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Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Flavours and Fragrances".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 31238

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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University Federico II of Naples, Via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: food safety and food quality; metabolomics; food chemistry; chromatography; mass-spectrometry; nutraceuticals; novel foods; methods of extraction
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Guest Editor
Chemistry Interdisciplinary Project (CHIP), School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri, 62032 Camerino, Italy
Interests: medicinal chemistry; small-molecules; essential oils; naturally-occurring compounds; NAD-dependent enzymes; plant secondary metabolites; bioactive-active fractionation; phytochemicals; ethnopharmacology; biological activity of natural compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The plant secondary metabolism relies on thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which play important roles in plant physiology and defense systems. They are synthesized in the cell plastid and cytosol by specific enzymes and chemically characterized as terpenoids and aromatic and aliphatic compounds. VOCs are obtainable under a liquid, hydrophobic form named “essential oil”, through the classical techniques of steam- and hydrodistillation and cold pressing, although unconventional extraction techniques have also recently been used. In addition to affecting the sensory qualities of foods, cosmetics, and perfumes, VOCs are currently considered important mediators of biological activities. The fragrance industry produces hundreds of thousands of tons of essential oils every year, which are designed for perfume manufacturing. However, they have shown an interesting potential of use in other sectors, such as food, agriculture, and pharmaceutics. Nevertheless, only a small part of them is devoted to replacing the use of currently marketed pesticides and to supporting agriculture in facing environmental challenges.

As a result of the worldwide population growth (which is expected to rise from 7.5 to 10 billion by 2050), the FAO recently released a document where they forewarn that a significant increase in agriculture production would be recommended to meet the future demand for food. The yield of grain crops has already reached a “plateau”, and the indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides has caused serious problems with environmental pollution and food safety. In addition, global warming will be responsible for progressive exposure of soils to degradation and loss of fertility and will play an important role in the spread of plant pathogens responsible for frequent epidemics. In this scenario, VOCs represent a natural, ecosustainable, ecofriendly strategy to enhance future smart agriculture while preserving the environment, natural resources, and human health. However, the high costs associated with scalability, formulation, and marketing may represent their limit, which may affect the initial investments. On the other hand, restrictive legislation on the use of chemical pesticides and the current increasing attention of the food and agrochemical industries on sustainable and ecofriendly solutions could attract significant investments, thus making VOCs more appealing.

On this basis, this Special Issue is designed to gather review and original papers review papers dealing with the potential of VOCs in agriculture, food, and pharmaceutical applications through the study of their extraction and characterization, evaluation of their biological properties, and development of targeted delivery systems (e.g., micro and nanoemulsions).

Prof. Dr. Domenico Montesano
Prof. Dr. Riccardo Petrelli
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • essential oils
  • agriculture
  • food
  • formulations
  • crop protection
  • insecticides
  • extraction techniques
  • chemical characterization
  • biological activity

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 3261 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Volatile Iridoid Terpenes in Nepeta cataria L. (Catnip) Genotypes
by Harna Patel, Erik Nunes Gomes, Bo Yuan, Weiting Lyu, Qingli Wu and James E. Simon
Molecules 2022, 27(20), 7057; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27207057 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2278
Abstract
Catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) is of scientific interest largely due to the production of nepetalactones, volatile iridoid terpenes with strong arthropod repellent activity. However, the plant can also produce other bioactive volatile iridoids, such as nepetalic acid (NA), nepetalactam (NT) and dihydronepetalactone [...] Read more.
Catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) is of scientific interest largely due to the production of nepetalactones, volatile iridoid terpenes with strong arthropod repellent activity. However, the plant can also produce other bioactive volatile iridoids, such as nepetalic acid (NA), nepetalactam (NT) and dihydronepetalactone (DHNL) that have not been studied extensively. Germplasm studies on plants that can produce such compounds are scarce. The present study evaluated the chemical diversity of catnip genotypes with a focus on NA, NT and DHNL. A total of 34 genotypes were harvested at different times over two years. The ethanolic extract of the plants was screened for iridoids by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. CR9 × CR3 genotype had the highest value for biomass yield, while cultivar CR9 had the highest value for accumulated NA. Genotype UK.2 had the highest value for accumulated NT yield and CR5 had the highest value for accumulated DHNL. Overall, patented cultivars and elite selections performed better than other less studied genotypes. Harvest time influenced the accumulation of secondary metabolites differentially for the genotypes. This is the first germplasm study with a focus on these iridoid compounds, yet more studies are necessary as genotype characterization is essential for breeding and standardization of products for industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
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10 pages, 2124 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Comparison of Two Color Varieties of Perillae Folium by GC-MS-Based Metabolomic Approach
by Jiabao Chen, Dan Zhang, Qian Wang, Aitong Yang, Yuguang Zheng and Lei Wang
Molecules 2022, 27(20), 6792; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27206792 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Perillae Folium (PF), the leaf of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt, is extensively used as culinary vegetable in many countries. It can be divided into two major varietal forms based on leaf color variation, including purple PF (Perilla frutescens var. arguta) and [...] Read more.
