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Novel Aspects in Nanomaterials for Biomedical and Environmental Applications

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 22621

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Korea
Interests: biofilm; nanotechnology; nanotoxicity; bacterial virulence; metal-oxide nanoparticles; nanocomposites; green nanoparticles

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Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Interests: nanotoxicology; rhizobiology; environmental microbiology; heavy metals; PGPR; bioremediation; ecotoxicology

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Guest Editor
Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Interests: nanoparticles; antimicrobial activity; green synthesis; drug screening
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dear researchers, the preparation and application of various structured and multifarious nanomaterials need no further introduction. The tremendous scientific developments made so far describe the importance of nanomaterials (i.e. nanoparticles, nanotubes, quantum dots, polymer-nano composites, bio-nano composites, etc.) in various biomedical and environmental applications. New methods and modified approaches for the preparation of novel nanomaterials allow precise control over the size, morphology, and other physicochemical properties related to biomedical and environmental uses. However, the simple, as well as complex nanomaterials with variable surface chemistry and specific surface area, are in the process of evolution concerning their nano-based profiling in organisms and environmental variables. Many nanomaterials have found their applications in diagnosis i.e. biosensing, bioimaging; in clinical therapies i.e. anticancer applications, antibacterial and/or antibiofilm uses, and regenerative medicine in wound dressing; in drug discovery i.e. delivery of drugs and genes, etc. In this context, nanomaterials including those made of different metal and metal-oxides have been utilized while exploring their enhanced biocompatibility and linking with other bioactive molecules such as different types of phytocompounds, antibodies, aptamers, and other therapeutic agents. Similarly, nanomaterials have proven their usability in environmental and agricultural applications where they are being tested and employed as nanofertilizers, for soil remediation, enhancing plant nutrients while protecting them from pathogen attack, removing heavy metals, antibiotics, and other pollutants from the environment. However, the toxicity associated with newly developed nanomaterials to plants and other organisms also needs thorough investigation.

This special issue aims to collect new studies on the development of nanomaterial-based applications in biomedical environmental fields where all types of well-characterized nanomaterials i.e. organic, inorganic, polymeric nanoparticles, etc. will be covered. We welcome the submission of research as well as review articles for publication in the Special Issue “Novel Aspects in Nanomaterials for Biomedical and Environmental Applications”. Potential topics include but are not limited to:

  • Nanomaterials based drug delivery systems and targeted drug delivery
  • Nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs to cancer
  • Theragnostic nanomaterials
  • Antibacterial and antibiofilm nanomaterials and/or their nanobio-composites
  • Nanomaterials for bio-imaging
  • Pollutant removal by nanomaterials
  • Environmental sensing and wastewater treatment
  • Plant-nanoparticle interaction and use of nanomaterials as nanofertilizers
  • Biosafety profiling of novel nanomaterials

Dr. Bilal Ahmed
Prof. Dr. Khan Mohammad Saghir
Dr. Mohammad Oves
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanocomposites
  • nanomaterials
  • nanomedicine
  • biofilm
  • drug delivery
  • environmental and agricultural applications
  • nanobiosensing
  • nanotoxicity

