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Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Packaging Films

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 11123

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
Interests: food chemistry; food packaging; food technology; food analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Traditionally, food packaging materials were chosen so as to avoid undesirable physical, chemical and biological interactions between the contained food and the environment. Packaging in this case functioned mainly as a protective but ‘passive’ barrier against the above mentioned effects. During the past two decades, active packaging materials were, and are still being, developed which interact with food with the objectives of maintaining food quality and/or enhancing the safety of the packaged product (EU Regulations 1935/2004/EC and 450/2009/EC). Active packaging can serve a number of specific purposes such as to prevent the food from oxidation reactions of lipids and proteins (antioxidant packaging), to inhibit the growth of spoilage and/or pathogenic microorganisms (antimicrobial packaging), to perform a specific reaction i.e. breakdown of lactose in milk, lowering of cholesterol and triglycerides, production of desirable flavor compounds in a particular food matrix, etc. or even, in the form of Bioactive Packaging, to exert a beneficial health effect on the consumer as a result of designed migration of bioactive compounds/additives from the packaging material into the packaged food. In all above cases, functional additives should be approved as indirect food additives since upon migration they become food constituents.

Of the various types of active packaging, those that exert an antioxidant and antimicrobial effect are those that are most important for the food industry. Active compounds added into the packaging material may be either synthetic or natural. Likewise, the packaging material may be either conventional or biodegradable. The antioxidant or antimicrobial compound may be added in the form of a pad, sachet, label, etc. or may be incorporated into the packaging material matrix or even coated onto the internal surface of the packaging material. Thus, antioxidant/antimicrobial packaging has become a great interest for polymer scientists and packaging engineers. Furthermore, the recent use of nanotechnology in the form of nano-particles in active packaging applications seems very promising for food preservation purposes. This, in turn, has opened a new field for nanotechnology research.

Active packaging materials function either as absorbers (oxygen, carbon dioxide, ethylene, moisture) or emitters (carbon dioxide, essential oils, organic acids).

Antimicrobial and antioxidant active packages function as controlled release systems, which are a new generation of materials that can release active compounds at different controlled rates, suitable for improving the quality and safety of foods during storage. Such a package behaves effectively as a reservoir to the active compound, which is released into the food according to a predetermined pattern throughout the entire expected storage time. To achieve this goal, the active molecules need to be encased properly in the packaging, ensuring their proper release into the packaged food. Factors such as release rate, properties of packaging material (e.g. gas permeability, mechanical properties, etc.) are directly related to package structure, morphology of blended polymer and localization of active compounds. These, in turn, are affected by processing methods such as cast film, blown film, smart blending, lamination/co-extrusion, solution casting/coating, etc. Therefore, type and ratio of the polymer/s and the property of active compound should be carefully taken into account during the design and development of active packaging.

This special issue will attempt to bring together food scientists, polymer scientists and engineers as well as nanotechnologists from around the world working on Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Packaging films, presenting the state-of-the art in a field of science/technology that is presently being shaped.

Prof. Michael Kontominas
Prof. Dr. Anastasia Badeka
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • active packaging
  • antioxidant packaging films
  • antimicrobial packaging films
  • food preservation
  • food quality
  • food safety

