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Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2020) | Viewed by 46494

Special Issue Editor

Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), Italian National Research Council, Rome, Italy
Interests: food chemistry; nutraceuticals and botanicals; polyphenols; functional foods; antioxidants; biaccessibility; bioavailability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The study of the role of plant-derived antioxidants in food and human health has gained increased research interest. Scientific evidence has demonstrated that the human health influence of fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, and cacao originates from their antioxidant capacity. An antioxidant is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules. Antioxidants can protect the human body from free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), delaying many chronic diseases, as well as lipid peroxidation.

The most representative dietary antioxidants are vitamin C, tocopherols, carotenoids, and polyphenols. They may have synergistic effects; in fact, the diet represents a good example where the interactions of the constituents may give positive effects that are greater than the properties of the individual constituents. The main objective of this Special Issue on "Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents" is to be an open forum where researchers may share their investigations and findings in this field and, thanks to the open access platform, increase their visibility and the chance to interact with industries and production systems.

In this Special Issue, contributions, including original research and review articles, are welcome and may cover all aspects of antioxidants in health promoting activities. In particular, food fortification, antioxidant stability, synergistic and antagonistic effects, bioaccessibility, bioavailability, mechanism of action by different methods and approaches are of particular interest.

Dr. Cardinali Angela
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Polyphenols
  • Functional foods
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Carotenoids
  • Vitamins
  • Bioaccessibility
  • Bioavailability
  • Bioactive compounds
  • In vitro methods
  • Cellular models
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Food constituent
  • Antioxidant methods

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 4456 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Pro-Oxidant Capacities as Mechanisms of Photoprotection of Olive Polyphenols on UVA-Damaged Human Keratinocytes
Molecules 2021, 26(8), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082153 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2090
Abstract
A wide variety of polyphenols are reported to have considerable antioxidant and skin photoprotective effects, although the mechanisms of action are not fully known. Environmentally friendly and inexpensive sources of natural bioactive compounds, such as olive mill wastewater (OMWW), the by-product of olive-oil [...] Read more.
A wide variety of polyphenols are reported to have considerable antioxidant and skin photoprotective effects, although the mechanisms of action are not fully known. Environmentally friendly and inexpensive sources of natural bioactive compounds, such as olive mill wastewater (OMWW), the by-product of olive-oil processing, can be considered an economic source of bioactive polyphenols, with a range of biological activities, useful as chemotherapeutic or cosmeceutical agents. Green strategies, such as the process based on membrane technologies, allow to recover active polyphenols from this complex matrix. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant, pro-oxidant, and photoprotective effects, including the underlying action mechanism(s), of the ultra-filtered (UF) OMWW fractions, in order to substantiate their use as natural cosmeceutical ingredient. Six chemically characterized UF-OMWW fractions, from Italian and Greek olive cultivar processing, were investigated for their antioxidant activities, measured by Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), LDL oxidation inhibition, and ROS-quenching ability in UVA-irradiated HEKa (Human Epidermal Keratinocytes adult) cultures. The photoprotective properties of UF-OMWW were assayed as a pro-oxidant-mediated pro-apoptotic effect on the UVA-damaged HEKa cells, which can be potentially involved in the carcinogenesis process. All the UF-OMWW fractions exerted an effective antioxidant activity in vitro and in cells when administered together with UV-radiation on HEKa. A pro-oxidative and pro-apoptotic effect on the UVA-damaged HEKa cells were observed, suggesting some protective actions of polyphenol fraction on keratinocyte cell cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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12 pages, 15781 KiB  
Article
Neuroprotective Effect of Gallocatechin Gallate on Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hippocampal HT22 Cells