Perillae Folium (PF), the leaf of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt, is extensively used as culinary vegetable in many countries. It can be divided into two major varietal forms based on leaf color variation, including purple PF (Perilla frutescens var. arguta) and green PF (P. frutescens var. frutescens). The aroma of purple and green PF is discrepant. To figure out the divergence of chemical composition in purple and green PF, gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to analyze compounds in purple and green PF. A total of 54 compounds were identified and relatively quantified. Multivariate statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) and clustering analysis (CA), were used to screen the chemical markers for discrimination of purple and green PF. Seven compounds that accumulated discrepantly in green and purple PF were characterized as chemical markers for the discrimination of the purple and green PF. Among these 7 marker compounds, limonene, shisool and perillaldehyde that from the same branch of the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway were with relatively higher contents in purple PF, while perilla ketone, isoegomaketone, tocopheryl and squalene on other branch pathways were higher in green PF. The results of the present study are expected to provide theoretical support for the development and utilization of PF resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
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12 pages, 1447 KiB  
Article
Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction Versus Hydrodistillation of Volatile Compounds from Leaves of Cultivated Mentha Taxa: Markers of Safe Chemotypes
by Adam Kowalczyk, Piotr Kuś, Zvonimir Marijanović, Carlo I. G. Tuberoso, Izabela Fecka and Igor Jerković
Molecules 2022, 27(19), 6561; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27196561 - 4 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
Various mint taxa are widely cultivated and are used not only for medicinal purposes but also in cosmetic and industrial applications. The development of new varieties or cultivars of mint generates difficulties in their correct identification and safe use. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [...] Read more.
Various mint taxa are widely cultivated and are used not only for medicinal purposes but also in cosmetic and industrial applications. The development of new varieties or cultivars of mint generates difficulties in their correct identification and safe use. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the leaves of seven different taxa of the genus Mentha obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was also performed. Comparative GC-MS analysis of the obtained extracts showed similarity in the major compounds. PCA data allowed the separation of two groups of chemotypes among the analyzed mints, characterized by the abundance of piperitenone oxide and carvone. Two out of seven analyzed taxa were not previously examined for VOC profile, one was examined only for patent application purposes, and six out of seven were investigated for the first time using the HS-SPME technique. The presented analysis provides new data on the abundance and qualitative characterization of VOCs in the studied mint plants and on the safety of their use, related to the possibility of the presence of potentially toxic components. HS-SPME is a valuable method to extend the characterization of the VOC profile obtained by hydrodistillation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
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20 pages, 2891 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Antitumor Potential, and Impact on Redox Homeostasis of the Essential Oils of Orlaya grandiflora from Two Climate Localities
by Milena D. Vukic, Ana D. Obradovic, Nenad L. Vukovic, Miroslava Kačániová, Predrag M. Djurdjevic, Gorica T. Djelic and Milos M. Matic
Molecules 2022, 27(18), 5908; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27185908 - 11 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1585
Abstract
It is well known that abiotic components can affect biosynthetic pathways in the production of certain volatile compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm. collected from two localities in [...] Read more.