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1487 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Bioactive Complexes of Chitosan and Green Coffee Bean or Artichoke Extracts
by Deimante Rosliuk, Valdas Jakstas, Liudas Ivanauskas, Dovile Liudvinaviciute, Veronique Coma and Ramune Rutkaite
Molecules 2023, 28(14), 5356; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28145356 - 12 Jul 2023
Viewed by 712
Abstract
The formation of water-insoluble complexes between chitosan (ChS) and caffeoylquinic acid (CQ) derivatives present in artichoke (AE) and green coffee bean (GCBE) extracts was investigated by the equilibrium adsorption method. The UPLC/HPLC analysis revealed that the phenolic compounds accounted for 8.1% and 74.6% [...] Read more.
The formation of water-insoluble complexes between chitosan (ChS) and caffeoylquinic acid (CQ) derivatives present in artichoke (AE) and green coffee bean (GCBE) extracts was investigated by the equilibrium adsorption method. The UPLC/HPLC analysis revealed that the phenolic compounds accounted for 8.1% and 74.6% of AE and GCBE respectively, and CQ derivatives were the predominant compounds. According to the applied Langmuir adsorption model, anionic compounds present in natural extracts were adsorbed onto the active centers of ChS, i.e., primary amino groups. The driving forces of adsorption were electrostatic interactions between cationic groups of ChS and anionic compounds of natural extracts. Chromatographic analysis revealed that not only CQ derivatives, but also other phenolic compounds of natural extracts were attached to ChS. The release of adsorbed compounds into different media as well as the bioactive properties of complexes were also studied. With the immobilization of bioactives onto ChS, increased and prolonged ABTS•+ radical scavenging activity and decreased antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum and Botrytis cinerea were observed compared to those of ChS. The findings of the current study highlight that the adsorption approach could be used to successfully prepare water-insoluble complexes of ChS and components of natural extracts with prolonged antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Packaging Films)
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20 pages, 3020 KiB  
Article
Designing Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Polyethylene Films with Bioactive Compounds/Clay Nanohybrids for Potential Packaging Applications
by Konstantinos Safakas, Iro Giotopoulou, Archontoula Giannakopoulou, Katerina Katerinopoulou, Georgia C. Lainioti, Haralambos Stamatis, Nektaria-Marianthi Barkoula and Athanasios Ladavos
Molecules 2023, 28(7), 2945; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28072945 - 25 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
In the present work, direct incorporation of bioactive compounds onto the surface and interlayer of nanoclays before their incorporation into the final polymeric film was conducted, based on a green methodology developed by our group that is compatible with food packaging. This will [...] Read more.
In the present work, direct incorporation of bioactive compounds onto the surface and interlayer of nanoclays before their incorporation into the final polymeric film was conducted, based on a green methodology developed by our group that is compatible with food packaging. This will lead to the higher thermal stability and the significant reduction of the loss of activity of the active ingredients during packaging configuration. On this basis, the essential oil (EO) components carvacrol (C), thymol (T) as well as olive leaf extract (OLE), which is used for the first time, were incorporated onto organo-modified montmorillonite (O) or inorganic bentonite (B) through the evaporation/adsorption method. The prepared bioactive nanocarriers were further mixed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE), via melt compounding, in order to prepare films for potential use as fresh fruit and vegetable packaging material. Characterization of the bioactive nanocarriers and films were performed through XRD, TGA, tensile, antimicrobial and antioxidant tests. Films with organically modified montmorillonite loaded with carvacrol (OC), thymol (OT) and olive leaf extract (OOLE) at 5% wt. showed better results in terms of mechanical properties. The films with polyethylene and organically modified montmorillonite loaded with carvacrol or thymol at 20% wt. (PE_OC20 and PE_OT20), as well as with olive leaf extract at 5 or 10 %wt., clay:bioactive substance ratio 1:0.5 and 10% compatibilizer (PE_OOLE5_MA10 and PE_OOLE10_MA10) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The resulting films displayed outstanding antimicrobial properties against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) with the best results appearing in the films with 10% OC and OT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Packaging Films)
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14 pages, 1863 KiB  
Article
A New Method to Determine Antioxidant Activities of Biofilms Using a pH Indicator (Resazurin) Model System
by Young-Teck Kim, Robert Kimmel and Xiyu Wang
Molecules 2023, 28(5), 2092; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28052092 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Biopolymeric films were prepared with gelatin, plasticizer, and three different types of antioxidants (ascorbic acid, phytic acid, and BHA) corresponding to different mechanisms in activity. The antioxidant activity of films was monitored for 14 storage days upon color changes using a pH indicator [...] Read more.
Biopolymeric films were prepared with gelatin, plasticizer, and three different types of antioxidants (ascorbic acid, phytic acid, and BHA) corresponding to different mechanisms in activity. The antioxidant activity of films was monitored for 14 storage days upon color changes using a pH indicator (resazurin). The instant antioxidant activity of films was measured by a DPPH free radical test. The system using resazurin was composed of an agar, an emulsifier, and soybean oil to simulate a highly oxidative oil-based food system (AES-R). Gelatin-based films (GBF) containing phytic acid showed higher tensile strength and energy to break than all other samples due to the increased intermolecular interactions between phytic acid and gelatin molecules. The oxygen barrier properties of GBF films containing ascorbic acid and phytic acid increased due to the increased polarity, while GBF films containing BHA showed increased oxygen permeability compared to the control. According to “a-value” (redness) of the AES-R system tested with films, films incorporating BHA showed the most retardation of lipid oxidation in the system. This retardation corresponds to 59.8% antioxidation activity at 14 days, compared with the control. Phytic acid-based films did not show antioxidant activity, whereas ascorbic acid-based GBFs accelerated the oxidation process due to its prooxidant activity. The comparison between the DPPH free radical test and the control showed that the ascorbic acid and BHA-based GBFs showed highly effective free radical scavenging behavior (71.7% and 41.7%, respectively). This novel method using a pH indicator system can potentially determine the antioxidation activity of biopolymer films and film-based samples in a food system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Packaging Films)
