molecules-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Advances in Glycosciences

A topical collection in Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This collection belongs to the section "Chemical Biology".

Viewed by 168081

Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), University of Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: carbohydrate chemistry; molecular recognition; cyclodextrins; supramolecular self-assembling systems; drug and gene delivery

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland
Interests: carbohydrate chemistry; glycoconjugates; glycopeptides; glycolipids; glycomimetics; molecular scaffolds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advancements in synthetic methods, molecular biology and analytical techniques have evidenced the key roles that carbohydrates and their conjugates (from simple saccharide units to complex glycans) play in biological processes, such as protein folding, infection, cancer and immune recognition. Despite of the significant achievements in recent years, a number of challenges still remain to be addressed in the field of Glycoscience. Carbohydrate chemists can contribute to the development of robust methodologies for the preparation of synthetic glycans, glycomimetics and glycoconjugates. Carbohydrate-based sensors can serve as tools to interrogate the intricate mechanisms of carbohydrate recognition in biological environments. Hierarchical control over glycan display in macromolecular scaffolds might furnish nanometric probes to interfere biological processes with tailored purposes. New analytical techniques can lead to glycan profiling for identification of disease biomarkers. Research in Glycoscience can lead to breakthroughs in the development of new therapeutics, vaccines, diagnostic and delivery tools, among other biomedical applications.

The Topical Collection “Advances in Glycosciences” aims to highlight the breadth of topics of interest for the scientific community in the Glycosciences and provide some recent examples of significant advances in the field.

We invite you to submit research articles and comprehensive reviews related to the above topics to this Topical Collection, part of the journal Molecules. Contributions addressing research in Glycosicence and carbohydrate chemistry in general, will also be suitable for the scope of publication in this collection.

Dr. Juan M. Benito
Dr. Trinidad Velasco-Torrijos
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • glycoconjugates
  • carbohydrate chemistry
  • glycodrugs
  • glycoprobes
  • glyconanomaterials
  • carbohydrate recognition

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (43 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

33 pages, 4277 KiB  
Review
Glycosylation Modulates the Structure and Functions of Collagen: A Review
by Igor Tvaroška
Molecules 2024, 29(7), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29071417 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Collagens are fundamental constituents of the extracellular matrix and are the most abundant proteins in mammals. Collagens belong to the family of fibrous or fiber-forming proteins that self-assemble into fibrils that define their mechanical properties and biological functions. Up to now, 28 members [...] Read more.
Collagens are fundamental constituents of the extracellular matrix and are the most abundant proteins in mammals. Collagens belong to the family of fibrous or fiber-forming proteins that self-assemble into fibrils that define their mechanical properties and biological functions. Up to now, 28 members of the collagen superfamily have been recognized. Collagen biosynthesis occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum, where specific post-translational modification—glycosylation—is also carried out. The glycosylation of collagens is very specific and adds β-d-galactopyranose and β-d-Glcp-(1→2)-d-Galp disaccharide through β-O-linkage to hydroxylysine. Several glycosyltransferases, namely COLGALT1, COLGALT2, LH3, and PGGHG glucosidase, were associated the with glycosylation of collagens, and recently, the crystal structure of LH3 has been solved. Although not fully understood, it is clear that the glycosylation of collagens influences collagen secretion and the alignment of collagen fibrils. A growing body of evidence also associates the glycosylation of collagen with its functions and various human diseases. Recent progress in understanding collagen glycosylation allows for the exploitation of its therapeutic potential and the discovery of new agents. This review will discuss the relevant contributions to understanding the glycosylation of collagens. Then, glycosyltransferases involved in collagen glycosylation, their structure, and catalytic mechanism will be surveyed. Furthermore, the involvement of glycosylation in collagen functions and collagen glycosylation-related diseases will be discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 15348 KiB  
Article
Tailoring the Formation of Functionalized Furans from Glucose in Water with Nature-Sourced Catalysts and In Situ NMR
by Stefan S. Warthegau and Sebastian Meier
Molecules 2024, 29(6), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29061368 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Chain elongation of unprotected carbohydrates in water under mild conditions remains a challenge both in chemical and biochemical synthesis. The Knoevenagel addition or condensation enables transformations to bioactive scaffolds for pharmaceutical and agrochemical compounds. Unfortunately, the catalysts in use for these transformations often [...] Read more.
Chain elongation of unprotected carbohydrates in water under mild conditions remains a challenge both in chemical and biochemical synthesis. The Knoevenagel addition or condensation enables transformations to bioactive scaffolds for pharmaceutical and agrochemical compounds. Unfortunately, the catalysts in use for these transformations often reduce the green metrics of the transformations. Here, we use in situ NMR visualizations to explore the prospective use of natural catalysts for the synthesis of triple- and quadruple-functionalized furan- or dihydrofuran-derivatives from glucose and malononitrile. The dihydrofuran derivatives are formed as kinetic, major intermediates in the pathway to furan derivatives when using naturally abundant MgO or bio-sourced chitosan and N-Methyl-d-glucamine (meglumine) as the catalysts in water. Both catalyst loading, solvent composition and pH can be adapted to populate dihydrofurans with four substituents by slowing down their further reactions. Higher temperatures and higher pH values favor the formation of triple-functionalized furans over quadruple-substituted dihydrofurans, which may be bicyclic or monocyclic. Compared to more traditional catalysts, nature-sourced options offer more sustainable options that emulate natural processes. Visualization with in situ NMR contributes to streamlining the development of cheap and environmentally benign procedures for carbohydrate chain elongation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 7959 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Dihydrofuro[3,2-b]piperidine Derivatives as Potent α-Glucosidase Inhibitors
by Haibo Wang, Xiaojiang Huang, Yang Pan, Guoqing Zhang, Senling Tang, Huawu Shao and Wei Jiao
Molecules 2024, 29(5), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29051179 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Inhibition of glycoside hydrolases has widespread application in the treatment of diabetes. Based on our previous findings, a series of dihydrofuro[3,2-b]piperidine derivatives was designed and synthesized from D- and L-arabinose. Compounds 32 (IC50 = 0.07 μM) and 28 (IC50 [...] Read more.
Inhibition of glycoside hydrolases has widespread application in the treatment of diabetes. Based on our previous findings, a series of dihydrofuro[3,2-b]piperidine derivatives was designed and synthesized from D- and L-arabinose. Compounds 32 (IC50 = 0.07 μM) and 28 (IC50 = 0.5 μM) showed significantly stronger inhibitory potency against α-glucosidase than positive control acarbose. The study of the structure–activity relationship of these compounds provides a new clue for the development of new α-glucosidase inhibitors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

35 pages, 1808 KiB  
Article
Innovative Metrics for Reporting and Comparing the Glycan Structural Profile in Biotherapeutics
by Renato Mastrangeli, Abhijeet Satwekar and Horst Bierau
Molecules 2023, 28(8), 3304; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28083304 - 7 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2102
Abstract
Glycosylation is a critical quality attribute in biotherapeutics, impacting properties such as protein stability, solubility, clearance rate, efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety. Due to the heterogenic and complex nature of protein glycosylation, comprehensive characterization is demanding. Moreover, the lack of standardized metrics for evaluating [...] Read more.
Glycosylation is a critical quality attribute in biotherapeutics, impacting properties such as protein stability, solubility, clearance rate, efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety. Due to the heterogenic and complex nature of protein glycosylation, comprehensive characterization is demanding. Moreover, the lack of standardized metrics for evaluating and comparing glycosylation profiles hinders comparability studies and the establishment of manufacturing control strategies. To address both challenges, we propose a standardized approach based on novel metrics for a comprehensive glycosylation fingerprint which greatly facilitates the reporting and objective comparison of glycosylation profiles. The analytical workflow is based on a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based multi-attribute method. Based on the analytical data, a matrix of glycosylation-related quality attributes, both at site-specific and whole molecule level, are computed, which provide metrics for a comprehensive product glycosylation fingerprint. Two case studies illustrate the applicability of the proposed indices as a standardized and versatile approach for reporting all dimensions of the glycosylation profile. The proposed approach further facilitates the assessments of risks associated with changes in the glycosylation profile that may affect efficacy, clearance, and immunogenicity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 13392 KiB  
Article
Expression and Characterisation of the First Snail-Derived UDP-Gal: Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine β-1,3-Galactosyltransferase (T-Synthase) from Biomphalaria glabrata
by Marilica Zemkollari, Markus Blaukopf, Reingard Grabherr and Erika Staudacher
Molecules 2023, 28(2), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28020552 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
UDP-Gal: glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine β-1,3-galactosyltransferase (T-synthase, EC 2.4.1.122) catalyses the transfer of the monosaccharide galactose from UDP-Gal to GalNAc-Ser/Thr, synthesizing the core 1 mucin type O-glycan. Such glycans play important biological roles in a number of recognition processes. The crucial role of these glycans is [...] Read more.
UDP-Gal: glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine β-1,3-galactosyltransferase (T-synthase, EC 2.4.1.122) catalyses the transfer of the monosaccharide galactose from UDP-Gal to GalNAc-Ser/Thr, synthesizing the core 1 mucin type O-glycan. Such glycans play important biological roles in a number of recognition processes. The crucial role of these glycans is acknowledged for mammals, but a lot remains unknown regarding invertebrate and especially mollusc O-glycosylation. Although core O-glycans have been found in snails, no core 1 β-1,3-galactosyltransferase has been described so far. Here, the sequence of the enzyme was identified by a BlastP search of the NCBI Biomphalaria glabrata database using the human T-synthase sequence (NP_064541.1) as a template. The obtained gene codes for a 388 amino acids long transmembrane protein with two putative N-glycosylation sites. The coding sequence was synthesised and expressed in Sf9 cells. The expression product of the putative enzyme displayed core 1 β-1,3-galactosyltransferase activity using pNP-α-GalNAc as the substrate. The enzyme showed some sequence homology (49.40% with Homo sapiens, 53.69% with Drosophila melanogaster and 49.14% with Caenorhabditis elegans) and similar biochemical parameters with previously characterized T-synthases from other phyla. In this study we present the identification, expression and characterisation of the UDP-Gal: glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine β-1,3-galactosyltransferase from the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, which is the first cloned T-synthase from mollusc origin. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021, 2020, 2018, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