It is well known that abiotic components can affect biosynthetic pathways in the production of certain volatile compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm. collected from two localities in Serbia (continental climate, OG1) and Montenegro (Mediterranean climate, OG2) and to assess their antitumor potential on the human colon cancer HCT-116 and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell lines. EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed using GC-MS and GC-FID methods. The results indicate considerable differences in the chemical compositions of the two samples. Although in both samples the main class of volatiles observed was sesquiterpenes (47.5% for OG1 and 70.1% for OG2), the OG1 sample was characterized by a high amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons (29.3%), and sesquiterpene germacrene D (29.5%) as the most abundant compound. On the other hand, the OG2 sample contained a high quantity of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (20.6%), and β-elemene (22.7%) was the major constituent. The possible antitumor mechanisms of these EOs in the HCT-116 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines were examined by means of cell viability, apoptosis, redox potential, and migratory capacity. The antiviability potential appeared to be dose dependent, since the results showed that both EOs decreased the viability of the tested cells. Stronger antitumor effects were shown in MDA-MB-231 cells after short-term treatment, especially at the highest applied concentration, where the percentage of viability was reduced by over 40%. All tested concentrations of EOs exhibited proapoptotic activity and elevated activity of caspase-3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The results also showed decreased concentrations of superoxide anion radical in the treated cells, which indicates their significant antioxidative role. Long-term treatments showed mild recovery effects on cell viability in both cell lines, probably caused by the balancing of redox homeostasis. Elevated levels of nitrites indicate high levels of nitric oxide (NO) production and suggest its higher bioavailability due to the antioxidative environment. The tested EOs also induced a drop in migratory capacity, especially after short-time treatments. Taken together, these results suggest considerable antitumor activity of both EOs, which could have potential therapeutic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
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9 pages, 806 KiB  
Article
Essential Oil Composition and Stable Isotope Profile of Cultivated Ocimum campechianum Mill. (Lamiaceae) from Peru
by Tyler M. Wilson, Brett J. Murphy, Adrian Abad, Chris Packer, Ariel Poulson and Richard E. Carlson
Molecules 2022, 27(9), 2777; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092777 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
Ocimum campechianum Mill. (Peruvian basil) is an essential oil-bearing plant of the Lamiaceae family. Volatile oil produced through steam distillation of Peruvian basil was examined to establish the aromatic and stable isotope profiles of samples (n = 9) from three different cultivated [...] Read more.
Ocimum campechianum Mill. (Peruvian basil) is an essential oil-bearing plant of the Lamiaceae family. Volatile oil produced through steam distillation of Peruvian basil was examined to establish the aromatic and stable isotope profiles of samples (n = 9) from three different cultivated plots in Peru. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by GC/FID, GC/MS, and GC/IRMS. In accordance with findings from other researchers, multiple chemotypes, defined by the most abundant aromatic compounds, exist within these populations. Overall, 55% of samples are the eugenol chemotype (values ranging 15.4–30.2%), 33% are the methyl eugenol chemotype (values ranging 68.1–68.7%), and a single sample is a mixture of both chemotypes, containing high levels of both eugenol (38.1%) and methyl eugenol (8.6%). Stable isotope ratios, δ2H and δ13C, performed on prominent compounds provide supporting data for distinguishing chemotypes. Complete aromatic profiles, stable isotope ratios, and essential oil yield are established for each sample. This study confirms the existence of multiple chemotypes and, for the first time, to the author’s best knowledge, establishes stable isotope ratios for O. campechianum essential oil, which proves a useful tool in further investigating plant metabolism and determining essential oil authenticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
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17 pages, 2795 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Components and Anticancer Activities of Spray-Dried New Zealand Tamarillo Powder
by Qian Liu, Nazimah Hamid, Ye Liu, Rothman Kam, Kevin Kantono, Kelvin Wang and Jun Lu
Molecules 2022, 27(9), 2687; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092687 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
Tamarillo fruit contains many phytochemicals that have beneficial therapeutic and nutritional properties. Spray-drying is widely used to preserve fruit puree in powder form. However, to obtain high-quality fruit powder, the optimisation of spray-drying conditions is necessary, as a high drying temperature can damage [...] Read more.
Tamarillo fruit contains many phytochemicals that have beneficial therapeutic and nutritional properties. Spray-drying is widely used to preserve fruit puree in powder form. However, to obtain high-quality fruit powder, the optimisation of spray-drying conditions is necessary, as a high drying temperature can damage sensitive bioactive compounds. This study investigated the effects of spray-drying on the microstructure, polyphenolics, total flavonoids, total carotenoids, antioxidant activity, and anticancer capacity of tamarillo powder. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the spray-drying process to produce tamarillo powder. The independent variables were inlet drying temperature (120–160 °C), flow rate (1–5 g/mL), and maltodextrin concentration (0–10%). These variables influenced the microstructural attributes, bioactive components, and cytotoxicity of the spray-dried tamarillo powder. The increase in polyphenols and antioxidant activities were favoured under high-temperature spray drying conditions and a low carrier concentration. The optimised spray-drying conditions for producing tamarillo powder with high antioxidant and anticancer activities, high yield, and stable bioactive compounds were found to be at 146.8 °C inlet temperature, and a flow rate of 1.76 g/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
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12 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Essential Oils as In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation Manipulators to Mitigate Methane Emission by Beef Cattle Grazing Tropical Grasses
by Gabriela Benetel, Thaysa dos Santos Silva, Gisele Maria Fagundes, Katiéli Caroline Welter, Flavia Alves Melo, Annelise A. G. Lobo, James Pierre Muir and Ives C. S. Bueno
Molecules 2022, 27(7), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072227 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2805
Abstract
There is increasing pressure to identify natural feed additives to mitigate methane emissions from livestock systems. Our objective was to investigate the effects of essential oils (EO) extracts star anise (Illicium verum), citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus), clove bud (Eugenia [...] Read more.
