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Preparation and Applications of Hydrogels

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Macromolecular Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 16950

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina 64049-550, PI, Brazil
Interests: synthesis; characterization; modification; ion exchange; adsorption; biological properties
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
CBQF - Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
Interests: polymers from natural source applied to food science; synthesis and characterization of hydrogels based in natural polysaccharides; nanostructured materials applied in catalysis; valorization of saccharides and bioactive compounds from food industry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Department of Biology and Biotechnology, School of Agriculture of the Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (ESA-IPB), Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5301-854 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: microbiology; food microbiology; food safety; healing; phenolic compounds; therapeutic properties; anti-inflammatory
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydrogels are a three-dimensional organization of polymeric materials with a hydrophilic structure that renders them capable of holding large amounts of water. These polymeric materials can be from natural sources (particularly polysaccharides) or synthetic sources. In recent years, hydrogels have been developed for several applications, especially in the health area in the form of healing tests, as well as for applications in agriculture, the environment, construction, and numerous others.

In this Special Issue, we aim to include experimental and theoretical studies on the fundamental behavior as well as applications of polymeric hydrogels, covering the different perspectives of the interdisciplinary communities of physical chemistry, biochemistry, biomedicine, materials, agriculture, environmental, constructions, and any others involved in polymeric hydrogels.

Prof. Dr. Edson Cavalcanti da Silva Filho
Dr. Alessandra Braga Ribeiro
Prof. Dr. Leticia M. Estevinho
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydrogels
  • polysaccharides
  • biopolymer
  • healing
  • biological properties
  • antimicrobial
  • anti-inflammatory
  • antioxidant
  • Preparation
  • Applications

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 5280 KiB  
Article
A Facile One-Pot Preparation and Properties of Nanocellulose-Reinforced Ionic Conductive Hydrogels
by Xinmin Huang, Yaning Wang, Yifei Wang and Lianhe Yang
Molecules 2023, 28(3), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28031301 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
Nanocellulose-reinforced ionic conductive hydrogels were prepared using cellulose nanofiber (CNF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as raw materials, and the hydrogels were prepared in a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water binary solvent by a one-pot method. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) [...] Read more.
Nanocellulose-reinforced ionic conductive hydrogels were prepared using cellulose nanofiber (CNF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as raw materials, and the hydrogels were prepared in a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water binary solvent by a one-pot method. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, and sensing properties of the hydrogels were studied by means of a universal material testing machine and LCR digital bridge. The results show that the ionic conductive hydrogel exhibits high stretchability (elongation at break, 206%) and firmness (up to 335 KPa). The tensile fracture test shows that the hydrogel has good properties in terms of tensile strength, toughness, and elasticity. The hydrogel as a conductor medium is assembled into a self-powered strain sensor and the open-circuit voltage can reach 0.830 V. It shows good sensitivity in the bend sensing testing, indicating that the hydrogel has good sensing performance. The water retention and anti-freezing performance experiments show that the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide solvents can effectively improve the anti-freezing and water retention properties of hydrogels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Applications of Hydrogels)
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12 pages, 33782 KiB  
Article
Construction of Porous Starch-Based Hydrogel via Regulating the Ratio of Amylopectin/Amylose for Enhanced Water-Retention
by Huiyuan Luo, Fuping Dong, Qian Wang, Yihang Li and Yuzhu Xiong
Molecules 2021, 26(13), 3999; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133999 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2915
Abstract
The performance of hydrogels prepared with traditional natural starch as raw materials is considerable; the fixed ratio of amylose/amylopectin significantly limits the improvement of hydrogel structure and performance. In this paper, starch hydrogels were prepared by physical blending and chemical grafting, with the [...] Read more.
The performance of hydrogels prepared with traditional natural starch as raw materials is considerable; the fixed ratio of amylose/amylopectin significantly limits the improvement of hydrogel structure and performance. In this paper, starch hydrogels were prepared by physical blending and chemical grafting, with the aid of ultrasonic heating. The effects of different amylose/amylopectin ratios on the microstructure and water retention properties of starch hydrogels were studied. The results show that an increase in amylopectin content is beneficial to improve the grafting ratio of acrylamide (AM). The interaction between the AM grafted on amylopectin and amylose molecules through hydrogen bonding increases the pores of the gel network and thins the pore walls. When the amylopectin content was 70%, the water absorption (swelling 45.25 times) and water retention performance (16 days water retention rate 44.17%) were optimal. This study provides new insights into the preparation of starch-based hydrogels with excellent physical and chemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Applications of Hydrogels)
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19 pages, 4069 KiB  
Article
Superabsorbent Hydrogels Based to Polyacrylamide/Cashew Tree Gum for the Controlled Release of Water and Plant Nutrients
by Heldeney Rodrigues Sousa, Idglan Sá Lima, Lucas Matheus Lima Neris, Albert Santos Silva, Ariane Maria Silva Santos Nascimento, Francisca Pereira Araújo, Rafael Felippe Ratke, Durcilene Alves Silva, Josy Anteveli Osajima, Leilson Rocha Bezerra and Edson Cavalcanti Silva-Filho
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2680; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092680 - 03 May 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3832
Abstract
Agricultural production is influenced by the water content in the soil and availability of fertilizers. Thus, superabsorbent hydrogels, based on polyacrylamide, natural cashew tree gum (CG) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (PHP), as fertilizer and water releaser were developed. The structure, morphology, thermal stability [...] Read more.
Agricultural production is influenced by the water content in the soil and availability of fertilizers. Thus, superabsorbent hydrogels, based on polyacrylamide, natural cashew tree gum (CG) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (PHP), as fertilizer and water releaser were developed. The structure, morphology, thermal stability and chemical composition of samples of polyacrylamide and cashew tree gum hydrogels with the presence of fertilizer (HCGP) and without fertilizer (HCG) were investigated, using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA/DTG) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Swelling/reswelling tests, textural analysis, effect of pH, release of nutrients and kinetics were determined; the ecotoxicity of the hydrogels was investigated by the Artemia salina test. The results showed that PHP incorporation in the hydrogel favored the crosslinking of chains. This increased the thermal stability in HCGP but decreased the hardness and adhesion properties. The HCGP demonstrated good swelling capacity (~15,000 times) and an excellent potential for reuse after fifty-five consecutive cycles. The swelling was favored in an alkaline pH due to the ionization of hydrophilic groups. The sustained release of phosphorus in HCGP was described by the Korsmeyer–Peppas model, and Fickian diffusion is the main fertilizer release mechanism. Finally, the hydrogels do not demonstrate toxicity, and HCGP has potential for application in agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Applications of Hydrogels)
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Review