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

12 pages, 2058 KiB  
Article
Biogenic Preparation and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles from Seed Kernel of Mangifera indica and Their Antibacterial Potential against Shigella spp.
by Sudha Angamuthu, Selvankumar Thangaswamy, Amutha Raju, Fohad Mabood Husain, Bilal Ahmed, Nasser A. Al-Shabib, Mohammed Jamal Hakeem, Syed Ali Shahzad, Saud A. Abudujayn and Suliman Y. Alomar
Molecules 2023, 28(6), 2468; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28062468 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Shigellosis is a serious foodborne diarrheal disease caused by the Shigella species. It is a critical global health issue. In developing countries, shigellosis causes most of the mortality in children below 5 years of age. Globally, around 165 million cases of diarrhea caused [...] Read more.
Shigellosis is a serious foodborne diarrheal disease caused by the Shigella species. It is a critical global health issue. In developing countries, shigellosis causes most of the mortality in children below 5 years of age. Globally, around 165 million cases of diarrhea caused by Shigella are reported, which accounts for almost 1 million deaths, in which the majority are recorded in Third World nations. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using Mangifera indica kernel (MK-AgNPs) seed extracts. The biosynthesized M. indica silver nanoparticles (MK-AgNPs) were characterized using an array of spectroscopic and microscopic tools, such as UV–Vis, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometer. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape and the average size was found to be 42.7 nm. The MK-AgNPs exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant clinical Shigella sp. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the MK-AgNPs was found to be 20 μg/mL against the multi-drug-resistant strain Shigella flexneri. The results clearly demonstrate that MK-AgNPs prepared using M. indica kernel seed extract exhibited significant bactericidal action against pathogenic Shigella species. The biosynthesized nanoparticles from mango kernel could possibly prove therapeutically useful and effective in combating the threat of shigellosis after careful investigation of its toxicity and in vivo efficacy. Full article
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19 pages, 6345 KiB  
Article
Amine-Functionalized Natural Rubber/Mesostructured Silica Nanocomposites for Adsorptive Removal of Clofibric Acid in Aqueous Phase
by Satit Yousatit, Witsarut Rungruangwattanachot, Natthakit Yuwawanitchakorn, Sakdinun Nuntang, Patiparn Punyapalakul and Chawalit Ngamcharussrivichai
Molecules 2023, 28(5), 2330; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28052330 - 2 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1473
Abstract
This study is the first report on the synthesis, characterization and application of amine-functionalized mesoporous nanocomposites based on natural rubber (NR) and wormhole-like mesostructured silica (WMS). In comparison with amine-functionalized WMS (WMS-NH2), a series of NR/WMS-NH2 composites were synthesized via [...] Read more.
This study is the first report on the synthesis, characterization and application of amine-functionalized mesoporous nanocomposites based on natural rubber (NR) and wormhole-like mesostructured silica (WMS). In comparison with amine-functionalized WMS (WMS-NH2), a series of NR/WMS-NH2 composites were synthesized via an in situ sol-gel method in which the organo-amine group was grafted onto the nanocomposite surface via co-condensation with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) as the amine-functional group precursor. The NR/WMS-NH2 materials had a high specific surface area (115–492 m2 g−1) and total pore volume (0.14–1.34 cm3 g−1) with uniform wormhole-like mesoporous frameworks. The amine concentration of NR/WMS-NH2 (0.43–1.84 mmol g−1) was increased with an increase in the APS concentration, corresponding to high levels of functionalization with the amine groups of 53–84%. The H2O adsorption–desorption measurement revealed that NR/WMS-NH2 possessed higher hydrophobicity than WMS-NH2. The removal of clofibric acid (CFA), a xenobiotic metabolite of the lipid-lowering drug clofibrate, from the aqueous solution using WMS-NH2 and NR/WMS-NH2 materials was investigated using a batch adsorption experiment. The adsorption was a chemical process in which the pseudo-second order kinetic model expressed the sorption kinetic data better than the pseudo first-order and Ritchie-second kinetic order model. In addition, the CFA adsorption sorption equilibrium data of the NR/WMS-NH2 materials were fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. The NR/WMS-NH2 with 5% amine loading had the highest CFA adsorption capacity (6.29 mg g−1). Full article
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14 pages, 8403 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Imaging of Zinc Ions in Zebrafish Live Brain Tissue Enabled by Fluorescent Bionanoprobes
by Romana Jarosova, Sarah K. Woolfolk, Noraida Martinez-Rivera, Mathew W. Jaeschke, Eduardo Rosa-Molinar, Candan Tamerler and Michael A. Johnson
Molecules 2023, 28(5), 2260; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28052260 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
The zebrafish is a powerful model organism to study the mechanisms governing transition metal ions within whole brain tissue. Zinc is one of the most abundant metal ions in the brain, playing a critical pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases. The homeostasis of free, [...] Read more.
