol-gel based) finishing agents for antimicrobial or flame-retardant functionalization; embedding particles in fibers during spinning processes to reach radiation protective properties; phosphorescence inorganic particles or fluorescent carbon quantum dots for the realization of luminescent effects. A broad field for nanomaterials and textiles is as well electrospinning, opening up e.g., the chance for the creation of new functional filter materials.

In summary, this Special Issue will present comprehensive research outlining progress in the field of nanomaterials and textiles - the application of nanomaterials to improve the performance of textiles or initiate even new functional properties. This includes the utilization of nanoparticular finishing agents, new printing technology, fiber modification by spin-doping or electrospinning techniques, and similar techniques. We invite authors to contribute original research articles and review articles covering the current progress on nanomaterials and textiles. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Nanoparticular finishing agents
  • Sol-gel technology
  • Surface structuring of textiles (nanostructuring)
  • Photoactive materials
  • Printing processes and nanoparticular additives
  • Functional textiles – in the area of antimicrobial, flame-retardant, UV-protective textiles, etc.
  • Application of graphene, graphene-oxide, or carbon quantum dot materials
  • Fiber modification by spin-doping
  • Electrospinning
  • Nanomaterials in composites and fiber-reinforced materials 

Prof. Dr. Boris Mahltig
Prof. Dr. Andrea Ehrmann
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • textiles
  • fibers
  • non-woven
  • sol-gel technology
  • electrospinning
  • nanostructuring, functional textiles

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 4201 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Centrifugal Spinning Parameters to Prepare Poly(butylene succinate) Nanofibers Mats for Aerosol Filter Applications
by Ayben Pakolpakçıl, Ali Kılıç and Zbigniew Draczynski
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(24), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13243150 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 818
Abstract
Air pollution is becoming a serious issue because it negatively impacts the quality of life. One of the first most useful self-defense approaches against air pollution are face masks. Typically made of non-renewable petroleum-based polymers, these masks are harmful to the environment, and [...] Read more.
Air pollution is becoming a serious issue because it negatively impacts the quality of life. One of the first most useful self-defense approaches against air pollution are face masks. Typically made of non-renewable petroleum-based polymers, these masks are harmful to the environment, and they are mostly disposable. Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is regarded as one of the most promising materials because of its exceptional processability and regulated biodegradability in a range of applications. In this regard, nanofiber-based face masks are becoming more and more popular because of their small pores, light weight, and excellent filtration capabilities. Centrifugal spinning (CS) provides an alternative method for producing nanofibers from various materials at high speeds and low costs. This current study aimed to investigate the effect of processing parameters on the resultant PBS fiber morphology. Following that, the usability of PBS nonwoven as a filter media was investigated. The effects of solution concentration, rotating speed, and needle size have been examined using a three-factorial Box–Behnken experimental design. The results revealed that PBS concentration had a substantial influence on fiber diameter, with a minimum fiber diameter of 172 nm attained under optimum production conditions compared to the anticipated values of 166 nm. It has been demonstrated that the desired function and the Box–Behnken design are useful instruments for predicting the process parameters involved in the production of PBS nanofibers. PBS filters can achieve an excellent efficiency of more than 98% with a pressure drop of 238 Pa at a flow rate of 85 L/min. The disposable PBS filter media was able to return to nature after use via hydrolysis processes. The speed and cost-effectiveness of the CS process, as well as the environmentally benign characteristics of the PBS polymer, may all contribute considerably to the development of new-age filters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Textiles)
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11 pages, 2922 KiB  
Article
Homogeneity of Needleless Electrospun Nanofiber Mats
by Edona Morina, Marius Dotter, Christoph Döpke, Ilda Kola, Tatjana Spahiu and Andrea Ehrmann
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(18), 2507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13182507 - 06 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
Nanofiber mats can be electrospun by different techniques, usually subdivided into needle-based and needleless. The latter allow for producing large-area nanofiber mats, e.g., with a width of 50 cm and lengths of several meters, if electrospinning proceeds for several hours, depending on the [...] Read more.