There is increasing pressure to identify natural feed additives to mitigate methane emissions from livestock systems. Our objective was to investigate the effects of essential oils (EO) extracts star anise (Illicium verum), citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllus), staigeriana eucalyptus (Eucalyptus staigeriana), globulus eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), ginger (Zingiber officinale), ho wood (Cinnamomum camphora), melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia), oregano (Origanum vulgare) and white thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on in vitro methane emissions from four rumen-cannulated Nellore cattle grazing a tropical grass pasture as inoculum donors. The semi-automated gas production technique was used to assess total gas production, dry matter degradability, partitioning factor, ammoniacal nitrogen, short-chain fatty acids and methane production. All essential oils were tested in four doses (0, 50, 250 and 500 mg/L) in a randomized block design, arranged with four blocks, 10 treatments, four doses and two replicates. Within our study, oregano and white Thyme EO reduced net methane production at 250 mg/L, without affecting substrate degradation. Essential oils from oregano and white thyme have the potential to modify ruminal fermentation and suppress rumen methanogenesis without negative effects on feed digestibility, indicating promise as alternatives to ionophores for methane reduction in beef cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
18 pages, 1715 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids and Volatile Profile of Apple By-Products by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
by Anca Corina Fărcaș, Sonia Ancuța Socaci, Maria Simona Chiș, Francisc Vasile Dulf, Paula Podea and Maria Tofană
Molecules 2022, 27(6), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27061987 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3090
Abstract
Apple industrial by-products are a promising source of bioactive compounds with direct implications on human health. The main goal of the present work was to characterize the Jonathan and Golden Delicious by-products from their fatty acid, amino acid, and volatile aroma compounds’ point [...] Read more.
Apple industrial by-products are a promising source of bioactive compounds with direct implications on human health. The main goal of the present work was to characterize the Jonathan and Golden Delicious by-products from their fatty acid, amino acid, and volatile aroma compounds’ point of view. GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and ITEX/GC-MS methods were used for the by-products characterization. Linoleic and oleic were the main fatty acids identified in all samples, while palmitic and stearic acid were the representant of saturated ones. With respect to amino acids, from the essential group, isoleucine was the majority compound identified in JS (Jonathan skin) and GS (Golden skin) samples, lysine was the representant of JP (Jonathan pomace), and valine was mainly identified in GP (Golden pomace). A total number of 47 aroma volatile compounds were quantified in all samples, from which the esters groups ranged from 41.55–53.29%, aldehydes 29.75–43.99%, alcohols from 4.15 to 6.37%, ketones 4.14–5.72%, and the terpenes and terpenoids group reached values between 2.27% and 4.61%. Moreover, the by-products were valorized in biscuits manufacturing, highlighting their importance in enhancing the volatile aroma compounds, color, and sensorial analysis of the final baked goods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
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14 pages, 1426 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Biological Activities and In Silico Analysis of Essential Oils of Three Endemic Prangos Species from Turkey
by Gokhan Zengin, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally, Evren Yıldıztugay, Sharmeen Jugreet, Shafi Ullah Khan, Stefano Dall’Acqua, Adriano Mollica, Abdelhakim Bouyahya and Domenico Montesano
Molecules 2022, 27(5), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27051676 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2430
Abstract
In this study, the essential oils (EOs) obtained from three endemic Prangos species from Turkey (P. heyniae, P. meliocarpoides var. meliocarpoides, and P. uechtritzii) were studied for their chemical composition and biological activities. β-Bisabolenal (12.2%) and caryophyllene oxide [...] Read more.
