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Antimicrobial Polymers 2020

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Macromolecular Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2021) | Viewed by 21140

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
Interests: biomimetic materials; antimicrobial polymers; tissue adhesives; biointerface; smart materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering Michigan Technological University 309 M&M Building, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, USA
Interests: polymer chemistry; antimicrobial polymers and surfaces; multicomponent reaction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bacterial infections have become a tremendous public health issue. Administration of antibiotics is a common practice to control and prevent infection. However, over-reliance on antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains. In recent decades, antimicrobial polymers have been presented as promising candidates to combat bacterial pathogens, mainly based on the construction of bactericidal cationic polymers, functionalization with biocidal agents, and formation of bacterial-repelling layers. Antimicrobial polymers present a wide range of possibilities in applications areas of medicine, household, food, aeronautic, etc. due to their nontoxic and non-irritant properties with improved and prolonged antimicrobial activities, compared with ordinary low molecular weight antibacterial agents. Hence, antimicrobial polymers play a vital role in combating bacteria pathogens and helping to prevent antibiotic resistance.

Contributions to this Special Issue may cover the rational design and synthesis of novel polymeric materials with antimicrobial activities or their applications in biomedical devices or other applications (antimicrobial surfaces or hydrogels). Short communications, original research papers or review articles are welcomed.

Prof. Bruce P. Lee
Dr. Bo Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial polymers
  • Antimicrobial activities
  • Synthesis of polymers
  • Cationic polymers
  • Bacterial infections
  • Surface functionalization
  • Medical devices

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 2923 KiB  
Article
Polymeric Nanoparticles Active against Dual-Species Bacterial Biofilms
by Jessa Marie V. Makabenta, Jungmi Park, Cheng-Hsuan Li, Aritra Nath Chattopadhyay, Ahmed Nabawy, Ryan F. Landis, Akash Gupta, Suzannah Schmidt-Malan, Robin Patel and Vincent M. Rotello
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4958; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164958 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3294
Abstract
Biofilm infections are a global public health threat, necessitating new treatment strategies. Biofilm formation also contributes to the development and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Biofilm-associated chronic infections typically involve colonization by more than one bacterial species. The co-existence of multiple species [...] Read more.
Biofilm infections are a global public health threat, necessitating new treatment strategies. Biofilm formation also contributes to the development and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Biofilm-associated chronic infections typically involve colonization by more than one bacterial species. The co-existence of multiple species of bacteria in biofilms exacerbates therapeutic challenges and can render traditional antibiotics ineffective. Polymeric nanoparticles offer alternative antimicrobial approaches to antibiotics, owing to their tunable physico-chemical properties. Here, we report the efficacy of poly(oxanorborneneimide) (PONI)-based antimicrobial polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) against multi-species bacterial biofilms. PNPs showed good dual-species biofilm penetration profiles as confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed, with reduction in both bacterial viability and overall biofilm mass. Further, PNPs displayed minimal fibroblast toxicity and high antimicrobial activity in an in vitro co-culture model comprising fibroblast cells and dual-species biofilms of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study highlights a potential clinical application of the presented polymeric platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2020)
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8 pages, 763 KiB  
Communication
Unexpected Enhancement of Antimicrobial Polymer Activity against Staphylococcus aureus in the Presence of Fetal Bovine Serum
by Iva Sovadinová, Kenichi Kuroda and Edmund F. Palermo
Molecules 2021, 26(15), 4512; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154512 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Cationic and amphiphilic polymers are known to exert broad-spectrum antibacterial activity by a putative mechanism of membrane disruption. Typically, nonspecific binding to hydrophobic components of the complex biological milieu, such as globular proteins, is considered a deterrent to the successful application of such [...] Read more.
Cationic and amphiphilic polymers are known to exert broad-spectrum antibacterial activity by a putative mechanism of membrane disruption. Typically, nonspecific binding to hydrophobic components of the complex biological milieu, such as globular proteins, is considered a deterrent to the successful application of such polymers. To evaluate the extent to which serum deactivates antibacterial polymethacrylates, we compared their minimum inhibitory concentrations in the presence and absence of fetal bovine serum. Surprisingly, we discovered that the addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the assay media in fact enhances the antimicrobial activity of polymers against Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus, whereas the opposite is the case for Gram-negative E. coli. Here, we present these unexpected trends and develop a hypothesis to potentially explain this unusual phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2020)
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14 pages, 1574 KiB  
Article
Weathering of Antibacterial Melt-Spun Polyfilaments Modified by Pine Rosin
by Mikko Kanerva, Jacob Mensah-Attipoe, Arja Puolakka, Timo M. Takala, Marko Hyttinen, Rama Layek, Sarianna Palola, Vladimir Yudin, Pertti Pasanen and Per Saris
Molecules 2021, 26(4), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040876 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2472
Abstract
For many antibacterial polymer fibres, especially for those with natural functional additives, the antibacterial response might not last over time. Moreover, the mechanical performance of polymeric fibres degrades significantly during the intended operation, such as usage in textile and industrial filter applications. The [...] Read more.
For many antibacterial polymer fibres, especially for those with natural functional additives, the antibacterial response might not last over time. Moreover, the mechanical performance of polymeric fibres degrades significantly during the intended operation, such as usage in textile and industrial filter applications. The degradation process and overall ageing can lead to emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This work focused on the usage of pine rosin as natural antibacterial chemical and analysed the weathering of melt-spun polyethylene (PE) and poly lactic acid (PLA) polyfilaments. A selected copolymer surfactant, as an additional chemical, was studied to better integrate rosin with the molecular structure of the plastics. The results reveal that a high 20 w-% of rosin content can be obtained by surfactant addition in non-oriented PE and PLA melt-spun polyfilaments. According to the VOC analysis, interestingly, the total emissions from the melt-spun PE and PLA fibres were lower for rosin-modified (10 w-%) fibres and when analysed below 60 ℃. The PE fibres of the polyfilaments were found to be clearly more durable in terms of the entire weathering study, i.e., five weeks of ultraviolet radiation, thermal ageing and standard washing. The antibacterial response against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus by the rosin-containing fibres was determined to be at the same level (decrease of 3–5 logs cfu/mL) as when using 1.0 w-% of commercial silver-containing antimicrobial. For the PE polyfilaments with rosin (10 w-%), full killing response (decrease of 3–5 logs cfu/mL) remained after four weeks of accelerated ageing at 60 ℃. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2020)
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22 pages, 5997 KiB  
Article
N-Halamine Hydantoin-Containing Chitosan: Synthesis, Characterization, Thermal and Photolytic Stability Studies
by Marta Chylińska and Halina Kaczmarek
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3728; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163728 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2432
Abstract
Current demand for new protective materials ensuring sterility is systematically growing. The purpose of this work was the synthesis of the biocidal N-halamine hydantoin-containing chitosan (CS-CMH-Cl) and characterization of its properties. The functionalization of the chitosan by 5-hydantoinacetic acid substitution leads to [...] Read more.
Current demand for new protective materials ensuring sterility is systematically growing. The purpose of this work was the synthesis of the biocidal N-halamine hydantoin-containing chitosan (CS-CMH-Cl) and characterization of its properties. The functionalization of the chitosan by 5-hydantoinacetic acid substitution leads to obtaining the CS-CMH polymer, which was chlorinated in next step to transform N-H into N-Cl bonds. In this study, the possibility of forming two biocidal N-Cl bonds in hydantoin ring, grafted onto chitosan chains, was proved. The structure and stability of the prepared material was confirmed by spectroscopic (FTIR, NMR, colorimetric test) and microscopic analyses (SEM, AFM). Surface properties were investigated based on contact-angle measurements. In addition, the thermal and photochemical stability of the obtained samples were determined as functional features, determining the range of potential use. It was found that both modified chitosan polymers (CS-CMH and CS-CMH-Cl) were characterized by the smaller thermal stability and more hydrophilic and rougher surface than unmodified CS. Photooxidative degradation of the obtained materials was observed mainly on the sample surface. After irradiation, the surfaces became more hydrophilic—especially in the case of the CS-CMH-Cl—which is advantageous from the point of view of the antibacterial properties. Antibacterial tests against S. aureus and E. coli confirmed the antibacterial activities of received CS-CMH-Cl material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2020)
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Review