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051387 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3153
Abstract
Oxidative stress leads to protein degeneration or mitochondrial dysfunction, causing neuronal cell death. Glutamate is a neurotransmitter that nerve cells use to send signals. However, the excess accumulation of glutamate can cause excitotoxicity in the central nervous system. In this study, we deciphered [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress leads to protein degeneration or mitochondrial dysfunction, causing neuronal cell death. Glutamate is a neurotransmitter that nerve cells use to send signals. However, the excess accumulation of glutamate can cause excitotoxicity in the central nervous system. In this study, we deciphered the molecular mechanism of catechin-mediated neuroprotective effect on glutamate-induced oxidative stress in mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells. Cellular antioxidant activity was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) staining. Furthermore, the levels of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) as well as nuclear condensation and protein expression related to neuronal damage were assessed. All five catechins (epigallocatechin gallate, gallocatechin gallate (GCG), gallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epicatechin) showed strong antioxidant effects. Among them, GCG exhibited the highest neuroprotective effect against glutamate excitotoxicity and was used for further mechanistic studies. The glutamate-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ was reduced after GCG treatment. Moreover, GCG reduced nuclear condensation and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) involved in cell death. The neuroprotective effect of GCG against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells was attributed to the reduction in intracellular free radicals and Ca2+ influx and also the inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of GCG was found to be likely due to the inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK and JNK that led to the effective suppression of neurocytotoxicity caused by glutamate in HT22 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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13 pages, 1944 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Antidiabetic Proprieties of LC-MS/MS Identified Polyphenols from Coriander Seeds
Molecules 2021, 26(2), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020487 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 8669
Abstract
Coriandrum sativum L. seeds are traditionally used to treat diabetes and its complications (inflammation and formation of reactive oxygen species) around the world. The present study investigates the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects of the polyphenol fraction of Coriandrum sativum seeds (PCS). Diabetic [...] Read more.
Coriandrum sativum L. seeds are traditionally used to treat diabetes and its complications (inflammation and formation of reactive oxygen species) around the world. The present study investigates the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects of the polyphenol fraction of Coriandrum sativum seeds (PCS). Diabetic mice were orally administered with PCS (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w.) for 28 days. Oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) was also evaluated along with the anti-inflammatory effect, assessed by measuring paw edema development induced with carrageenan in Wistar rat and the antioxidant activity assessed using two tests (β-carotene discoloration and DPPH). Treatment of diabetic mice with PCS for four weeks managed their high fasting blood glucose levels, improved their overall health, also revealed an excellent antihyperlipidemic activity. The OGTT result showed a potent antihyperglycemic activity, and following the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, the PCS exhibited a perfect activity. LC-MS/MS result revealed the presence of 9 polyphenols. This modest work indicates that the PCS have an important antidiabetic, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effect that can be well established treatment of diabetes and its complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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13 pages, 3838 KiB  
Article
Strawberry Puree Functionalized with Natural Hydroxytyrosol: Effects on Vitamin C and Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5829; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245829 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
The natural antioxidant hydroxytyrosol (HT) was used to functionalize a strawberry puree. The effect of the antioxidant on the stability of the two bioactive forms of vitamin C (ascorbic acid-AA and dehydroascorbic acid-DHAA) in strawberry puree stored at 4 °C, compared with the [...] Read more.
