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Green Approaches in Multicomponent Reactions in the Synthesis of Heterocyclic Scaffolds

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2021) | Viewed by 7813

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Chemistry & Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Interests: green synthesis; heterocyclic scaffolds; medicinal chemistry; sustainable synthesis; heterogeneous catalysts
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, GITAM Institute of Sciences, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India
Interests: heterocyclic moieties; biological activity; organic synthesis; cascade reactions; microwaves; sonochemistry; grinding chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) integrate segments of three or more starting materials into novel target molecules in the one-pot process. In recent years, MCRs have been utilized extensively to form valuable heterocyclic structures. Further, they have been consolidated with subsequent modifications to yield complex structures, otherwise not easily obtainable via classical synthetic organic reactions. Moreover, they are ideal, due to their high atom economy, new bond-forming efficacy, inexpensive, easy separation and purification of products, and minimal waste generation. Novel MCRs or improvements, particularly in combination with other transformations, contribute significantly to the advancement of organic synthesis by providing greater flexibility, novelty, and efficiency. Applications of MCRs in drug discovery, material sciences, natural product synthesis, and the ligand or biological probe preparations further demonstrate the supremacy of these reactions. Environmentally benign and green synthetic reaction protocols and technologies are the foremost objectives in the present scenario. The concept of green chemistry represents a guiding tool for the synthetic chemist for sustainable development.

This Special Issue focuses on the latest developments in synthetic methodologies using MCRs aligned with the green chemistry principles toward achieving different types of transformations, with particular attention to the synthesis of biologically relevant organic scaffolds.

Prof. Dr. Sreekantha B. Jonnalagadda
Dr. Suresh Maddila
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • green synthesis
  • multicomponent synthesis
  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • microwave
  • ultrasonication
  • ionic liquids
  • drug development
  • green solvent-free organic synthesis
  • reactions in aqueous media
  • environment benign C–C and C–heteroatom bond formation methodologies

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 5642 KiB  
Article
Biochar-Based Graphitic Carbon Nitride Adorned with Ionic Liquid Containing Acidic Polymer: A Versatile, Non-Metallic Catalyst for Acid Catalyzed Reaction
by Samahe Sadjadi, Fatemeh Koohestani and Majid Heravi
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5958; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245958 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2752
Abstract
A novel biochar-based graphitic carbon nitride was prepared through calcination of Zinnia grandiflora petals and urea. To provide acidic and ionic-liquid functionalities on the prepared carbon, the resultant biochar-based graphitic carbon nitride was vinyl functionalized and polymerized with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid, acrylic acid and [...] Read more.
A novel biochar-based graphitic carbon nitride was prepared through calcination of Zinnia grandiflora petals and urea. To provide acidic and ionic-liquid functionalities on the prepared carbon, the resultant biochar-based graphitic carbon nitride was vinyl functionalized and polymerized with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid, acrylic acid and the as-prepared 1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium chloride. The final catalytic system that benefits from both acidic (–COOH and –SO3H) and ionic-liquid functionalities was applied as a versatile, metal-free catalyst for promoting some model acid catalyzed reactions such as Knoevenagel condensation and Biginelli reaction in aqueous media under a very mild reaction condition. The results confirmed high activity of the catalyst. Broad substrate scope and recyclability and stability of the catalyst were other merits of the developed protocols. Comparative experiments also indicated that both acidic and ionic-liquid functionalities on the catalyst participated in the catalysis. Full article
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Review

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32 pages, 39102 KiB  
Review
Advances in Pyranopyrazole Scaffolds’ Syntheses Using Sustainable Catalysts—A Review
by Ravi Kumar Ganta, Nagaraju Kerru, Suresh Maddila and Sreekantha B. Jonnalagadda
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3270; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113270 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4060
Abstract
Heterogeneous catalysis plays a crucial role in many chemical processes, including advanced organic preparations and the design and synthesis of new organic moieties. Efficient and sustainable catalysts are vital to ecological and fiscal viability. This is why green multicomponent reaction (MCR) approaches have [...] Read more.
Heterogeneous catalysis plays a crucial role in many chemical processes, including advanced organic preparations and the design and synthesis of new organic moieties. Efficient and sustainable catalysts are vital to ecological and fiscal viability. This is why green multicomponent reaction (MCR) approaches have gained prominence. Owing to a broad range of pharmacological applications, pyranopyrazole syntheses (through the one-pot strategy, employing sustainable heterogeneous catalysts) have received immense attention. This review aimed to emphasise recent developments in synthesising nitrogen-based fused heterocyclic ring frameworks, exploring diverse recyclable catalysts. The article focused on the synthetic protocols used between 2010 and 2020 using different single, bi- and tri-metallic materials and nanocomposites as reusable catalysts. This review designated the catalysts’ efficacy and activity in product yields, reaction time, and reusability. The MCR green methodologies (in conjunction with recyclable catalyst materials) proved eco-friendly and ideal, with a broad scope that could feasibly lead to advancements in organic synthesis. Full article
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