Nanofiber mats can be electrospun by different techniques, usually subdivided into needle-based and needleless. The latter allow for producing large-area nanofiber mats, e.g., with a width of 50 cm and lengths of several meters, if electrospinning proceeds for several hours, depending on the required thickness. Even spinning smaller samples, however, raises the question of homogeneity, especially if defined mechanical properties or a defined thickness is required, e.g., for filtration purposes. Very often, only the inner parts of such electrospun nanofiber mats are used to avoid too high variation of the nanofiber mat thickness. For this study, we used wire-based electrospinning to prepare nanofiber mats with slightly varying spinning parameters. We report investigations of the thickness and mass per unit area, measured on different positions of needleless electrospun nanofiber mats. Martindale abrasion tests on different positions are added as a measure of the mechanical properties. All nanofiber mats show unexpectedly strong variations of thickness, mass per unit area, and porosity, as calculated from the apparent density of the membranes. The thickness especially varied by nearly one order of magnitude within one sample, while the apparent density, as the most uniform parameter, still showed variations by more than a factor of two within one sample. This shows that even for apparently highly homogeneous areas of such nanofiber mats, variations cannot be neglected for all potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Textiles)
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15 pages, 6510 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Non-Crimping Laminated Textile Composites Reinforced with Electrospun Nanofibers
by Jaymin Vrajlal Sanchaniya, Inga Lasenko, Sai Pavan Kanukuntla, Anunand Mannodi, Arta Viluma-Gudmona and Valters Gobins
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(13), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13131949 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
This research investigated the use of electrospun nanofibers as reinforcing laminates in textiles to enhance their mechanical properties for use as smart and technical textile applications. Crimping plays a crucial role in textiles. Because of crimp, fabrics have extensibility, compressibility, and improved quality. [...] Read more.
This research investigated the use of electrospun nanofibers as reinforcing laminates in textiles to enhance their mechanical properties for use as smart and technical textile applications. Crimping plays a crucial role in textiles. Because of crimp, fabrics have extensibility, compressibility, and improved quality. Although crimping is inevitable for fabrics used in smart textiles, it is also a disadvantage as it could weaken the fibers and reduce their strength and efficiency. The study focused on preparing laminated textile composites by electrospinning a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer onto textile fabric. The research examined the effect of electrospun nanofibers on the fabric by using a tensile testing machine and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the prepared laminated textile was crimp-free because of the orientation of the nanofibers directly electrospun on the fabric, which exhibited perfect bonding between the laminates. Additionally, the nanofiber-reinforced composite fabrics demonstrated a 75.5% increase in the elastic moduli and a 20% increase in elongation at breaking. The study concluded that the use of electrospun nanofibers as laminates in textile composites could enhance the elastic properties, and prepared laminated composites will have the advantages of nanofibers, such as crimp-free elastic regions. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the laminated textile composite were compared with those of the micromechanical models, providing a deeper understanding of the behavior of these laminated composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Textiles)
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22 pages, 11859 KiB  
Article
Removal of Methylene Blue and Congo Red Using a Chitosan–Graphene Oxide-Electrosprayed Functionalized Polymeric Nanofiber Membrane
by Nethmi S. L. Dissanayake, Maadri A. Pathirana, Nandula D. Wanasekara, Boris Mahltig and Gayani K. Nandasiri
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(8), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13081350 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Untreated textile effluent may contain toxic organic pollutants that can have negative impacts on the ecosystem. Among the harmful chemicals present in dyeing wastewater, there are two frequently used organic dyes: methylene blue (cationic) and congo red (anionic). The current study presents investigations [...] Read more.