The natural antioxidant hydroxytyrosol (HT) was used to functionalize a strawberry puree. The effect of the antioxidant on the stability of the two bioactive forms of vitamin C (ascorbic acid-AA and dehydroascorbic acid-DHAA) in strawberry puree stored at 4 °C, compared with the effect on a model system of AA in water, was investigated. In the absence of HT, the concentration of vitamin C in strawberry puree decreased but not in the model system. Low concentrations of HT in strawberry puree (0.05 and 0.1 mg HT/g puree) stabilized vitamin C and improved its antioxidant activity. However, at high concentrations of HT (from 0.5 mg HT/g puree), although the antioxidant activity improved, degradation of vitamin C occurred. Therefore, the concentration of HT used to obtain a functionalized strawberry puree it is very important. An adequate concentration increases the antioxidant activity and protects vitamin C from degradation, developing a functional food. However, an inadequate concentration of HT affects the vitamin C content, which is essential for the human diet because it cannot be biosynthetized by the organism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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12 pages, 1771 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Property of the Egyptian Propolis Extract Versus Aluminum Silicate Intoxication on a Rat’s Lung: Histopathological Studies
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5821; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245821 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the inflammatory responses induced by aluminum silicate (AS) cytotoxicity in rat lungs. The prophylactic effect of propolis extract was evaluated in 60 adult male albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups: (1) a normal, healthy control [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the inflammatory responses induced by aluminum silicate (AS) cytotoxicity in rat lungs. The prophylactic effect of propolis extract was evaluated in 60 adult male albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups: (1) a normal, healthy control group; (2) a normal group fed with 200 mL of propolis extract/Kg; (3) a low-dose positive control group injected with 5 mg/kg of AS; (4) a treated group given propolis and a low dose of AS; (5) a high-dose positive control group injected with 20 mg/kg of AS; and (6) a treated group given propolis with a high-dose of AS. At the end of the two-month experiment, the rats’ lungs were removed. For each pair of lungs, one portion was subjected to biochemical analysis and the other underwent hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining in order to study its histology. The rats that received AS doses displayed significant disorders in their antioxidant contents as well as in their enzymatic activities and their histopathological structures revealed severe damage to their lung tissues. Upon the rats being treated with propolis, the enzymatic and antioxidant contents improved and partial improvements in the lung structures appeared, including minimized congestion, a reduced hemorrhage of blood vessels and preserved bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. The prophylactic effectiveness of propolis extract on the cytotoxicity of AS, owing to the antioxidant properties of propolis, were studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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18 pages, 1534 KiB  
Article
Rose Hips, a Valuable Source of Antioxidants to Improve Gingerbread Characteristics
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5659; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235659 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3328
Abstract
The present study analyzes the complex of bioactive compounds from rose hips pulp powder (RHP) obtained after separating the seeds from Rosa canina L. in order to obtain the oil. The extract prepared from RHP was characterized in terms of the total content [...] Read more.
The present study analyzes the complex of bioactive compounds from rose hips pulp powder (RHP) obtained after separating the seeds from Rosa canina L. in order to obtain the oil. The extract prepared from RHP was characterized in terms of the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, flavonols, carotenoids, but also the content of individual polyphenols and carotenoids, antioxidant activity, and CIELab color parameters. The effects of some salts, potentially present in foods, and pH variations were examined to predict possible interactions that could occur when adding rosehip pulp as a food component. The results turned out to be a high content of polyphenols, carotenoids and antioxidant activity. The main phenolic components are procyanidin B1, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, procyanidin B2, gallic acid, salicylic acid, and catechin. The carotenoid complex includes all-trans-β-carotene, all-trans-lycopene, zeaxanthin, α-cryptoxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, rubixanthin, cis-β-carotene, cis-γ-carotene and cis-lycopene. The addition of CaCl2 and NaCl to the RHP extract reduced the antioxidant activity and the strong acidic environment (pH to 2.5) decreased the antioxidant activity by 29%. The addition of rose hip powder to gingerbread has improved its general characteristics, and increased its antioxidant activity and microbiological stability, the effects of 4% RHP being the most important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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16 pages, 2883 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Antioxidant Protein Hydrolysates from Pleurotus geesteranus and Their Protective Effects on H2O2 Oxidative Damaged PC12 Cells
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5408; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225408 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3046
Abstract
Pleurotus geesteranus is a promising source of bioactive compounds. However, knowledge of the antioxidant behaviors of P. geesteranus protein hydrolysates (PGPHs) is limited. In this study, PGPHs were prepared with papain, alcalase, flavourzyme, pepsin, and pancreatin, respectively. The antioxidant properties and cytoprotective effects [...] Read more.