In this study, the essential oils (EOs) obtained from three endemic Prangos species from Turkey (P. heyniae, P. meliocarpoides var. meliocarpoides, and P. uechtritzii) were studied for their chemical composition and biological activities. β-Bisabolenal (12.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.9%) were the principal components of P. heyniae EO, while P. meliocarpoides EO contained sabinene (16.7%) and p-cymene (13.2%), and P. uechtritzii EO contained p-cymene (24.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (19.6%), as the most abundant components. With regard to their antioxidant activity, all the EOs were found to possess free radical scavenging potential demonstrated in both DPPH and ABTS assays (0.43–1.74 mg TE/g and 24.18–92.99 mg TE/g, respectively). Additionally, while no inhibitory activity was displayed by P. meliocarpoides and P. uechtritzii EOs against both cholinesterases (acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterases). Moreover, all the EOs were found to act as inhibitors of tyrosinase (46.34–69.56 mg KAE/g). Molecular docking revealed elemol and α-bisabolol to have the most effective binding affinity with tyrosinase and amylase. Altogether, this study unveiled some interesting biological activities of these EOs, especially as natural antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors and hence offers stimulating prospects of them in the development of anti-hyperpigmentation topical formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
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20 pages, 4355 KiB  
Article
Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Narcissus poeticus L. Flowers for the Isolation of Volatile Fragrance Compounds
by Renata Baranauskienė and Petras Rimantas Venskutonis
Molecules 2022, 27(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27020353 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
The flowers of Narcissus poeticus are used for the isolation of valuable fragrance substances. So far, as the majority of these substances consist of volatile and sensitive to heat compounds, there is a need of developing effective methods for their recovery. In this [...] Read more.
The flowers of Narcissus poeticus are used for the isolation of valuable fragrance substances. So far, as the majority of these substances consist of volatile and sensitive to heat compounds, there is a need of developing effective methods for their recovery. In this study, freeze-dried N. poeticus inflorescences were extracted with pure supercritical CO2 (SFE-CO2) and its mixture with 5% co-solvent ethanol (EtOH) at 40 °C. Extract yields varied from 1.63% (12 MPa) to 3.12% (48 MPa, 5% EtOH). In total, 116 volatile compounds were identified by GC-TOF/MS in the extracts, which were divided into 20 different groups. Benzyl benzoate (9.44–10.22%), benzyl linoleate (1.72–2.17%) and benzyl alcohol (0.18–1.00%) were the major volatiles among aromatic compounds. The amount of the recovered benzyl benzoate in N. poeticus SFE-CO2 extracts varied from 58.98 ± 2.61 (24 MPa) to 91.52 ± 1.36 (48 MPa) mg/kg plant dry weight (pdw). α-Terpineol dominated among oxygenated monoterpenes (1.08–3.42%); its yield was from 9.25 ± 0.63 (12 MPa) to 29.88 ± 1.25 (48 MPa/EtOH) mg/kg pdw. Limonene was the major monoterpene hydrocarbon; (3E)-hexenol and heneicosanol dominated among alcohols and phenols; dihydroactinidiolide and 4,8,12,16-tetramethyl heptadecan-4-olide were the most abundant lactones; heptanal, nonanal, (2E,4E)-decadienal and octadecanal were the most abundant aldehydes. The most important prenol lipids were triterpenoid squalene, from 0.86 ± 0.10 (24 MPa) to 7.73 ± 0.18 (48 MPa/EtOH) mg/kg pdw and D-α-tocopherol, from 1.20 ± 0.04 (12 MPa) to 15.39 ± 0.31 (48 MPa/EtOH) mg/kg pdw. Aliphatic hydrocarbons (waxes) constituted the main part (41.47 to 54.93%) in the extracts; while in case of a 5% EtOH the percentage of alkanes was the lowest. The fraction of waxes may be removed for the separation of higher value fragrance materials. In general, the results obtained are promising for a wider application of SFE-CO2 for the recovery of fragrance substances from N. poeticus flowers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
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17 pages, 1737 KiB  
Article
Effect of Plasma Activated Water on Selected Chemical Compounds of Rocket-Salad (Eruca sativa Mill.) Leaves
by Doaa Abouelenein, Simone Angeloni, Giovanni Caprioli, Jessica Genovese, Ahmed M. Mustafa, Franks Kamgang Nzekoue, Riccardo Petrelli, Pietro Rocculi, Gianni Sagratini, Silvia Tappi, Elisabetta Torregiani and Sauro Vittori
Molecules 2021, 26(24), 7691; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247691 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
Plasma activated water (PAW) has proven to be a promising alternative for the decontamination of rocket leaves. The impact of PAW on the volatile profile, phytosterols, and pigment content of rocket leaves was studied. Leaves were treated by PAW at different times (2, [...] Read more.