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13 pages, 3284 KiB  
Review
Preparation and Biomedical Applications of Cucurbit[n]uril-Based Supramolecular Hydrogels
by Ruihan Gao, Qingmei Ge, Hang Cong, Yunqian Zhang and Jianglin Zhao
Molecules 2023, 28(8), 3566; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28083566 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1896
Abstract
The cucurbit[n]uril supramolecular hydrogels are driven by weak intermolecular interactions, of which exhibit good stimuli responsiveness and excellent self-healing properties. According to the composition of the gelling factor, supramolecular hydrogels comprise Q[n]-cross-linked small molecules and Q[n]-cross-linked polymers. According to different driving forces, hydrogels [...] Read more.
The cucurbit[n]uril supramolecular hydrogels are driven by weak intermolecular interactions, of which exhibit good stimuli responsiveness and excellent self-healing properties. According to the composition of the gelling factor, supramolecular hydrogels comprise Q[n]-cross-linked small molecules and Q[n]-cross-linked polymers. According to different driving forces, hydrogels are driven by the outer-surface interaction, the host–guest inclusion interaction, and the host–guest exclusion interaction. Host–guest interactions are widely used in the construction of self-healing hydrogels, which can spontaneously recover after being damaged, thereby prolonging their service life. The smart Q[n]s-based supramolecular hydrogel composed is a kind of adjustable and low-toxicity soft material. By designing the structure of the hydrogel or modifying the fluorescent properties, etc., it can be widely used in biomedicine. In this review, we mainly focus on the preparation of Q[n]-based hydrogels and their biomedical applications including cell encapsulation for biocatalysis, biosensors for high sensitivity, 3D printing for potential tissue engineering, drug release for sustained delivery, and interfacial adhesion for self-healing materials. In addition, we also presented the current challenges and prospects in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Applications of Hydrogels)
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22 pages, 2425 KiB  
Review
Nanostructured Lipid Carriers-Hydrogels System for Drug Delivery: Nanohybrid Technology Perspective
by Sharifah Nurfadhlin Afifah Syed Azhar, Siti Efliza Ashari, Norhazlin Zainuddin and Masriana Hassan
Molecules 2022, 27(1), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010289 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5374
Abstract
Advanced hybrid component development in nanotechnology provides superior functionality in the application of scientific knowledge for the drug delivery industry. The purpose of this paper is to review important nanohybrid perspectives in drug delivery between nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and hydrogel systems. The [...] Read more.
Advanced hybrid component development in nanotechnology provides superior functionality in the application of scientific knowledge for the drug delivery industry. The purpose of this paper is to review important nanohybrid perspectives in drug delivery between nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and hydrogel systems. The hybrid system may result in the enhancement of each component’s synergistic properties in the mechanical strength of the hydrogel and concomitantly decrease aggregation of the NLC. The significant progress in nanostructured lipid carriers–hydrogels is reviewed here, with an emphasis on their preparation, potential applications, advantages, and underlying issues associated with these exciting materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Applications of Hydrogels)
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