Pleurotus geesteranus is a promising source of bioactive compounds. However, knowledge of the antioxidant behaviors of P. geesteranus protein hydrolysates (PGPHs) is limited. In this study, PGPHs were prepared with papain, alcalase, flavourzyme, pepsin, and pancreatin, respectively. The antioxidant properties and cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress of PGPHs were investigated using different chemical assays and H2O2 damaged PC12 cells, respectively. The results showed that PGPHs exhibited superior antioxidant activity. Especially, hydrolysate generated by alcalase displayed the strongest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (91.62%), 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothia zoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity (90.53%), ferric reducing antioxidant power, and metal ion-chelating activity (82.16%). Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that this hydrolysate was rich in hydrophobic, negatively charged, and aromatic amino acids, contributing to its superior antioxidant properties. Additionally, alcalase hydrolysate showed cytoprotective effects on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells via diminishing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by stimulating antioxidant enzyme activities. Taken together, alcalase hydrolysate of P. geesteranus protein can be used as beneficial ingredients with antioxidant properties and protective effects against ROS-mediated oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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17 pages, 2972 KiB  
Article
Impact of Brewing Methods on Total Phenolic Content (TPC) in Various Types of Coffee
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5274; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225274 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5707
Abstract
Coffee is a widely consumed beverage, both in Europe, where its consumption is highest, and on other continents. It provides many compounds, including phenolic compounds. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of various brewing methods on the total phenolic [...] Read more.
Coffee is a widely consumed beverage, both in Europe, where its consumption is highest, and on other continents. It provides many compounds, including phenolic compounds. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of various brewing methods on the total phenolic content (TPC) in the infusion. Research material comprised commercially available coffees: Instant Arabica and Robusta, freshly ground Arabica and Robusta (immediately prior to the analysis), ground Arabica and Robusta, decaffeinated Arabica, and green Arabica and Robusta. The following preparation methods were used: Pouring hot water over coffee grounds or instant coffee, preparing coffee in a percolator and using a coffee machine. Additional variables which were employed were water temperature (90 or 100 °C) and its type (filtered or unfiltered). In order to determine the impact of examined factors, 225 infusion were prepared. Total phenolic content was determined by the spectrophotometric method using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained results were expressed in mg gallic acid (GAE) per 100 g of brewed coffee. The highest value was obtained for 100% Arabica ground coffee prepared in a coffee percolator using unfiltered water at a temperature of 100 °C: 657.3 ± 23 mg GAE/100 g of infusion. High values were also observed for infusions prepared in a coffee machine, where the highest TPC value was 363.8 ± 28 mg GAE/100 g for ground Arabica. In turn, the lowest TPC was obtained for Arabica green coffee in opaque packaging, brewed with filtered water at a temperature of 100 °C: 19.5 ± 1 mg GAE/100 g of infusion. No significant effect of temperature and water type on the TPC within one type of coffee was observed. Due to its high content of phenolic compounds, Arabica coffee brewed in a coffee percolator should be the most popular choice for coffee drinkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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10 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Properties of Lyophilized Rosemary and Sage Extracts and its Effect to Prevent Lipid Oxidation in Poultry Pátê
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5160; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215160 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2660
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activities (AA) of lyophilized rosemary extract and lyophilized sage extract, and their effects on the oxidative stability of poultry pátê. For this purpose, four poultry pátê formulations with rosemary, sage, sodium erythorbate and a control (without [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activities (AA) of lyophilized rosemary extract and lyophilized sage extract, and their effects on the oxidative stability of poultry pátê. For this purpose, four poultry pátê formulations with rosemary, sage, sodium erythorbate and a control (without antioxidants) were produced. The rosemary and sage were characterized according to total phenolic compounds (TPC) and AA by several methods. The poultry pátês stored at 4 °C were evaluated by the lipid oxidation. High concentrations of TPC were detected in the rosemary extract and sage extract (46.48 and 41.61 mg GAE/g (Gallic acid equivalent), respectively). The AA of the rosemary and sage extracts determined by free radical-scavenging were 4745.72 and 2462.82 µmol TE/g (Trolox equivalents), respectively. The high concentrations of catechin, rutin, myricetin and p-coumaric acids in these extracts may be responsible for the strong inhibitory action against food pathogens. Besides this, these compounds can be responsible for the best performance in inhibiting lipid oxidation in poultry pátês during storage. This study suggests that rosemary and sage extracts may be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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13 pages, 10401 KiB  
Article
Three Types of Red Beetroot and Sour Cherry Based Marmalades with Enhanced Functional Properties
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5090; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215090 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
The importance of bioactive compounds such as betalains and anthocyanins was highlighted in the present study by the valorization of red beetroot and sour cherry as an attempt to develop healthy products. The aim of the study was to obtain and characterize three [...] Read more.