18 pages, 3300 KiB  
Article
Deacetylation and Desuccinylation of the Fucose-Rich Polysaccharide Fucopol: Impact on Biopolymer Physical and Chemical Properties
by Sílvia Baptista, Diana Araújo, Patrícia Concórdio-Reis, Ana C. Marques, Elvira Fortunato, Vítor D. Alves and Filomena Freitas
Molecules 2022, 27(21), 7165; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217165 - 23 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
FucoPol is an acylated polysaccharide with demonstrated valuable functional properties that include a shear thinning fluid behaviour, a film-forming capacity, and an emulsion forming and stabilizing capacity. In this study, the different conditions (concentration, temperature, and time) for alkaline treatment were investigated to [...] Read more.
FucoPol is an acylated polysaccharide with demonstrated valuable functional properties that include a shear thinning fluid behaviour, a film-forming capacity, and an emulsion forming and stabilizing capacity. In this study, the different conditions (concentration, temperature, and time) for alkaline treatment were investigated to deacylate FucoPol. Complete deacetylation and desuccinylation was achieved with 0.02 M NaOH, at 60 °C for 15 min, with no significant impact on the biopolymer’s sugar composition, pyruvate content, and molecular mass distribution. FucoPol depyruvylation by acid hydrolysis was attempted, but it resulted in a very low polymer recovery. The effect of the ionic strength, pH, and temperature on the deacetylated/desuccinylated polysaccharide, d-FucoPol, was evaluated, as well as its emulsion and film-forming capacity. d-FucoPol aqueous solutions maintained the shear thinning behaviour characteristic of FucoPol, but the apparent viscosity decreased significantly. Moreover, contrary to FucoPol, whose solutions were not affected by the media’s ionic strength, the d-FucoPol solutions had a significantly higher apparent viscosity for a higher ionic strength. On the other hand, the d-FucoPol solutions were not affected by the pH in the range of 3.6–11.5, while FucoPol had a decreased viscosity for acidic pH values and for a pH above 10.5. Although d-FucoPol displayed an emulsification activity for olive oil similar to that of FucoPol (98 ± 0%) for an oil-to-water ratio of 2:3, the emulsions were less viscous. The d-FucoPol films were flexible, with a higher Young′s modulus (798 ± 152 MPa), a stress at the break (22.5 ± 2.5 MPa), and an elongation at the break (9.3 ± 0.7%) than FucoPol (458 ± 32 MPa, 15.5 ± 0.3 MPa and 8.1 ± 1.0%, respectively). Given these findings, d-FucoPol arises as a promising novel biopolymer, with distinctive properties that may render it useful for utilization as a suspending or emulsifier agent, and as a barrier in coatings and packaging films. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1563 KiB  
Article
A Branched and Double Alpha-Gal-Bearing Synthetic Neoglycoprotein as a Biomarker for Chagas Disease
by Alba L. Montoya, Elisa G. Carvajal, Uriel Ortega-Rodriguez, Igor L. Estevao, Roger A. Ashmus, Sohan R. Jankuru, Susana Portillo, Cameron C. Ellis, Colin D. Knight, Julio Alonso-Padilla, Luis Izquierdo, Maria-Jesus Pinazo, Joaquim Gascon, Veronica Suarez, Douglas M. Watts, Iliana R. Malo, Janine M. Ramsey, Belkisyolé Alarcón De Noya, Oscar Noya, Igor C. Almeida and Katja Michaeladd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Molecules 2022, 27(17), 5714; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27175714 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2685
Abstract
Chagas disease (CD) is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and affects 6–7 million people worldwide. The diagnosis is still challenging, due to extensive parasite diversity encompassing seven genotypes (TcI-VI and Tcbat) with diverse ecoepidemiological, biological, and pathological traits. Chemotherapeutic intervention is usually [...] Read more.
Chagas disease (CD) is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and affects 6–7 million people worldwide. The diagnosis is still challenging, due to extensive parasite diversity encompassing seven genotypes (TcI-VI and Tcbat) with diverse ecoepidemiological, biological, and pathological traits. Chemotherapeutic intervention is usually effective but associated with severe adverse events. The development of safer, more effective therapies is hampered by the lack of biomarker(s) (BMKs) for the early assessment of therapeutic outcomes. The mammal-dwelling trypomastigote parasite stage expresses glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucins (tGPI-MUC), whose O-glycans are mostly branched with terminal, nonreducing α-galactopyranosyl (α-Gal) glycotopes. These are absent in humans, and thus highly immunogenic and inducers of specific CD anti-α-Gal antibodies. In search for α-Gal-based BMKs, here we describe the synthesis of neoglycoprotein NGP11b, comprised of a carrier protein decorated with the branched trisaccharide Galα(1,2)[Galα(1,6)]Galβ. By chemiluminescent immunoassay using sera/plasma from chronic CD (CCD) patients from Venezuela and Mexico and healthy controls, NGP11b exhibited sensitivity and specificity similar to that of tGPI-MUC from genotype TcI, predominant in those countries. Preliminary evaluation of CCD patients subjected to chemotherapy showed a significant reduction in anti-α-Gal antibody reactivity to NGP11b. Our data indicated that NGP11b is a potential BMK for diagnosis and treatment assessment in CCD patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2020, 2018, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

17 pages, 24668 KiB  
Article
HIV-1 Tat and Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Orchestrate the Setup of in Cis and in Trans Cell-Surface Interactions Functional to Lymphocyte Trans-Endothelial Migration
by Chiara Urbinati, Maria Milanesi, Nicola Lauro, Cinzia Bertelli, Guido David, Pasqualina D’Ursi, Marco Rusnati and Paola Chiodelli
Molecules 2021, 26(24), 7488; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247488 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2532
Abstract
HIV-1 transactivating factor Tat is released by infected cells. Extracellular Tat homodimerizes and engages several receptors, including integrins, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) syndecan-1 expressed on various cells. By means of experimental cell models recapitulating the [...] Read more.
HIV-1 transactivating factor Tat is released by infected cells. Extracellular Tat homodimerizes and engages several receptors, including integrins, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) syndecan-1 expressed on various cells. By means of experimental cell models recapitulating the processes of lymphocyte trans-endothelial migration, here, we demonstrate that upon association with syndecan-1 expressed on lymphocytes, Tat triggers simultaneously the in cis activation of lymphocytes themselves and the in trans activation of endothelial cells (ECs). This “two-way” activation eventually induces lymphocyte adhesion and spreading onto the substrate and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin reorganization at the EC junctions, with consequent endothelial permeabilization, leading to an increased extravasation of Tat-presenting lymphocytes. By means of a panel of biochemical activation assays and specific synthetic inhibitors, we demonstrate that during the above-mentioned processes, syndecan-1, integrins, FAK, src and ERK1/2 engagement and activation are needed in the lymphocytes, while VEGFR2, integrin, src and ERK1/2 are needed in the endothelium. In conclusion, the Tat/syndecan-1 complex plays a central role in orchestrating the setup of the various in cis and in trans multimeric complexes at the EC/lymphocyte interface. Thus, by means of computational molecular modelling, docking and dynamics, we also provide a characterization at an atomic level of the binding modes of the Tat/heparin interaction, with heparin herein used as a structural analogue of the heparan sulfate chains of syndecan-1. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2020