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23 pages, 5644 KiB  
Article
Improved Antioxidant and Mechanical Properties of Food Packaging Films Based on Chitosan/Deep Eutectic Solvent, Containing Açaí-Filled Microcapsules
by Barbara E. Teixeira-Costa, Willian Hermogenes Ferreira, Francisco M. Goycoolea, Brent S. Murray and Cristina T. Andrade
Molecules 2023, 28(3), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28031507 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2575
Abstract
The development of biobased antioxidant active packaging has been valued by the food industry for complying with environmental and food waste concerns. In this work, physicochemical properties for chitosan composite films as a potential active food packaging were investigated. Chitosan films were prepared [...] Read more.
The development of biobased antioxidant active packaging has been valued by the food industry for complying with environmental and food waste concerns. In this work, physicochemical properties for chitosan composite films as a potential active food packaging were investigated. Chitosan films were prepared by solution casting, plasticized with a 1:2 choline chloride: glycerol mixture as a deep eutectic solvent (DES) and incorporated with 0–10% of optimized açaí oil polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs). Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the chitosan composite films were continuous and contained well-dispersed PECs. The increased PECs content had significant influence on the thickness, water vapor permeability, crystallinity (CrD) and mechanical and dynamic behavior of the films, as well as their antioxidant properties. The tensile strength was reduced in the following order: 11.0 MPa (control film) > 0.74 MPa (5% DES) > 0.63 MPa (5% DES and 5% PECs). Films containing 2% of PECs had an increased CrD, ~6%, and the highest elongation at break, ~104%. Films with 1% of PECs displayed the highest antioxidant properties against the ABTS and DPPH radicals, ~6 and ~17 mg TE g−1, respectively, and highest equivalent polyphenols content (>0.5 mg GAE g−1). Films with 2% of particles were not significantly different. These results suggested that the chitosan films that incorporated 1–2% of microparticles had the best combined mechanical and antioxidant properties as a potential material for food packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Packaging Films)
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18 pages, 3231 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Optimization of Salep Mucilage Bionanocomposite Films Containing Allium jesdianum Boiss. Nanoliposomes for Antibacterial Food Packaging Utilization
by Mohammad Ekrami, Ali Ekrami, Mohammad Ali Hosseini and Zahra Emam-Djomeh
Molecules 2022, 27(20), 7032; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27207032 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
This research aimed to characterize and compare the properties of nanoliposome (NLP)-loaded Salep mucilage-based bionanocomposite films containing free and encapsulated Allium jesdianum Boiss. essential oil (AEO). The mean size of nanoliposome containing Allium jesdianum Boiss. essential oil (NLP [...] Read more.
This research aimed to characterize and compare the properties of nanoliposome (NLP)-loaded Salep mucilage-based bionanocomposite films containing free and encapsulated Allium jesdianum Boiss. essential oil (AEO). The mean size of nanoliposome containing Allium jesdianum Boiss. essential oil (NLP/AEO) was around 125 nm, the zeta potential value was about −35 mV, and the entrapment effectiveness was over 70% based on an evaluation of NLP prepared using the thin-film hydration and ultrasonic approach. Morphological studies further corroborated the findings of the Zetasizer investigation. When NLP/AEO has added to Salep mucilage-based bionanocomposite films, the tensile strength (TS), water solubility (WS), water content (WC), and water vapor permeability (WVP) were found to decrease. In contrast, the contact angle and oxygen permeability (O2P) elongation at break (EAB) increased. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that Salep mucilage-based bionanocomposite films added with NLP/AEO had a disordered inner network in the cross-section and a rough structure on the surface compared to the control film. Finally, an increase in antibacterial activity and a decrease in AEO release rate was observed for the Salep mucilage-based bionanocomposite films incorporated with NLP/AEO. Our results indicated that NLP/AEO, as an innovative sustained-release system, had the potential for using the developed antibacterial food packaging base on Salep mucilage for the shelf life extension of perishable food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Packaging Films)
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20 pages, 2963 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Porphyran through Chemical Modification with Tyrosine Derivatives
by Pedro Adão, João Reboleira, Marco Teles, Beatriz Santos, Nádia Ribeiro, Carlos M. Teixeira, Mafalda Guedes, João Costa Pessoa and Susana Bernardino
Molecules 2021, 26(10), 2916; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102916 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
The chemical modification of porphyran hydrocolloid is attempted, with the objective of enhancing its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Sulfated galactan porphyran is obtained from commercial samples of the red algae Porphyra dioica using Soxhlet extraction with water at 100 °C and precipitation with [...] Read more.
The chemical modification of porphyran hydrocolloid is attempted, with the objective of enhancing its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Sulfated galactan porphyran is obtained from commercial samples of the red algae Porphyra dioica using Soxhlet extraction with water at 100 °C and precipitation with isopropyl alcohol. The extracted porphyran is then treated with modified L-tyrosines in aqueous medium in the presence of NaOH, at ca. 70 °C. The modified tyrosines L1 and L2 are prepared through a Mannich reaction with either thymol or 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, respectively. While the reaction with 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol yields the expected tyrosine derivative, a mixture of products is obtained with thymol. The resulting polysaccharides are structurally characterized and the respective antioxidant and antimicrobial activities are determined. Porphyran treated with the N-(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butyl-benzyl)-L-tyrosine derivative, POR-L2, presents a noticeable superior radical scavenging and antioxidant activity compared to native porphyran, POR. Furthermore, it exhibited some antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. The surface morphology of films prepared by casting with native and modified porphyrans is studied by SEM/EDS. Both POR and POR-L2 present potential applicability in the production of films and washable coatings for food packaging with improved protecting characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Packaging Films)
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