The importance of bioactive compounds such as betalains and anthocyanins was highlighted in the present study by the valorization of red beetroot and sour cherry as an attempt to develop healthy products. The aim of the study was to obtain and characterize three types of marmalade based on red beetroot, sour cherry and both in 1:1 combination, obtained by heating at 95 °C for 30 min. Changes in total phenolic content, total flavonoids, betalains, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were evaluated before and after the thermal treatment. Several other analyses such as color, rheological and textural analyses and confocal laser microscopy were performed to provide further information about the quality of the added-value food products. A significant decrease of 34% in betalains content was registered in the red beetroot marmalade due to the chemical changes in bioactives induced by the temperature. A satisfactory ABTS radical scavenging activity of 8.12 ± 0.38 mMol Trolox/g dry weight (dw) was obtained for the red beetroot and sour cherry based marmalade. The gelled structure was validated by the rheological and textural characteristics. The results highlighted the potential use of red beetroot and sour cherry as food raw materials, due to their particular profile of bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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15 pages, 1012 KiB  
Article
Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Olive Pomace Extracts: Impact of Gastrointestinal Digestion and Cyclodextrin Encapsulation
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5027; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215027 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2466
Abstract
Olive pomace is a valuable secondary raw material rich in polyphenols, left behind after the production of olive oil. The present study investigated the protective effect of a polyphenolic extract from olive pomace (OPE) on cell viability and antioxidant defense of cultured human [...] Read more.
Olive pomace is a valuable secondary raw material rich in polyphenols, left behind after the production of olive oil. The present study investigated the protective effect of a polyphenolic extract from olive pomace (OPE) on cell viability and antioxidant defense of cultured human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH). The investigation considered possible matrix effects, impact of gastrointestinal digestion and cyclodextrin (CD) encapsulation. Pre-treatment of cells with OPE prevented cell damage and increased intracellular glutathione but did not affect the activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. OPE matrix significantly enhanced cell protective effects of major antioxidants, such as hydroxytyrosol (HTS), while cyclodextrin encapsulation enhanced activity of OPE against intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The obtained results show that OPE is more potent antioxidant in comparison to equivalent dose of main polyphenols (HTS and TS) and that increasing solubility of OPE polyphenols by CD encapsulation or digestion enhances their potential to act as intracellular antioxidants. Antioxidative protection of cells by OPE was primarily achieved through direct radical-scavenging/reducing actions rather than activation of endogenous defense systems in the cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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15 pages, 4379 KiB  
Article
Beneficial Effects of Naringenin in Cigarette Smoke-Induced Damage to the Lung Based on Bioinformatic Prediction and In Vitro Analysis
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4704; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204704 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
Naringenin is found mainly in citrus fruits, and is thought to be beneficial in the prevention and control of lung diseases. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms of naringenin against the damage in the lung caused by cigarette smoke. A system bioinformatic [...] Read more.