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2018, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

22 pages, 5552 KiB  
Article
Specific Non-Reducing Ends in Heparins from Different Animal Origins: Building Blocks Analysis Using Reductive Amination Tagging by Sulfanilic Acid
by Pierre A. J. Mourier
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5553; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235553 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2625
Abstract
Heparins are linear sulfated polysaccharides widely used as anticoagulant drugs. Their nonreducing-end (NRE) has been little investigated due to challenges in their characterization, but is known to be partly generated by enzymatic cleavage with heparanases, resulting in N-sulfated glucosamines at the NRE. [...] Read more.
Heparins are linear sulfated polysaccharides widely used as anticoagulant drugs. Their nonreducing-end (NRE) has been little investigated due to challenges in their characterization, but is known to be partly generated by enzymatic cleavage with heparanases, resulting in N-sulfated glucosamines at the NRE. Uronic NRE (specifically glucuronic acids) have been isolated from porcine heparin, with GlcA-GlcNS,3S,6S identified as a porcine-specific NRE marker. To further characterize NRE in heparinoids, a building block analysis involving exhaustive heparinase digestion and subsequent reductive amination with sulfanilic acid was performed. This study describes a new method for identifying heparin classical building blocks and novel NRE building blocks using strong anion exchange chromatography on AS11 columns for the assay, and ion-pair liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for building block identification. Porcine, ovine, and bovine intestine heparins were analyzed. Generally, NRE on these three heparins are highly sulfated moieties, particularly with 3-O sulfates, and the observed composition of the NRE is highly dependent on heparin origin. At the highest level of specificity, the isolated marker was only detected in porcine heparin. However, the proportion of glucosamines in the NRE and the proportion of glucuronic/iduronic configurations in the NRE uronic moieties greatly varied between heparin types. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2018

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

11 pages, 1494 KiB  
Technical Note
SugarSketcher: Quick and Intuitive Online Glycan Drawing
by Davide Alocci, Pavla Suchánková, Renaud Costa, Nicolas Hory, Julien Mariethoz, Radka Svobodová Vařeková, Philip Toukach and Frédérique Lisacek
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3206; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123206 - 5 Dec 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6019
Abstract
SugarSketcher is an intuitive and fast JavaScript interface module for online drawing of glycan structures in the popular Symbol Nomenclature for Glycans (SNFG) notation and exporting them to various commonly used formats encoding carbohydrate sequences (e.g., GlycoCT) or quality images (e.g., svg). It [...] Read more.
SugarSketcher is an intuitive and fast JavaScript interface module for online drawing of glycan structures in the popular Symbol Nomenclature for Glycans (SNFG) notation and exporting them to various commonly used formats encoding carbohydrate sequences (e.g., GlycoCT) or quality images (e.g., svg). It does not require a backend server or any specific browser plugins and can be integrated in any web glycoinformatics project. SugarSketcher allows drawing glycans both for glycobiologists and non-expert users. The “quick mode” allows a newcomer to build up a glycan structure having only a limited knowledge in carbohydrate chemistry. The “normal mode” integrates advanced options which enable glycobiologists to tailor complex carbohydrate structures. The source code is freely available on GitHub and glycoinformaticians are encouraged to participate in the development process while users are invited to test a prototype available on the ExPASY web-site and send feedback. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2269 KiB  
Article
A Novel Integrated Way for Deciphering the Glycan Code for the FimH Lectin
by Tetiana Dumych, Clarisse Bridot, Sébastien G. Gouin, Marc F. Lensink, Solomiya Paryzhak, Sabine Szunerits, Ralf Blossey, Rostyslav Bilyy, Julie Bouckaert and Eva-Maria Krammer
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2794; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112794 - 28 Oct 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3990
Abstract
The fimbrial lectin FimH from uro- and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli binds with nanomolar affinity to oligomannose glycans exposing Manα1,3Man dimannosides at their non-reducing end, but only with micromolar affinities to Manα1,2Man dimannosides. These two dimannoses play a significantly distinct role in infection by [...] Read more.
The fimbrial lectin FimH from uro- and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli binds with nanomolar affinity to oligomannose glycans exposing Manα1,3Man dimannosides at their non-reducing end, but only with micromolar affinities to Manα1,2Man dimannosides. These two dimannoses play a significantly distinct role in infection by E. coli. Manα1,2Man has been described early on as shielding the (Manα1,3Man) glycan that is more relevant to strong bacterial adhesion and invasion. We quantified the binding of the two dimannoses (Manα1,2Man and Manα1,3Man to FimH using ELLSA and isothermal microcalorimetry and calculated probabilities of binding modes using molecular dynamics simulations. Our experimentally and computationally determined binding energies confirm a higher affinity of FimH towards the dimannose Manα1,3Man. Manα1,2Man displays a much lower binding enthalpy combined with a high entropic gain. Most remarkably, our molecular dynamics simulations indicate that Manα1,2Man cannot easily take its major conformer from water into the FimH binding site and that FimH is interacting with two very different conformers of Manα1,2Man that occupy 42% and 28% respectively of conformational space. The finding that Manα1,2Man binding to FimH is unstable agrees with the earlier suggestion that E. coli may use the Manα1,2Man epitope for transient tethering along cell surfaces in order to enhance dispersion of the infection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1949 KiB  
Review
Applications of Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology
by Yuqing Mu, Benjamin L. Schulz and Vito Ferro
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2557; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102557 - 7 Oct 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4565
Abstract
Carbohydrate analyses are often challenging due to the structural complexity of these molecules, as well as the lack of suitable analytical tools for distinguishing the vast number of possible isomers. The coupled technique, ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), has been in use for two [...] Read more.
Carbohydrate analyses are often challenging due to the structural complexity of these molecules, as well as the lack of suitable analytical tools for distinguishing the vast number of possible isomers. The coupled technique, ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), has been in use for two decades for the analysis of complex biomolecules, and in recent years it has emerged as a powerful technique for the analysis of carbohydrates. For carbohydrates, most studies have focused on the separation and characterization of isomers in biological samples. IM-MS is capable of separating isomeric ions by drift time, and further characterizing them by mass analysis. Applications of IM-MS in carbohydrate analysis are extremely useful and important for understanding many biological mechanisms and for the determination of disease states, although efforts are still needed for higher sensitivity and resolution. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

27 pages, 2488 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation of Biological Activity of Glycoconjugates Analogues of Acyclic Uridine Derivatives
by Roman Komor, Gabriela Pastuch-Gawolek, Ewelina Krol and Wieslaw Szeja
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082017 - 13 Aug 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3577
Abstract
Herein we present the methodology for obtaining glycosyltransferase inhibitors, analogues of natural enzyme substrates of donor-type: UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose. The synthesis concerned glycoconjugates, nucleoside analogues containing an acyclic ribose mimetic linked to a uracil moiety in their structure. The biological activity of the [...] Read more.
Herein we present the methodology for obtaining glycosyltransferase inhibitors, analogues of natural enzyme substrates of donor-type: UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose. The synthesis concerned glycoconjugates, nucleoside analogues containing an acyclic ribose mimetic linked to a uracil moiety in their structure. The biological activity of the synthesised compounds was determined on the basis of their ability to inhibit the model enzyme action of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase from bovine milk. The obtained results allowed to expand and supplement the existing library of synthetic compounds that are able to regulate the biological activity of enzymes from the GT class. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

24 pages, 6763 KiB  
Article
Novel Uridine Glycoconjugates, Derivatives of 4-Aminophenyl 1-Thioglycosides, as Potential Antiviral Compounds
by Ewelina Krol, Gabriela Pastuch-Gawolek, Binay Chaubey, Gabriela Brzuska, Karol Erfurt and Boguslaw Szewczyk
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061435 - 13 Jun 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3818
Abstract
A novel series of uridine glycoconjugates, derivatives of 4-aminophenyl 1-thioglycosides, was designed and synthesized. All compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV), two important human and animal viral pathogens for [...] Read more.
A novel series of uridine glycoconjugates, derivatives of 4-aminophenyl 1-thioglycosides, was designed and synthesized. All compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV), two important human and animal viral pathogens for which new or improved therapeutic options are needed. The antiviral activity of all synthesized compounds was confirmed using pseudo-plaque reduction assays in which a significant arrest of CSFV and HCV growth was observed in the presence of these compounds. Two of the synthesized compounds, 9 and 12, displayed a significant inhibitory effect on HCV and CSFV propagation with IC50 values of 4.9 and 13.5 µM for HCV and 4.2 and 4 µM for CSFV, respectively, with low cytotoxicity. Using various infection and replication models, we have shown that both compounds were able to significantly reduce viral genome replication by up to 90% with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. A structure activity analysis of the synthesized compounds showed that the high antiviral activity was attributed to the hydrophobicity of glycoconjugates and the introduction of elements capable to coordinate metal ions into the spacer connecting the sugar and uridine moiety, which can be useful in the development of new antiviral compounds in the future. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