The zebrafish is a powerful model organism to study the mechanisms governing transition metal ions within whole brain tissue. Zinc is one of the most abundant metal ions in the brain, playing a critical pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases. The homeostasis of free, ionic zinc (Zn2+) is a key intersection point in many of these diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. A Zn2+ imbalance can eventuate several disturbances that may lead to the development of neurodegenerative changes. Therefore, compact, reliable approaches that allow the optical detection of Zn2+ across the whole brain would contribute to our current understanding of the mechanisms that underlie neurological disease pathology. We developed an engineered fluorescence protein-based nanoprobe that can spatially and temporally resolve Zn2+ in living zebrafish brain tissue. The self-assembled engineered fluorescence protein on gold nanoparticles was shown to be confined to defined locations within the brain tissue, enabling site specific studies, compared to fluorescent protein-based molecular tools, which diffuse throughout the brain tissue. Two-photon excitation microscopy confirmed the physical and photometrical stability of these nanoprobes in living zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain tissue, while the addition of Zn2+ quenched the nanoprobe fluorescence. Combining orthogonal sensing methods with our engineered nanoprobes will enable the study of imbalances in homeostatic Zn2+ regulation. The proposed bionanoprobe system offers a versatile platform to couple metal ion specific linkers and contribute to the understanding of neurological diseases. Full article
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22 pages, 7582 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Approach to Derivatization: Elemental Composition, Biochemical, and In Silico Studies of Metformin Derivatives Containing Copper and Zinc Complexes
by Javed Ahmed, Mohsin Abbas Khan, Muhammad Ehsan Khalid, Irshad Ahmad, Irfan Pervaiz, Umair Khurshid, Saharish Khaliq, Kashif ur Rehman Khan, Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Ghadeer M. Albadrani, Ahmed E. Altyar, Amany A. Sayed, Mousa O. Germoush and Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim
Molecules 2023, 28(3), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28031406 - 1 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1946
Abstract
The current study was designed to synthesize, characterize, and screen the molecular and biological activities of different metformin derivatives that possess potent antidiabetic potential with minimal side-effects. Metformin-based derivatives containing the metal complexes Cu II (MCu1–MCu9) and Zn II (MZn1–MZn9) were generated using [...] Read more.
The current study was designed to synthesize, characterize, and screen the molecular and biological activities of different metformin derivatives that possess potent antidiabetic potential with minimal side-effects. Metformin-based derivatives containing the metal complexes Cu II (MCu1–MCu9) and Zn II (MZn1–MZn9) were generated using aromatic aldehydes and ketones in a template process. The novel metal complexes were characterized through elemental analysis, physical state, melting point, physical appearance, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Screening for inhibitory activity against the enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and molecular simulations performed in Schrödinger were used to assess the synthesized derivatives’ biological potential. Met1, Met2, Met3, and Met8 all displayed activities that were on par with the reference in an enzymatic inhibition assay (amylase and glucosidase). The enzyme inhibition assay was corroborated by molecular simulation studies, which also revealed a competitive docking score compared to the gold standard. The Swiss ADME online web server was utilized to compute ADME properties of metformin analogues. Lipinski’s rule of five held true across all derivatives, making it possible to determine the percentage of absorption. Metformin derivatives showed significant antidiabetic activities against both targeted enzymes, and the results of this work suggest that these compounds could serve as lead molecules for future study and development. Full article
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32 pages, 3387 KiB  
Article
Ultrafast Spectroscopies of Nitrophenols and Nitrophenolates in Solution: From Electronic Dynamics and Vibrational Structures to Photochemical and Environmental Implications
by Sullivan Bailey-Darland, Taylor D. Krueger and Chong Fang
Molecules 2023, 28(2), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28020601 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Nitrophenols are a group of small organic molecules with significant environmental implications from the atmosphere to waterways. In this work, we investigate a series of nitrophenols and nitrophenolates, with the contrasting ortho-, meta-, and para-substituted nitro group to the phenolic [...] Read more.