Untreated textile effluent may contain toxic organic pollutants that can have negative impacts on the ecosystem. Among the harmful chemicals present in dyeing wastewater, there are two frequently used organic dyes: methylene blue (cationic) and congo red (anionic). The current study presents investigations on a novel two-tier nanocomposite membrane, i.e., a top layer formed of electrosprayed chitosan–graphene oxide and a bottom layer consisting of an ethylene diamine functionalized polyacrylonitrile electrospun nanofiber for the simultaneous removal of the congo red and methylene blue dyes. The fabricated nanocomposite was characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and Drop Shape Analyzer. Isotherm modeling was used to determine the efficiency of dye adsorption for the electrosprayed nanocomposite membrane and the confirmed maximum adsorptive capacities of 182.5 mg/g for congo red and 219.3 mg/g for methylene blue, which fits with the Langmuir isotherm model, suggesting uniform single-layer adsorption. It was also discovered that the adsorbent preferred an acidic pH level for the removal of congo red and a basic pH level for the removal of methylene blue. The gained results can be a first step for the development of new wastewater cleaning techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Textiles)
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13 pages, 3741 KiB  
Article
Development of Carbon-Nanodot-Loaded PLA Nanofibers and Study of Their Barrier Performance for Medical Applications
by Muhammad Usman Munir, Thomas Mayer-Gall, Jochen S. Gutmann, Wael Ali, Omid Etemad-Parishanzadeh, Haleema Khanzada and Daiva Mikučioniene
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(7), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13071195 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the usage of personal protective equipment (PPE) all round the world and, in turn, it has also increased the waste caused by disposable PPE. This has exerted a severe environmental impact, so in our work, we propose the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the usage of personal protective equipment (PPE) all round the world and, in turn, it has also increased the waste caused by disposable PPE. This has exerted a severe environmental impact, so in our work, we propose the utilization of a sustainable electrospun nanofiber based on poly lactic acid (PLA), as it is biobased and conditionally degradable. We optimized the weight percentage of the PLA-precursor solution and found that 19% PLA produces fine nanofibers with good morphology. We also introduced carbon nanodots (CNDs) in the nanofibers and evaluated their antibacterial efficiency. We used 1, 2, 3, and 4% CNDs with 19% PLA and found increased antibacterial activity with increased concentrations of CNDs. Additionally, we also applied a spunbond-nanofiber layered assembly for the medical face masks and found that with the addition of only 0.45 mg/cm2 on the nonwoven sheet, excellent particle filtration efficiency of 96.5% and a differential pressure of 39 Pa/cm2 were achieved, meeting the basic requirements for Type I medical face masks (ASTM-F2100). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Textiles)
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17 pages, 3745 KiB  
Article
Investigation on the Mass Distribution and Chemical Compositions of Various Ionic Liquids-Extracted Coal Fragments and Their Effects on the Electrochemical Performance of Coal-Derived Carbon Nanofibers (CCNFs)
by Shuai Tan, Theodore John Kraus, Mitchell Ross Helling, Rudolph Kurtzer Mignon, Franco Basile and Katie Dongmei Li-Oakey
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030664 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Coal-derived carbon nanofibers (CCNFs) have been recently found to be a promising and low-cost electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors. However, the knowledge gap still exists between holistic understanding of coal precursors derived from different solvents and resulting CCNFs’ properties, prohibiting further optimization of [...] Read more.
Coal-derived carbon nanofibers (CCNFs) have been recently found to be a promising and low-cost electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors. However, the knowledge gap still exists between holistic understanding of coal precursors derived from different solvents and resulting CCNFs’ properties, prohibiting further optimization of their electrochemical performance. In this paper, assisted by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technologies, a systematic study was performed to holistically characterize mass distribution and chemical composition of coal precursors derived from various ionic liquids (ILs) as extractants. Sequentially, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the differences in chemical properties of various coal products significantly affected the surface oxygen concentrations and certain species distributions on the CCNFs, which, in turn, determined the electrochemical performances of CCNFs as electrode materials. We report that the CCNF that was produced by an oxygen-rich coal fragment from C6mimCl ionic liquid extraction showed the highest concentrations of quinone and ester groups on the surface. Consequentially, C6mimCl-CCNF achieved the highest specific capacitance and lowest ion diffusion resistance. Finally, a symmetric carbon/carbon supercapacitor fabricated with such CCNF as electrode delivered an energy density of 21.1 Wh/kg at the power density of 0.6 kW/kg, which is comparable to commercial active carbon supercapacitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Textiles)
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