2016

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

1951 KiB  
Article
Investigating Glycol-Split-Heparin-Derived Inhibitors of Heparanase: A Study of Synthetic Trisaccharides
by Minghong Ni, Stefano Elli, Annamaria Naggi, Marco Guerrini, Giangiacomo Torri and Maurice Petitou
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21111602 - 23 Nov 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5772
Abstract
Heparanase is the only known endoglycosidase able to cleave heparan sulfate. Roneparstat and necuparanib, heparanase inhibitors obtained from heparin and currently being tested in man as a potential drugs against cancer, contain in their structure glycol-split uronic acid moieties probably responsible for their [...] Read more.
Heparanase is the only known endoglycosidase able to cleave heparan sulfate. Roneparstat and necuparanib, heparanase inhibitors obtained from heparin and currently being tested in man as a potential drugs against cancer, contain in their structure glycol-split uronic acid moieties probably responsible for their strong inhibitory activity. We describe here the total chemical synthesis of the trisaccharide GlcNS6S-GlcA-1,6anGlcNS (1) and its glycol-split (gs) counterpart GlcNS6S-gsGlcA-1,6anGlcNS (2) from glucose. As expected, in a heparanase inhibition assay, compound 2 is one order of magnitude more potent than 1. Using molecular modeling techniques we have created a 3D model of 1 and 2 that has been validated by NOESY NMR experiments. The pure synthetic oligosaccharides have allowed the first in depth study of the conformation of a glycol-split glucuronic acid. Introducing a glycol-split unit in the structure of 1 increases the conformational flexibility and shortens the distance between the two glucosamine motives, thus promoting interaction with heparanase. However, comparing the relative activities of 2 and roneparstat, we can conclude that the glycol-split motive is not the only determinant of the strong inhibitory effect of roneparstat. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12236 KiB  
Review
Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitors: Synthetic Approaches, Derivatives and Biological Activity
by Pedro Laborda, Su-Yan Wang and Josef Voglmeir
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21111513 - 11 Nov 2016
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 20588
Abstract
Despite being a common viral disease, influenza has very negative consequences, causing the death of around half a million people each year. A neuraminidase located on the surface of the virus plays an important role in viral reproduction by contributing to the release [...] Read more.
Despite being a common viral disease, influenza has very negative consequences, causing the death of around half a million people each year. A neuraminidase located on the surface of the virus plays an important role in viral reproduction by contributing to the release of viruses from infected host cells. The treatment of influenza is mainly based on the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors. The neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir, laninamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir have been commercialized and have been demonstrated to be potent influenza viral neuraminidase inhibitors against most influenza strains. In order to create more potent neuraminidase inhibitors and fight against the surge in resistance resulting from naturally-occurring mutations, these anti-influenza drugs have been used as templates for the development of new neuraminidase inhibitors through structure-activity relationship studies. Here, we review the synthetic routes to these commercial drugs, the modifications which have been performed on these structures and the effects of these modifications on their inhibitory activity. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

1267 KiB  
Article
A Modular Synthetic Approach to Isosteric Sulfonic Acid Analogues of the Anticoagulant Pentasaccharide Idraparinux
by Erika Mező, Dániel Eszenyi, Eszter Varga, Mihály Herczeg and Anikó Borbás
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21111497 - 11 Nov 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5275
Abstract
Heparin-based anticoagulants are drugs of choice in the therapy and prophylaxis of thromboembolic diseases. Idraparinux is a synthetic anticoagulant pentasaccharide based on the heparin antithrombin-binding domain. In the frame of our ongoing research aimed at the synthesis of sulfonic acid-containing heparinoid anticoagulants, we [...] Read more.
Heparin-based anticoagulants are drugs of choice in the therapy and prophylaxis of thromboembolic diseases. Idraparinux is a synthetic anticoagulant pentasaccharide based on the heparin antithrombin-binding domain. In the frame of our ongoing research aimed at the synthesis of sulfonic acid-containing heparinoid anticoagulants, we elaborated a modular pathway to obtain a series of idraparinux-analogue pentasaccharides bearing one or two primary sulfonic acid moieties. Five protected pentasaccharides with different C-sulfonation patterns were prepared by two subsequent glycosylation reactions, respectively, using two monosaccharide and four disaccharide building blocks. Transformation of the protected derivatives into the fully O-sulfated, O-methylated sulfonic acid end-products was also studied. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2014 KiB  
Article
Agavins Increase Neurotrophic Factors and Decrease Oxidative Stress in the Brains of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
by Elena Franco-Robles and Mercedes G. López
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21080998 - 2 Aug 2016
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 9079
Abstract
Background: Fructans obtained from agave, called agavins, have recently shown significant benefits for human health including obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the potential of agavins as neuroprotectors and antioxidants by determining their effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as [...] Read more.
Background: Fructans obtained from agave, called agavins, have recently shown significant benefits for human health including obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the potential of agavins as neuroprotectors and antioxidants by determining their effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as well as oxidative brain damage in of obese mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated daily with 5% (HFD/A5) or 10% (HFD/A10) of agavins or a standard diet (SD) for 10 weeks. The levels of BDNF and GDNF were evaluated by ELISA. The oxidative stress was evaluated by lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and carbonyls. SCFAs were also measured with GC-FID. Differences between groups were assessed using ANOVA and by Tukey’s test considering p < 0.05. Results: The body weight gain and food intake of mice HFD/A10 group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. Agavins restored BDNF levels in HFD/A5 group and GDNF levels of HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 groups in cerebellum. Interestingly, agavins decreased TBARS levels in HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 groups in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebellum. Carbonyl levels were also lower in HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 for only the hippocampus and cerebellum. It was also found that agavins enhanced SCFAs production in feces. Conclusion: Agavins may act as bioactive ingredients with antioxidant and protective roles in the brain. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11736 KiB  
Review
Multivalent Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions: How Synthetic Chemistry Enables Insights into Nanometric Recognition
by René Roy, Paul V. Murphy and Hans-Joachim Gabius
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050629 - 13 May 2016
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 11218
Abstract
Glycan recognition by sugar receptors (lectins) is intimately involved in many aspects of cell physiology. However, the factors explaining the exquisite selectivity of their functional pairing are not yet fully understood. Studies toward this aim will also help appraise the potential for lectin-directed [...] Read more.
Glycan recognition by sugar receptors (lectins) is intimately involved in many aspects of cell physiology. However, the factors explaining the exquisite selectivity of their functional pairing are not yet fully understood. Studies toward this aim will also help appraise the potential for lectin-directed drug design. With the network of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins as therapeutic targets, the strategy to recruit synthetic chemistry to systematically elucidate structure-activity relationships is outlined, from monovalent compounds to glyco-clusters and glycodendrimers to biomimetic surfaces. The versatility of the synthetic procedures enables to take examining structural and spatial parameters, alone and in combination, to its limits, for example with the aim to produce inhibitors for distinct galectin(s) that exhibit minimal reactivity to other members of this group. Shaping spatial architectures similar to glycoconjugate aggregates, microdomains or vesicles provides attractive tools to disclose the often still hidden significance of nanometric aspects of the different modes of lectin design (sequence divergence at the lectin site, differences of spatial type of lectin-site presentation). Of note, testing the effectors alone or in combination simulating (patho)physiological conditions, is sure to bring about new insights into the cooperation between lectins and the regulation of their activity. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

4488 KiB  
Article
Efficient Synthesis of the Lewis A Tandem Repeat
by Daisuke Kobayashi, Akiharu Ueki, Tomoya Yamaji, Kazuya Nagao, Akihiro Imamura, Hiromune Ando, Makoto Kiso and Hideharu Ishida
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050614 - 11 May 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5527
Abstract
The convergent synthesis of the Lewis A (Lea) tandem repeat is described. The Lea tandem repeat is a carbohydrate ligand for a mannose binding protein that shows potent inhibitory activity against carcinoma growth. The Lea unit, {β-d-Gal-(1→3)-[α- [...] Read more.
The convergent synthesis of the Lewis A (Lea) tandem repeat is described. The Lea tandem repeat is a carbohydrate ligand for a mannose binding protein that shows potent inhibitory activity against carcinoma growth. The Lea unit, {β-d-Gal-(1→3)-[α-l-Fuc-(1→4)]-β-d-GlcNAc}, was synthesized by stereoselective nitrile-assisted β-galactosylation with the phenyl 3-O-allyl-2,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-1-thio-β-galactoside, and ether-assisted α-fucosylation with fucosyl (N-phenyl)trifluoroacetimidate. This common Lea unit was easily converted to an acceptor and donor in high yields, and the stereoselective assembly of the hexasaccharide and dodecasaccharide as the Lea tandem repeat framework was achieved by 2-trichloroacetamido-assisted β-glycosylation and the (N-phenyl)trifluoroacetimidate method. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