Naringenin is found mainly in citrus fruits, and is thought to be beneficial in the prevention and control of lung diseases. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms of naringenin against the damage in the lung caused by cigarette smoke. A system bioinformatic approach was proposed to predict the mechanisms of naringenin for protecting lung health. Then, we validated this prediction in BEAS-2B cells treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). System bioinformatic analysis indicated that naringenin exhibits protective effects on lung through the inhibition of inflammation and suppression of oxidative stress based on a multi-pathways network, mainly including oxidative stress pathway, Nrf2 pathway, Lung fibrosis pathway, IL-3 signaling pathway, and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway. The in vitro results showed that naringenin significantly attenuated CSE-induced up-regulation of IL-8 and TNF-α. CSE stimulation increased the mRNA expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1; the levels of total protein and nuclear protein of Nrf2; and the activity of SOD on days 2 and 4; but decreased these indexes on day 6. Naringenin can balance the antioxidant system by regulating Nrf2 and its downstream genes, preliminarily validating that Nrf2 pathway is involved in the protection offered by naringenin against cigarette smoke-induced damage to the lung. It suggests that dietary naringenin shows possible potential use in the management of lung health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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14 pages, 689 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Micronutrients, Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Prickly Pear Cladodes as Functional Ingredient
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092176 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3931
Abstract
The Opuntia ficus indica (L.) (OFI) is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value added products. This study underlines the possible use of native prickly pear cladode powder as a functional ingredient for health-promoting food production. To summarise, [...] Read more.
The Opuntia ficus indica (L.) (OFI) is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value added products. This study underlines the possible use of native prickly pear cladode powder as a functional ingredient for health-promoting food production. To summarise, chemical characterization of polyphenols, minerals and soluble dietary fibre was performed; furthermore, the antioxidant activity and bioaccessibility of polyphenols and minerals were assessed. Eleven compounds between phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified, with piscidic acid and isorhamnetin derivatives being the most abundant. Opuntia’s dietary fibre was mainly constituted of mucilage and pectin, and was composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose sugars. The polyphenols’ bioaccessibility was very high: piscidic acid at 200%, eucomic and ferulic acids >110% and flavonoids from 89% to 100%. The prickly pear cladode powder is also a source of minerals, as cations (calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium) and anions (sulphate and chloride), with high magnesium bioaccessibilty (93%). OFI powder showed good capacity of radical scavenging measured by DPPH and ABTS methods, with 740 and 775 μmol Trolox/100 g OFI, respectively. Finally, the presented results allow the consideration of this natural product as a source of several essential nutrients, with a possible use in the food industry as a functional ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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16 pages, 1634 KiB  
Article
Proteomic Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Response to Oxidative Stress Mediated by Cocoa Polyphenols Extract
Molecules 2020, 25(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030452 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
The present study addressed the protective effects against oxidative stress (OS) of a cocoa powder extract (CPEX) on the protein expression profile of S. cerevisiae. A proteomic analysis was performed after culture preincubation with CPEX either without stress (−OS) or under stress [...] Read more.
The present study addressed the protective effects against oxidative stress (OS) of a cocoa powder extract (CPEX) on the protein expression profile of S. cerevisiae. A proteomic analysis was performed after culture preincubation with CPEX either without stress (−OS) or under stress conditions (+OS) (5 mM of H2O2). LC-MS/MS identified 33 differentially expressed proteins (–OS: 14, +OS: 19) that were included By Gene Ontology analysis in biological processes: biosynthesis of amino acids, carbohydrate metabolism and reactive oxygen species metabolic process. In a gene-knockout strains study, eight proteins were identified as putative candidates for being involved in the protective mechanism of cocoa polyphenols against OS induced by H2O2. CPEX was able to exert its antioxidant activity in yeast mainly through the regulation of: (a) amino acids metabolism proteins by modulating the production of molecules with known antioxidant roles; (b) stress-responsive protein Yhb1, but we were unable to fully understand its down-regulation; (c) protein Prb1, which can act by clipping Histone H3 N-terminal tails that are related to cellular resistance to DNA damaging agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
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