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17 pages, 4243 KiB  
Review
Catechol-Based Antimicrobial Polymers
by Seyedehfatemeh Razaviamri, Kan Wang, Bo Liu and Bruce P. Lee
Molecules 2021, 26(3), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030559 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 6254
Abstract
Catechol is a key constituent in mussel adhesive proteins and is responsible for strong adhesive property and crosslinking formation. Plant-based polyphenols are also capable of chemical interactions similar to those of catechol and are inherently antimicrobial. This review reports a series of catechol-based [...] Read more.
Catechol is a key constituent in mussel adhesive proteins and is responsible for strong adhesive property and crosslinking formation. Plant-based polyphenols are also capable of chemical interactions similar to those of catechol and are inherently antimicrobial. This review reports a series of catechol-based antimicrobial polymers classified according to their antimicrobial mechanisms. Catechol is utilized as a surface anchoring group for adhering monomers and polymers of known antimicrobial properties onto various types of surfaces. Additionally, catechol’s ability to form strong complexes with metal ions and nanoparticles was utilized to sequester these antimicrobial agents into coatings and polymer matrices. During catechol oxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is generated as a byproduct, and the use of the generated ROS for antimicrobial applications was also introduced. Finally, polymers that utilized the innate antimicrobial property of halogenated catechols and polyphenols were reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2020)
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18 pages, 1957 KiB  
Review
Application of Antimicrobial Polymers in the Development of Dental Resin Composite
by Jing Xue, Jing Wang, Daoshuo Feng, Haofei Huang and Ming Wang
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4738; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204738 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3934
Abstract
Dental resin composites have been widely used in a variety of direct and indirect dental restorations due to their aesthetic properties compared to amalgams and similar metals. Despite the fact that dental resin composites can contribute similar mechanical properties, they are more likely [...] Read more.
Dental resin composites have been widely used in a variety of direct and indirect dental restorations due to their aesthetic properties compared to amalgams and similar metals. Despite the fact that dental resin composites can contribute similar mechanical properties, they are more likely to have microbial accumulations leading to secondary caries. Therefore, the effective and long-lasting antimicrobial properties of dental resin composites are of great significance to their clinical applications. The approaches of ascribing antimicrobial properties to the resin composites may be divided into two types: The filler-type and the resin-type. In this review, the resin-type approaches were highlighted. Focusing on the antimicrobial polymers used in dental resin composites, their chemical structures, mechanical properties, antimicrobial effectiveness, releasing profile, and biocompatibility were included, and challenges, as well as future perspectives, were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2020)
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