1058 KiB  
Review
Polysaccharides from the Marine Environment with Pharmacological, Cosmeceutical and Nutraceutical Potential
by Nadia Ruocco, Susan Costantini, Stefano Guariniello and Maria Costantini
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050551 - 27 Apr 2016
Cited by 184 | Viewed by 15109
Abstract
Carbohydrates, also called saccharides, are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are the most abundant biomolecules and essential components of many natural products and have attracted the attention of researchers because of their numerous human health benefits. Among carbohydrates the polysaccharides [...] Read more.
Carbohydrates, also called saccharides, are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are the most abundant biomolecules and essential components of many natural products and have attracted the attention of researchers because of their numerous human health benefits. Among carbohydrates the polysaccharides represent some of the most abundant bioactive substances in marine organisms. In fact, many marine macro- and microorganisms are good resources of carbohydrates with diverse applications due to their biofunctional properties. By acting on cell proliferation and cycle, and by modulating different metabolic pathways, marine polysaccharides (including mainly chitin, chitosan, fucoidan, carrageenan and alginate) also have numerous pharmaceutical activities, such as antioxidative, antibacterial, antiviral, immuno-stimulatory, anticoagulant and anticancer effects. Moreover, these polysaccharides have many general beneficial effects for human health, and have therefore been developed into potential cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. In this review we describe current advances in the development of marine polysaccharides for nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological applications. Research in this field is opening new doors for harnessing the potential of marine natural products. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2015

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018, 2016, 2014, 2013, 2012

3093 KiB  
Article
An Unusual Carbohydrate Conformation is Evident in Moraxella catarrhalis Oligosaccharides
by Martin Frank, Patrick M. Collins, Ian R. Peak, I. Darren Grice and Jennifer C. Wilson
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 14234-14253; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200814234 - 5 Aug 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6556
Abstract
Oligosaccharide structures derived from the lipooligosaccharide of M. catarrhalis show that the highly branched glucose-rich inner core of the oligosaccharide has an altered conformation compared to the most truncated tetra-glucose-Kdo lgt1/4Δ oligosaccharide structure. Addition of one residue each to the (1-4) and (1-6) [...] Read more.
Oligosaccharide structures derived from the lipooligosaccharide of M. catarrhalis show that the highly branched glucose-rich inner core of the oligosaccharide has an altered conformation compared to the most truncated tetra-glucose-Kdo lgt1/4Δ oligosaccharide structure. Addition of one residue each to the (1-4) and (1-6) chains to give the lgt2Δ oligosaccharide is the minimum requirement for this conformational change to occur. Extensive molecular modeling and NMR investigations have shown that the (1-3), (1-4), and (1-6) glycosidic linkages from the central α-D-Glcp have significantly altered conformational preferences between the two structures. For the lgt1/4Δ oligosaccharide the (1-3) and (1-4) linkage populates predominantly the syn minimum on the conformational free energy map and for the (1-6) linkage conformational flexibility is observed, which is supported by 1H-NMR T1 measurements. For the lgt2Δ oligosaccharide the unusual “(1-4)anti-ψ(1-6)gg” conformation, which could be confirmed by long-range NOE signals, is a dominant conformation in which the oligosaccharide is very compact with the terminal α-D-GlcNAc residue folding back towards the center of the molecule leading to an extensive intra-molecular hydrophobic interaction between the terminal residues. Comparing effective H-H distances, which were calculated for conformational sub-ensembles, with the NOE distances revealed that typically multiple conformations could be present without significantly violating the measured NOE restraints. For lgt2Δ the presence of more than one conformation is supported by the NOE data. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

993 KiB  
Review
A Survey of Recent Synthetic Applications of 2,3-Dideoxy-Hex-2-enopyranosides
by Ana M. Gomez, Fernando Lobo, Silvia Miranda and J. Cristobal Lopez
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8357-8394; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules20058357 - 8 May 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 9459
Abstract
Unsaturated carbohydrate derivatives are useful intermediates in synthetic transformations leading to a variety of compounds. The aim of this review is to highlight the rich chemistry of ∆-2,3 unsaturated pyranosides, emphasizing the variety of transformations that have been carried out in these substrates [...] Read more.
Unsaturated carbohydrate derivatives are useful intermediates in synthetic transformations leading to a variety of compounds. The aim of this review is to highlight the rich chemistry of ∆-2,3 unsaturated pyranosides, emphasizing the variety of transformations that have been carried out in these substrates during the last decade. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

3807 KiB  
Article
Accumulation of GD1α Ganglioside in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells Expressing ST6GalNAc V
by Sandy Vandermeersch, Jorick Vanbeselaere, Clément P. Delannoy, Aurore Drolez, Caroline Mysiorek, Yann Guérardel, Philippe Delannoy and Sylvain Julien
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6913-6924; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules20046913 - 16 Apr 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6528
Abstract
α-Series gangliosides define a particular sub-class of glycosphingolipids containing sialic acid α2,6-linked to GalNAc residue that was isolated as a minor compound from the brain. The sialyltransferase ST6GalNAc V was cloned from mouse brain and showed α2,6-sialyltransferase activity almost exclusively for GM1b [...] Read more.
α-Series gangliosides define a particular sub-class of glycosphingolipids containing sialic acid α2,6-linked to GalNAc residue that was isolated as a minor compound from the brain. The sialyltransferase ST6GalNAc V was cloned from mouse brain and showed α2,6-sialyltransferase activity almost exclusively for GM1b, to form GD1α and is considered as the main enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of α-series gangliosides. Recently, ST6GALNAC5 was identified as one of the genes over-expressed in breast cancer cell populations selected for their ability to produce brain metastasis. However, the capacity of human breast cancer cells to produce α-series gangliosides has never been clearly demonstrated. Here, we show by stable transfection and MS-MS analysis of total glycosphingolipids that ST6GALNAC5 expressing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells accumulate GD1α ganglioside (IV3Neu5Ac1, III6Neu5Ac1Gg4-Cer). Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