Plasma activated water (PAW) has proven to be a promising alternative for the decontamination of rocket leaves. The impact of PAW on the volatile profile, phytosterols, and pigment content of rocket leaves was studied. Leaves were treated by PAW at different times (2, 5, 10, and 20 min). Compounds of the headspace were detected and quantified using GC–MS analysis. A total of 52 volatile organic compounds of different chemical classes were identified. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products are the major chemical class. PAW application induced some chemical modifications in the volatile compounds. Changes in the content of the major compounds varied with the increase or decrease in the treatment time. However, PAW-10 and -2 were grouped closely to the control. A significant decrease in the content of β-sitosterol and campesterol was observed after PAW treatment, except for PAW-10, which showed a non-significant reduction in both compounds. A significant increase in β carotene, luteolin, and chlorophyll b was observed after the shortest treatment time of PAW-2. A reduction in chlorophyll content was also observed, which is significant only at longer treatment, or PAW-20. Overall, PAW has proven to be a safe alternative for rocket decontamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
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Review

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29 pages, 443 KiB  
Review
Essential Oil of the Plants Growing in the Brazilian Amazon: Chemical Composition, Antioxidants, and Biological Applications
by Oberdan Oliveira Ferreira, Jorddy Neves Cruz, Ângelo Antônio Barbosa de Moraes, Celeste de Jesus Pereira Franco, Rafael Rodrigues Lima, Taina Oliveira dos Anjos, Giovanna Moraes Siqueira, Lidiane Diniz do Nascimento, Márcia Moraes Cascaes, Mozaniel Santana de Oliveira and Eloisa Helena de Aguiar Andrade
Molecules 2022, 27(14), 4373; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27144373 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3043
Abstract
Essential oils are biosynthesized in the secondary metabolism of plants, and in their chemical composition, they can be identified different classes of compounds with potential antioxidant and biological applications. Over the years in the Amazon, several species of aromatic plants were discovered and [...] Read more.
Essential oils are biosynthesized in the secondary metabolism of plants, and in their chemical composition, they can be identified different classes of compounds with potential antioxidant and biological applications. Over the years in the Amazon, several species of aromatic plants were discovered and used in traditional medicine. The literature has shown that essential oils extracted from amazon species have several biological activities, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, and antiprotozoal activities. These activities are related to the diversified chemical composition found in essential oils that, by synergism, favors its pharmacological action. In light of this vital importance, this study aimed at performing a review of the literature with particular emphasis on the chemical composition and biological activities in studies conducted with species collected in the Amazon, taking into consideration in particular the last 10 years of collection and research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
14 pages, 6759 KiB  
Review
Pharmacological Effects of Grifolin: Focusing on Anticancer Mechanisms
by Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Aicha El Allam, Ikrame Zeouk, Douae Taha, Gokhan Zengin, Bey Hing Goh, Michelina Catauro, Domenico Montesano and Nasreddine El Omari
Molecules 2022, 27(1), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010284 - 3 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2813
Abstract
Grifolin is a volatile compound contained in essential oils of several medicinal plants. Several studies show that this substance has been the subject of numerous pharmacological investigations, which have yielded interesting results. Grifolin demonstrated beneficial effects for health via its multiple pharmacological activities. [...] Read more.
Grifolin is a volatile compound contained in essential oils of several medicinal plants. Several studies show that this substance has been the subject of numerous pharmacological investigations, which have yielded interesting results. Grifolin demonstrated beneficial effects for health via its multiple pharmacological activities. It has anti-microbial properties against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In addition, grifolin exhibited remarkable anti-cancer effects on different human cancer cells. The anticancer action of this molecule is related to its ability to act at cellular and molecular levels on different checkpoints controlling the signaling pathways of human cancer cell lines. Grifolin can induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy, and senescence in these cells. Despite its major pharmacological properties, grifolin has only been investigated in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, further investigations concerning pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic tests are required for any possible pharmaceutical application of this substance. Moreover, toxicological tests and other investigations involving humans as a study model are required to validate the safety and clinical applications of grifolin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers on Bioactive Flavour and Fragrance Compounds 2022)
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