Nitrophenols are a group of small organic molecules with significant environmental implications from the atmosphere to waterways. In this work, we investigate a series of nitrophenols and nitrophenolates, with the contrasting ortho-, meta-, and para-substituted nitro group to the phenolic hydroxy or phenolate oxygen site (2/3/4NP or NP), implementing a suite of steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques that include UV/Visible spectroscopy, femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) spectroscopy with probe-dependent and global analysis, and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS), aided by quantum calculations. The excitation-dependent (400 and 267 nm) electronic dynamics in water and methanol, for six protonated or deprotonated nitrophenol molecules (three regioisomers in each set), enable a systematic investigation of the excited-state dynamics of these functional “nanomachines” that can undergo nitro-group twisting (as a rotor), excited-state intramolecular or intermolecular proton transfer (donor–acceptor, ESIPT, or ESPT), solvation, and cooling (chromophore) events on molecular timescales. In particular, the meta-substituted compound 3NP or 3NP exhibits the strongest charge-transfer character with FSRS signatures (e.g., C–N peak frequency), and thus, does not favor nitroaromatic twist in the excited state, while the ortho-substituted compound 2NP can undergo ESIPT in water and likely generate nitrous acid (HONO) after 267 nm excitation. The delineated mechanistic insights into the nitro-substituent-location-, protonation-, solvent-, and excitation-wavelength-dependent effects on nitrophenols, in conjunction with the ultraviolet-light-induced degradation of 2NP in water, substantiates an appealing discovery loop to characterize and engineer functional molecules for environmental applications. Full article
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22 pages, 8969 KiB  
Article
Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Based on Cestrum diurnum L. of Potential Antiviral Activity against Human Corona 229-E Virus
by Ibrahim N. Alrabayah, Seham S. Elhawary, Zeinab A. Kandil, Essam M. Abd El-Kadder, Yasmine S. Moemen, Abdulrahman M. Saleh and Mohamed A. El Raey
Molecules 2023, 28(1), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28010266 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 has caused more than 596 million infections and 6 million fatalities globally. Looking for urgent medication for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation is obligatory. Plant extracts and green synthesized nanoparticles have numerous biological activities, including antiviral activity. HPLC analysis of C. dirnum L. [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 has caused more than 596 million infections and 6 million fatalities globally. Looking for urgent medication for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation is obligatory. Plant extracts and green synthesized nanoparticles have numerous biological activities, including antiviral activity. HPLC analysis of C. dirnum L. leaf extract showed that catechin, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and syringic acid were the most major compounds, with concentrations of 1425.16, 1004.68, 207.46, and 158.95 µg/g, respectively. Zinc nanoparticles were biosynthesized using zinc acetate and C. dirnum extract. TEM analysis revealed that the particle size of ZnO-NPs varied between 3.406 and 4.857 nm. An XRD study showed the existence of hexagonal crystals of ZnO-NPs with an average size of 12.11 nm. Both ZnO-NPs (IC50 = 7.01 and CC50 = 145.77) and C. dirnum L. extract (IC50 = 61.15 and CC50 = 145.87 µg/mL) showed antiviral activity against HCOV-229E, but their combination (IC50 = 2.41 and CC50 = 179.23) showed higher activity than both. Molecular docking was used to investigate the affinity of some metabolites against the HCOV-229E main protease. Chlorogenic acid, solanidine, and catchin showed high affinity (−7.13, −6.95, and −6.52), compared to the ligand MDP (−5.66 Kcal/mol). Cestrum dinurum extract and ZnO-NPs combination should be subjected to further studies to be used as an antiviral drug. Full article
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23 pages, 37037 KiB  
Article
A New MBH Adduct as an Efficient Ligand in the Synthesis of Metallodrugs: Characterization, Geometrical Optimization, XRD, Biological Activities, and Molecular Docking Studies
by Shazia Ishfaq, Shazia Nisar, Sadaf Iqbal, Saqib Ali, Syed Tariq Ali, ElSayed Din, Norah Salem Alsaiari, Kholood A. Dahlous, Muhammad Sufyan Javed and Patrizia Bocchetta
Molecules 2022, 27(23), 8150; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27238150 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1667
Abstract
This article reports the synthesis, characterization, geometrical optimization, and biological studies of new MBH-based organometallic compounds of medicinal significance. The ligand (MNHA) was prepared via the Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH) synthetic route, from aromatic aldehyde containing multiple functional groups. Metal complexes were prepared in an [...] Read more.
This article reports the synthesis, characterization, geometrical optimization, and biological studies of new MBH-based organometallic compounds of medicinal significance. The ligand (MNHA) was prepared via the Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH) synthetic route, from aromatic aldehyde containing multiple functional groups. Metal complexes were prepared in an alkaline medium and under other suitable reaction conditions. Spectral and elemental analyses were used to identify the structural and molecular formulas of each compound. Optimized geometry was determined through density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP and 6-311++ G (d,p) basis set for the MBH adduct, whereas structures of novel complexes were optimized with the semi-empirical PM6 method. Powder XRD analysis furnished the crystal class of complexes, with Co3+, Cr3+, and Mn2+ being cubic, while Ni2+ was hexagonal, and Cu2+ was orthorhombic. Moreover, the ligand, along with Ni2+ and Co3+ complexes, showed profound antibacterial action against S. aureus, E. coli, B. pumilis, and S. typhi. Additionally, all of the complexes were shown to persist in the positive antioxidant potential of the ligand. Contrarily, not a single metal complex conserved the antifungal potentials of the ligand. Full article
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Review