851 KiB  
Article
Characterization at 25 °C of Sodium Hyaluronate in Aqueous Solutions Obtained by Transport Techniques
by Aleš Mráček, Lenka Gřundělová, Antonín Minařík, Luís M. P. Veríssimo, Marisa C. F. Barros and Ana C. F. Ribeiro
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 5812-5824; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules20045812 - 2 Apr 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6385
Abstract
Mutual diffusion coefficients, D, were determined for aqueous solutions of sodium hyaluronate (NaHy) at 25 °C and concentrations ranging from 0.00 to 1.00 g·dm−3 using the Taylor dispersion technique. From these experimental data, it was possible to estimate some parameters, such [...] Read more.
Mutual diffusion coefficients, D, were determined for aqueous solutions of sodium hyaluronate (NaHy) at 25 °C and concentrations ranging from 0.00 to 1.00 g·dm−3 using the Taylor dispersion technique. From these experimental data, it was possible to estimate some parameters, such as the hydrodynamic radius Rh, and the diffusion coefficient at infinitesimal concentration, D0, of hyaluronate ion, permitting us to have a better understanding of the structure of these systems of sodium hyaluronate in aqueous solutions. The additional viscosity measurements were done and Huggins constant, kH, and limiting viscosity number, [η], were computed for interaction NaHy/water and NaHy/NaHy determination. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3624 KiB  
Article
Targeting N-Glycan Cryptic Sugar Moieties for Broad-Spectrum Virus Neutralization: Progress in Identifying Conserved Molecular Targets in Viruses of Distinct Phylogenetic Origins
by Denong Wang, Jin Tang, Jiulai Tang and Lai-Xi Wang
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 4610-4622; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules20034610 - 12 Mar 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 10454
Abstract
Identifying molecular targets for eliciting broadly virus-neutralizing antibodies is one of the key steps toward development of vaccines against emerging viral pathogens. Owing to genomic and somatic diversities among viral species, identifying protein targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization is highly challenging even for [...] Read more.
Identifying molecular targets for eliciting broadly virus-neutralizing antibodies is one of the key steps toward development of vaccines against emerging viral pathogens. Owing to genomic and somatic diversities among viral species, identifying protein targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization is highly challenging even for the same virus, such as HIV-1. However, viruses rely on host glycosylation machineries to synthesize and express glycans and, thereby, may display common carbohydrate moieties. Thus, exploring glycan-binding profiles of broad-spectrum virus-neutralizing agents may provide key information to uncover the carbohydrate-based virus-neutralizing epitopes. In this study, we characterized two broadly HIV-neutralizing agents, human monoclonal antibody 2G12 and Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA), for their viral targeting activities. Although these agents were known to be specific for oligomannosyl antigens, they differ strikingly in virus-binding activities. The former is HIV-1 specific; the latter is broadly reactive and is able to neutralize viruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, such as HIV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In carbohydrate microarray analyses, we explored the molecular basis underlying the striking differences in the spectrum of anti-virus activities of the two probes. Unlike 2G12, which is strictly specific for the high-density Man9GlcNAc2Asn (Man9)-clusters, GNA recognizes a number of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties. These include not only the known oligomannosyl antigens but also previously unrecognized tri-antennary or multi-valent GlcNAc-terminating N-glycan epitopes (Tri/m-Gn). These findings highlight the potential of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties as conserved targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization and suggest the GNA-model of glycan-binding warrants focused investigation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7722 KiB  
Article
Purification and Characterization of Chitinases from Ridgetail White Prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda
by Jing Wang, Jiquan Zhang, Fengge Song, Tianshu Gui and Jianhai Xiang
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 1955-1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules20021955 - 26 Jan 2015
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 7691
Abstract
In this paper, we purified two native chitinases from the hepatopancreas of the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using ion-exchange resin chromatography (IEC) and gel filtration. These two chitinases, named EcChi1 and EcChi2, were identified by chitinolytic activity assay and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Their [...] Read more.
In this paper, we purified two native chitinases from the hepatopancreas of the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using ion-exchange resin chromatography (IEC) and gel filtration. These two chitinases, named EcChi1 and EcChi2, were identified by chitinolytic activity assay and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Their apparent molecular weights were 44 kDa and 65 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The specific activity of EcChi1 and EcChi2 was 1305.97 U·mg−1 and 28.69 U·mg−1. The optimal temperature and pH of EcChi1 were 37 °C and pH 4.0, respectively. Co2+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ had an obvious promoting effect upon chitinase activity of EcChi1. For colloidal chitin, the Km and Vmax values of EcChi1 were 2.09 mg·mL−1 and 31.15 U·mL−1·h−1. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2014

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018, 2016, 2015, 2013, 2012

4397 KiB  
Article
Profiling of Concanavalin A-Binding Glycoproteins in Human Hepatic Stellate Cells Activated with Transforming Growth Factor-β1
by Yannan Qin, Yaogang Zhong, Ganglong Yang, Tianran Ma, Liyuan Jia, Chen Huang and Zheng Li
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 19845-19867; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191219845 - 28 Nov 2014
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 9047
Abstract
Glycoproteins play important roles in maintaining normal cell functions depending on their glycosylations. Our previous study indicated that the abundance of glycoproteins recognized by concanavalin A (ConA) was increased in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) following activation by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1); however, [...] Read more.
Glycoproteins play important roles in maintaining normal cell functions depending on their glycosylations. Our previous study indicated that the abundance of glycoproteins recognized by concanavalin A (ConA) was increased in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) following activation by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1); however, little is known about the ConA-binding glycoproteins (CBGs) of HSCs. In this study, we employed a targeted glycoproteomics approach using lectin-magnetic particle conjugate-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare CBG profiles between LX-2 HSCs with and without activation by TGF-β1, with the aim of discovering novel CBGs and determining their possible roles in activated HSCs. A total of 54 and 77 proteins were identified in the quiescent and activated LX-2 cells, respectively. Of the proteins identified, 14.3% were glycoproteins and 73.3% were novel potential glycoproteins. Molecules involved in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (e.g., calreticulin) and calcium signaling (e.g., 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase β-2 [PLCB2]) were specifically identified in activated LX-2 cells. Additionally, PLCB2 expression was upregulated in the cytoplasm of the activated LX-2 cells, as well as in the hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells of liver cirrhosis tissues. In conclusion, the results of this study may aid future investigations to find new molecular mechanisms involved in HSC activation and antifibrotic therapeutic targets. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2013

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2012

545 KiB  
Article
Artificial and Natural Sialic Acid Precursors Influence the Angiogenic Capacity of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
by Nils B. Bayer, Uwe Schubert, Zehra Sentürk, Silvia Rudloff, Sandra Frank, Heike Hausmann, Hildegard Geyer, Rudolf Geyer, Klaus T. Preissner and Sebastian P. Galuska
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 2571-2586; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18032571 - 26 Feb 2013
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 9358
Abstract
N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) represents the most common terminal carbohydrate residue in many mammalian glycoconjugates and is directly involved in a number of different physiological as well as pathological cellular processes. Endogenous sialic acids derive from the biosynthetic precursor molecule N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). [...] Read more.
N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) represents the most common terminal carbohydrate residue in many mammalian glycoconjugates and is directly involved in a number of different physiological as well as pathological cellular processes. Endogenous sialic acids derive from the biosynthetic precursor molecule N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Interestingly, N-acyl-analogues of D-mannosamine (ManN) can also be incorporated and converted into corresponding artificial sialic acids by eukaryotic cells. Within this study, we optimized a protocol for the chemical synthesis of various peracetylated ManN derivatives resulting in yields of approximately 100%. Correct molecular structures of the obtained products ManNAc, N-propanoyl-ManN (ManNProp) and N-butyl-ManN (ManNBut) were verified by GC-, ESI-MS- and NMR-analyses. By applying these substances to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we could show that each derivative was metabolized to the corresponding N-acylneuraminic acid variant and subsequently incorporated into nascent glycoproteins. To investigate whether natural and/or artificial sialic acid precursors are able to modulate the angiogenic capacity of HUVECs, a spheroid assay was performed. By this means, an increase in total capillary length has been observed when cells incorporated N-butylneuraminic acid (Neu5But) into their glycoconjugates. In contrast, the natural precursor ManNAc inhibited the growth of capillaries. Thus, sialic acid precursors may represent useful agents to modulate blood vessel formation. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

989 KiB  
Review
Chemistry and Applications of Polysaccharide Solutions in Strong Electrolytes/Dipolar Aprotic Solvents: An Overview
by Omar A. El Seoud, Haq Nawaz and Elizabeth P. G. Arêas
Molecules 2013, 18(1), 1270-1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18011270 - 21 Jan 2013
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 9042
Abstract
Biopolymers and their derivatives are being actively investigated as substitutes for petroleum-based polymers. This has generated an intense interest in investigating new solvents, in particular for cellulose, chitin/chitosan, and starch. This overview focuses on recent advances in the dissolution and derivatization of these [...] Read more.
Biopolymers and their derivatives are being actively investigated as substitutes for petroleum-based polymers. This has generated an intense interest in investigating new solvents, in particular for cellulose, chitin/chitosan, and starch. This overview focuses on recent advances in the dissolution and derivatization of these polysaccharides in solutions of strong electrolytes in dipolar aprotic solvents. A brief description of the molecular structures of these biopolymers is given, with emphases on the properties that are relevant to derivatization, namely crystallinity and accessibility. The mechanism of cellulose dissolution is then discussed, followed by a description of the strategies employed for the synthesis of cellulose derivatives (carboxylic acid esters, and ethers) under homogeneous reaction conditions. The same sequence of presentation has been followed for chitin/chitosan and starch. Future perspectives for this subject are summarized, in particular with regard to compliance with the principles of green chemistry. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

2012

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013

936 KiB  
Article
The Binding Affinity and Molecular Basis of the Structure-Binding Relationship between Urinary Tamm-Horsfall Glycoprotein and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α
by Cheng-Han Wu, Ko-Jen Li, Sue-Cien Siao, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Tsai-Hung Wu, Chang-Youh Tsai and Chia-Li Yu
Molecules 2012, 17(10), 11978-11989; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules171011978 - 11 Oct 2012
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 7063
Abstract
In a previous study we noted significant THP binding to TNF-α, but did not explore the molecular basis of the structure-binding relationship. In this study, we used lectin-binding ELISA to assess the carbohydrate compositions of THP, BSA, IgG, TNF-α, and IFN-g. We identified [...] Read more.
In a previous study we noted significant THP binding to TNF-α, but did not explore the molecular basis of the structure-binding relationship. In this study, we used lectin-binding ELISA to assess the carbohydrate compositions of THP, BSA, IgG, TNF-α, and IFN-g. We identified β(1,4)-N-acetylglucosamine oligomers (GlcNAc) and GlcNAc/branched mannose in BSA, IgG, TNF-α, and THP, but not in IFN-g. These carbohydrate moieties mediated binding with THP. Small amounts of Siaα(2,3)Gal/ GalNAc, Sia(2,6)Gal/GalNAc, and mannose residues were also present in THP and TNF-α. Binding affinity (Kd) between THP and TNF-α by Scatchard plot analysis was 1.4–1.7 × 10−6 M, lower than antigen-antibody or ligand-receptor binding affinities. To elucidate the structure-binding relationship of THP-TNF-α, THP was digested with neuraminidase, β-galactosidase, O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase, carboxypeptidase Y, or proteinase K. β-galactosidase increased binding capacity of THP for TNF-α. Monosaccharide inhibition suggested that α-methyl-D-mannoside, GlcNAc, and GalNAc, but not sialic acid, suppress THP-TNF-α binding as detected by ELISA. We conclude that sugar-lectin and sugar-protein interactions between cognate sites in THP and TNF-α mediate their binding. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

839 KiB  
Article
Syntheses of Sulfo-Glycodendrimers Using Click Chemistry and Their Biological Evaluation
by Yoshiko Miura, Shunsuke Onogi and Tomohiro Fukuda
Molecules 2012, 17(10), 11877-11896; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules171011877 - 9 Oct 2012
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 8160
Abstract
A series of novel glycol-clusters containing sulfonated N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) have been synthesized using click chemistry. Three dendrimers with aromatic dendrons were synthesized using chlorination, azidation and click chemistries. The resulting dendrimers were modified with azide-terminated sulfonated GlcNAc using click chemistry. The sulfonated [...] Read more.
A series of novel glycol-clusters containing sulfonated N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) have been synthesized using click chemistry. Three dendrimers with aromatic dendrons were synthesized using chlorination, azidation and click chemistries. The resulting dendrimers were modified with azide-terminated sulfonated GlcNAc using click chemistry. The sulfonated dendrimers showed affinity for proteins, including the lectin wheat germ agglutinin and amyloid beta peptide (1-42). The dendrimers of G1 and G2 in particular showed the largest affinity for the proteins. The addition of the sulfonated GlcNAc dendrimers of G1 and G2 exhibited an inhibition effect on the aggregation of the amyloid beta peptide, reduced the b-sheet conformation, and led to a reduction in the level of nanofiber formation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

288 KiB  
Article
A Concise Synthesis of Glycolipids Based on Aspartic Acid Building Blocks
by Trinidad Velasco-Torrijos, Lorna Abbey and Roisin O’Flaherty
Molecules 2012, 17(10), 11346-11362; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules171011346 - 25 Sep 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7892
Abstract
L-Aspartic acid building blocks bearing galactosyl moieties were used to synthesise glycolipid mimetics of variable hydrocarbon chain length. The glycolipids were readily prepared through amide bond formation using the TBTU/HOBt coupling methodology. It was observed that, under these conditions, activation of the α-carboxylic [...] Read more.
L-Aspartic acid building blocks bearing galactosyl moieties were used to synthesise glycolipid mimetics of variable hydrocarbon chain length. The glycolipids were readily prepared through amide bond formation using the TBTU/HOBt coupling methodology. It was observed that, under these conditions, activation of the α-carboxylic acid of the intermediates led to near complete racemisation of the chiral centre if the reaction was carried out in the presence of a base such as triethylamine. The enantiomerically pure glycolipids were obtained after careful consideration of the synthetic sequence and by performing the coupling reactions in the absence of base. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

211 KiB  
Communication
Inhibition of Burkholderia multivorans Adhesion to Lung Epithelial Cells by Bivalent Lactosides
by Ciara Wright, Rosaria Leyden, Paul V. Murphy, Máire Callaghan, Trinidad Velasco-Torrijos and Siobhán McClean
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10065-10071; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170910065 - 24 Aug 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5381
Abstract
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is an opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients which is inherently resistant to antimicrobial agents. The mechanisms of attachment and pathogenesis of Bcc, a group of 17 species, are poorly understood. The most commonly identified Bcc species in newly [...] Read more.
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is an opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients which is inherently resistant to antimicrobial agents. The mechanisms of attachment and pathogenesis of Bcc, a group of 17 species, are poorly understood. The most commonly identified Bcc species in newly colonised patients, Burkholderia multivorans, continues to be acquired from the environment. Development of therapies which can prevent or reduce the risk of colonization on exposure to Bcc in the environment would be a better alternative to antimicrobial agents. Previously, it has been shown that Bcc strains bound to many glycolipid receptors on lung epithelia. Using a real-time PCR method to quantify the levels of binding of B. multivorans to the lung epithelial cells, we have examined glycoconjugate derivatives for their potential to inhibit host cell attachment. Bivalent lactosides previously shown to inhibit galectin binding significantly reduced the attachment of B. multivorans to CF lung epithelial cells at micromolar concentrations. This was in contrast to monosaccharides and lactose, which were only effective in the millimolar range. Development of glycoconjugate therapies such as these, which inhibit attachment to lung epithelial cells, represent an alternative means of preventing infection with inherently antimicrobially resistant pathogens such as B. multivorans. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

416 KiB  
Article
Anti-metastatic Semi-synthetic Sulfated Maltotriose C-C Linked Dimers. Synthesis and Characterisation
by Elena Vismara, Alessia Coletti, Antonio Valerio, Annamaria Naggi, Elena Urso and Giangiacomo Torri
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9912-9930; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089912 - 17 Aug 2012
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6240
Abstract
This manuscript describes the preparation and the spectroscopic characterisation of semi-synthetic sulfated maltotriose C-C linked dimers (SMTCs) where the natural C-O-C anomeric bond was substituted by one direct central C-C bond. This C-C bond induces conformation and flexibility changes with respect to the [...] Read more.
This manuscript describes the preparation and the spectroscopic characterisation of semi-synthetic sulfated maltotriose C-C linked dimers (SMTCs) where the natural C-O-C anomeric bond was substituted by one direct central C-C bond. This C-C bond induces conformation and flexibility changes with respect to the usual anomeric bond. SMTCs neutral precursors came from maltotriosyl bromide electroreduction through maltotriosyl radical intermediate dimerisation. The new C-C bond configuration, named for convenience a,a, a,b and b,b as the natural anomeric bond, dictated the statistic ratio formation of three diastereoisomers. They were separated by silica gel flash chromatography followed by semi preparative HPLC chromatography. Each diastereoisomer was exhaustively sulfated to afford the corresponding SMTCs. SMTCs were huge characterised by NMR spectroscopy which provided the sulfation degree, too. a,a and a,b were found quite homogeneous samples with a high degree of sulfation (85–95%). b,b appeared a non-homogeneous sample whose average sulfation degree was evaluated at around 78%. Mass spectroscopy experiments confirmed the sulfation degree range. Some considerations were proposed about SMTCs structure-biological properties. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

297 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Disaccharides Containing 6-Deoxy-a-L-talose as Potential Heparan Sulfate Mimetics
by Jon K. Fairweather, Ligong Liu, Tomislav Karoli and Vito Ferro
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9790-9802; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089790 - 15 Aug 2012
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 8280
Abstract
A 6-deoxy-a-L-talopyranoside acceptor was readily prepared from methyl a-L-rhamnopyranoside and glycosylated with thiogalactoside donors using NIS/TfOH as the promoter to give good yields of the desired a-linked disaccharide (69–90%). Glycosylation with a 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-glucosyl trichloroacetimidate donor was not completely stereoselective (a:b = 6:1), but [...] Read more.
A 6-deoxy-a-L-talopyranoside acceptor was readily prepared from methyl a-L-rhamnopyranoside and glycosylated with thiogalactoside donors using NIS/TfOH as the promoter to give good yields of the desired a-linked disaccharide (69–90%). Glycosylation with a 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-glucosyl trichloroacetimidate donor was not completely stereoselective (a:b = 6:1), but the desired a-linked disaccharide could be isolated in good overall yield (60%) following conversion into its corresponding tribenzoate derivative. The disaccharides were designed to mimic the heparan sulfate (HS) disaccharide GlcN(2S,6S)-IdoA(2S). However, the intermediates readily derived from these disaccharides were not stable to the sulfonation/deacylation conditions required for their conversion into the target HS mimetics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