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26 pages, 7674 KiB  
Review
Bimetallic Au–Ag Nanoparticles: Advanced Nanotechnology for Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance
by Chandrashekhar Singh, Abhishesh Kumar Mehata, Vishnu Priya, Ankit Kumar Malik, Aseem Setia, M. Nikitha Lakshmi Suseela, Vikas, Patharaj Gokul, Samridhi, Sanjeev K. Singh and Madaswamy S. Muthu
Molecules 2022, 27(20), 7059; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27207059 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3239
Abstract
To date, there are no antimicrobial agents available in the market that have absolute control over the growing threat of bacterial strains. The increase in the production capacity of antibiotics and the growing antibacterial resistance of bacteria have majorly affected a variety of [...] Read more.
To date, there are no antimicrobial agents available in the market that have absolute control over the growing threat of bacterial strains. The increase in the production capacity of antibiotics and the growing antibacterial resistance of bacteria have majorly affected a variety of businesses and public health. Bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with two separate metals have been found to have stronger antibacterial potential than their monometallic versions. This enhanced antibacterial efficiency of bimetallic nanoparticles is due to the synergistic effect of their participating monometallic counterparts. To distinguish between bacteria and mammals, the existence of diverse metal transport systems and metalloproteins is necessary for the use of bimetallic Au–Ag NPs, just like any other metal NPs. Due to their very low toxicity toward human cells, these bimetallic NPs, particularly gold–silver NPs, might prove to be an effective weapon in the arsenal to beat emerging drug-resistant bacteria. The cellular mechanism of bimetallic nanoparticles for antibacterial activity consists of cell membrane degradation, disturbance in homeostasis, oxidative stress, and the production of reactive oxygen species. The synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles can be performed by a bottom-up and top-down strategy. The bottom-up technique generally includes sol-gel, chemical vapor deposition, green synthesis, and co-precipitation methods, whereas the top-down technique includes the laser ablation method. This review highlights the key prospects of the cellular mechanism, synthesis process, and antibacterial capabilities against a wide range of bacteria. Additionally, we also discussed the role of Au–Ag NPs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infection and wound healing. Full article
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27 pages, 13129 KiB  
Review
Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Prospects in Plant Disease Management
by Moh Tariq, Khan Nazima Mohammad, Bilal Ahmed, Mansoor A. Siddiqui and Jintae Lee
Molecules 2022, 27(15), 4754; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27154754 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 5158
Abstract
Exploration of nanoparticles (NPs) for various biological and environmental applications has become one of the most important attributes of nanotechnology. Due to remarkable physicochemical properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most explored and used NPs in wide-ranging applications. Also, they have proven to [...] Read more.
Exploration of nanoparticles (NPs) for various biological and environmental applications has become one of the most important attributes of nanotechnology. Due to remarkable physicochemical properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most explored and used NPs in wide-ranging applications. Also, they have proven to be of high commercial use since they possess great chemical stability, conductivity, catalytic activity, and antimicrobial potential. Though several methods including chemical and physical methods have been devised, biological approaches using organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants have emerged as economical, safe, and effective alternatives for the biosynthesis of AgNPs. Recent studies highlight the potential of AgNPs in modern agricultural practices to control the growth and spread of infectious pathogenic microorganisms since the introduction of AgNPs effectively reduces plant diseases caused by a spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In this review, we highlight the biosynthesis of AgNPs and discuss their applications in plant disease management with recent examples. It is proposed that AgNPs are prospective NPs for the successful inhibition of pathogen growth and plant disease management. This review gives a better understanding of new biological approaches for AgNP synthesis and modes of their optimized applications that could contribute to sustainable agriculture. Full article
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