444 KiB  
Article
Design and Synthesis of a Novel Ganglioside Ligand for Influenza A Viruses
by Tomohiro Nohara, Akihiro Imamura, Maho Yamaguchi, Kazuya I. P. J. Hidari, Takashi Suzuki, Tatsuya Komori, Hiromune Ando, Hideharu Ishida and Makoto Kiso
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9590-9620; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089590 - 10 Aug 2012
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 7350
Abstract
A novel ganglioside bearing Neua2-3Gal and Neua2-6Gal structures as distal sequences was designed as a ligand for influenza A viruses. The efficient synthesis of the designed ganglioside was accomplished by employing the cassette coupling approach as a key reaction, which was executed between [...] Read more.
A novel ganglioside bearing Neua2-3Gal and Neua2-6Gal structures as distal sequences was designed as a ligand for influenza A viruses. The efficient synthesis of the designed ganglioside was accomplished by employing the cassette coupling approach as a key reaction, which was executed between the non-reducing end of the oligosaccharide and the cyclic glucosylceramide moiety. Examination of its binding activity to influenza A viruses revealed that the new ligand is recognized by Neua2-3 and 2-6 type viruses. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

457 KiB  
Article
Accumulation of Unusual Gangliosides GQ3 and GP3 in Breast Cancer Cells Expressing the GD3 Synthase
by Agata Steenackers, Jorick Vanbeselaere, Aurélie Cazet, Marie Bobowski, Yoann Rombouts, Florent Colomb, Xuefen Le Bourhis, Yann Guérardel and Philippe Delannoy
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9559-9572; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089559 - 10 Aug 2012
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 9047
Abstract
Glycosphingolipids from the ganglio-series are usually classified in four series according to the presence of 0 to 3 sialic acid residues linked to lactosylceramide. The transfer of sialic acid is catalyzed in the Golgi apparatus by specific sialyltransferases that show high specificity toward [...] Read more.
Glycosphingolipids from the ganglio-series are usually classified in four series according to the presence of 0 to 3 sialic acid residues linked to lactosylceramide. The transfer of sialic acid is catalyzed in the Golgi apparatus by specific sialyltransferases that show high specificity toward glycolipid substrates. ST8Sia I (EC 2.4.99.8, SAT-II, SIAT 8a) is the key enzyme controlling the biosynthesis of b- and c-series gangliosides. ST8Sia I is expressed at early developmental stages whereas in adult human tissues, ST8Sia I transcripts are essentially detected in brain. ST8Sia I together with b- and c-series gangliosides are also over-expressed in neuroectoderm-derived malignant tumors such as melanoma, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma and in estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer, where they play a role in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion and angiogenesis. We have stably expressed ST8Sia I in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and analyzed the glycosphingolipid composition of wild type (WT) and GD3S+ clones. As shown by mass spectrometry, MCF-7 expressed a complex pattern of neutral and sialylated glycosphingolipids from globo- and ganglio-series. WT MCF-7 cells exhibited classical monosialylated gangliosides including GM3, GM2, and GM1a. In parallel, the expression of ST8Sia I in MCF-7 GD3S+ clones resulted in a dramatic change in ganglioside composition, with the expression of b- and c-series gangliosides as well as unusual tetra- and pentasialylated lactosylceramide derivatives GQ3 (II3Neu5Ac4-Gg2Cer) and GP3 (II3Neu5Ac5-Gg2Cer). This indicates that ST8Sia I is able to act as an oligosialyltransferase in a cellular context. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

560 KiB  
Article
Synthesis, Antigenicity Against Human Sera and Structure-Activity Relationships of Carbohydrate Moieties from Toxocara larvae and Their Analogues
by Akihiko Koizumi, Kimiaki Yamano, Takashi Tsuchiya, Frank Schweizer, Fumiyuki Kiuchi and Noriyasu Hada
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9023-9042; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089023 - 30 Jul 2012
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6433
Abstract
Stereocontrolled syntheses of biotin-labeled oligosaccharide portions containing the Galβ1-3GalNAc core of the TES-glycoprotein antigen obtained from larvae of the parasite Toxocara and their analogues have been accomplished. Trisaccharides Fuc2Meα1-2Gal4Meβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (A), Fucα1-2Gal4Meβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (B), Fuc2Meα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (C), Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (D [...] Read more.
Stereocontrolled syntheses of biotin-labeled oligosaccharide portions containing the Galβ1-3GalNAc core of the TES-glycoprotein antigen obtained from larvae of the parasite Toxocara and their analogues have been accomplished. Trisaccharides Fuc2Meα1-2Gal4Meβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (A), Fucα1-2Gal4Meβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (B), Fuc2Meα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (C), Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (D) and a disaccharide Fuc2Meα1-2Gal4Meβ1-OR (E) (R = biotinylated probe) were synthesized by block synthesis using 5-(methoxycarbonyl)pentyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1®3)-2-azide-4-O-benzyl-2-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside as a common glycosyl acceptor. We examined the antigenicity of these five oligosaccharides by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results demonstrate that the O-methyl groups in these oligosaccharides are important for their antigenicity and the biotinylated oligosaccharides A, B, C and E have high serodiagnostic potential to detect infections caused by Toxocara larvae. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

230 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Sensory Evaluation of ent-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides
by Indra Prakash, Mary Campbell, Rafael Ignacio San Miguel and Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8908-8916; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17088908 - 26 Jul 2012
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 8463
Abstract
Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH)2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was [...] Read more.
Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH)2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

696 KiB  
Article
Application of Paramagnetic NMR-Validated Molecular Dynamics Simulation to the Analysis of a Conformational Ensemble of a Branched Oligosaccharide
by Ying Zhang, Sayoko Yamamoto, Takumi Yamaguchi and Koichi Kato
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 6658-6671; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17066658 - 31 May 2012
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 7081
Abstract
Oligosaccharides of biological importance often exhibit branched covalent structures and dynamic conformational multiplicities. Here we report the application of a method that we developed, which combined molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and lanthanide-assisted paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy, to evaluate the dynamic conformational ensemble of a [...] Read more.
Oligosaccharides of biological importance often exhibit branched covalent structures and dynamic conformational multiplicities. Here we report the application of a method that we developed, which combined molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and lanthanide-assisted paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy, to evaluate the dynamic conformational ensemble of a branched oligosaccharide. A lanthanide-chelating tag was attached to the reducing end of the branched tetrasaccharide of GM2 ganglioside to observe pseudocontact shifts as the source of long distance information for validating the conformational ensemble derived from MD simulations. By inspecting the results, the conformational space of the GM2 tetrasaccharide was compared with that of its nonbranched derivative, the GM3 trisaccharide. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

219 KiB  
Article
Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured Eucalyptus perriniana Cells
by Daisuke Sato, Yuki Eshita, Hisashi Katsuragi, Hiroki Hamada, Kei Shimoda and Naoji Kubota
Molecules 2012, 17(5), 5013-5020; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17055013 - 2 May 2012
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6764
Abstract
Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of Eucalyptus perriniana was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-O-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by E. perriniana cells. Incubation of cultured E. perriniana cells with [...] Read more.
Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of Eucalyptus perriniana was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-O-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by E. perriniana cells. Incubation of cultured E. perriniana cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-O-b-D-gentiobioside. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

310 KiB  
Article
1D 13C-NMR Data as Molecular Descriptors in Spectra — Structure Relationship Analysis of Oligosaccharides
by Florbela Pereira
Molecules 2012, 17(4), 3818-3833; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17043818 - 28 Mar 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7516
Abstract
Spectra-structure relationships were investigated for estimating the anomeric configuration, residues and type of linkages of linear and branched trisaccharides using 13C-NMR chemical shifts. For this study, 119 pyranosyl trisaccharides were used that are trimers of the α or β anomers of D-glucose, [...] Read more.
Spectra-structure relationships were investigated for estimating the anomeric configuration, residues and type of linkages of linear and branched trisaccharides using 13C-NMR chemical shifts. For this study, 119 pyranosyl trisaccharides were used that are trimers of the α or β anomers of D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, L-fucose or L-rhamnose residues bonded through a or b glycosidic linkages of types 1→2, 1→3, 1→4, or 1→6, as well as methoxylated and/or N-acetylated amino trisaccharides. Machine learning experiments were performed for: (1) classification of the anomeric configuration of the first unit, second unit and reducing end; (2) classification of the type of first and second linkages; (3) classification of the three residues: reducing end, middle and first residue; and (4) classification of the chain type. Our previously model for predicting the structure of disaccharides was incorporated in this new model with an improvement of the predictive power. The best results were achieved using Random Forests with 204 di- and trisaccharides for the training set—it could correctly classify 83%, 90%, 88%, 85%, 85%, 75%, 79%, 68% and 94% of the test set (69 compounds) for the nine tasks, respectively, on the basis of unassigned chemical shifts. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop