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Advances in Homogeneous Catalysis

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019) | Viewed by 18573

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Laboratorio de Compuestos Organometálicos y Catálisis (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamento de Química Orgánica e Inorgánica (IUQOEM), Facultad de Química, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33071 Oviedo, Spain
Interests: homogeneous catalysis; organometallic chemistry; green chemistry; sustainable solvents; deep eutectic solvents; water
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

During the last decades, the use of metal-, organo-, and bio-catalysts in Organic Synthesis has granted access to new molecules of a complex structure through the formation of carbon–carbon or carbon–heteroatom bonds, in a myriad of scientific reports. In addition, and as Gadi Rothenberg stated in his book "Catalysis", catalysis is the key to sustainability. A catalyst is a chemical substance that facilitates a chemical reaction without changing its thermodynamic parameters, by creating a new and kinetically favoured reaction pathway that is faster than the non-catalysed version of the reaction. Moreover, the catalyst is not consumed in the process, thus a small amount of the aforementioned catalyst can participate in several catalytic cycles, paving the pathway for the possible recyclability of the catalytic system. Moreover, the employment of catalysts also offers other interesting advantages, thus opening the door to the improvement of the following:

(i) the selectivity of a selected process, which indirectly affects its efficiency, for obtaining the desired product with minor amounts of by-products and waste, thus decreasing the energy consumption and maximizing the atom economy of the process.

(ii) the tolerance to potentially degradable or sensitive functional groups (chemoselectivity), as catalytic reactions usually take place under milder reaction conditions.

(iii) enantiomeric excess: the employment of chiral catalysts allows for the transfer of the chiral information from the catalyst to the desired enantiomerically pure compounds, which present a high added value and are very interesting for the pharmaceutical industry.

Furthermore, it is important to note that, in the field of Organic Synthesis, the use of metallic complexes, organocatalysts, and enzymes represents one of the cornerstones for the development of new synthetic methodologies, as they not only allow for previously discovered organic reactions to be carried out in a catalytic manner, but they also unlock the discovery of new processes in organic synthesis that were unknown until the irruption of catalysis. Finally, it is worth noting that it is difficult to find advanced organic syntheses (both at an academic or industrial level) in which any of the aforementioned catalytic methodologies (metal-, organo-, or bio-catalysis) are not used in any of their synthetic stages.
This Special Issue will collect the best selection of state-of-the-art contributions in the fields of metal-, organo-, and bio-catalysed organic reactions, focussing on the catalytic organic syntheses that take place under homogenous conditions.

Dr. Joaquín García Álvarez 
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Homogeneous catalysis
  • Metal-catalysis
  • Organo-catalysis
  • Bio-catalysis
  • Organic synthesis
  • Green chemistry

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 819 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: “Advances in Homogeneous Catalysis”
by Joaquín García-Álvarez
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071493 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
The use of enzymes, organo-catalysts or transition metal catalysts, as opposed to the employment of stoichiometric quantities of other traditional promoters of different organic synthetic processes (like, inorganic/organic bases, Brønsted acids, radicals, etc.) has allowed the discovery of a great number of new [...] Read more.
The use of enzymes, organo-catalysts or transition metal catalysts, as opposed to the employment of stoichiometric quantities of other traditional promoters of different organic synthetic processes (like, inorganic/organic bases, Brønsted acids, radicals, etc.) has allowed the discovery of a great number of new synthetic protocols within the toolbox of organic chemists. Moreover, the employment of the aforementioned catalysts in organic synthesis permits: (i) the diminution of the global energy demand and production cost; (ii) the enhancement of both the chemoselectivity and stereoselectivity of the global process; and (iii) the reduction of metal-, organo- or bio-catalyst consumption, thanks to the possible recycling of the catalysts; all these being synthetic concepts closely related with the principles of so-called Green Chemistry. Thus, this Special Issue on “Advances in Homogenous Catalysis” has been aimed to showcase a series of stimulating contributions from international experts within different sub-areas of catalysis in organic synthesis (ranging from metal-, organo-, or bio-catalyzed organic reactions). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Homogeneous Catalysis)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

14 pages, 3325 KiB  
Article
Deep Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuels in the Presence of Brönsted Acidic Polyoxometalate-Based Ionic Liquids
by Argam Akopyan, Ekaterina Eseva, Polina Polikarpova, Anastasia Kedalo, Anna Vutolkina and Aleksandr Glotov
Molecules 2020, 25(3), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030536 - 26 Jan 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3892
Abstract
Polyoxometalate-based ionic liquid hybrid materials with a pyridinium cation, containing Brönsted acid sites, were synthesized and used as catalysts for the oxidation of model and real diesel fuels. Keggin-type polyoxometalates with the formulae [PMo12O40]3−, [PVMo11O [...] Read more.
Polyoxometalate-based ionic liquid hybrid materials with a pyridinium cation, containing Brönsted acid sites, were synthesized and used as catalysts for the oxidation of model and real diesel fuels. Keggin-type polyoxometalates with the formulae [PMo12O40]3−, [PVMo11O40]4−, [PV2Mo10O40]4−, [PW12O40]3− were used as anions. It was shown that increasing the acid site strength leads to an increase of dibenzothiophene conversion to the corresponding sulfone. The best results were obtained in the presence of a catalyst, containing a nicotinic acid derivative as cation and phosphomolybdate as anion. The main factors affecting the process consisting of catalyst dosage, temperature, reaction time, oxidant dosage were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions full oxidation of dibenzothiophene and more than a 90% desulfurization degree of real diesel fuel (initial sulfur content of 2050 ppm) were obtained (the oxidation conditions: NK-1 catalyst, molar ratio H2O2:S 10:1, molar ratio S:Mo 8:1, 1 mL MeCN, 70 °C, 1 h). The synthesized catalysts could be used five times with a slight decrease in activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Homogeneous Catalysis)
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13 pages, 1276 KiB  
Communication
An Efficient Approach to Phosphorylated Isoindoline Fused with Triazoles via Zn-Catalyzed Cascade Cyclization of 2–Propynol Benzyl Azides and Diarylphosphine Oxides
by Tao Yang, Xian-Rong Song, Ruchun Yang, Haixin Ding, Jiang Bai and Qiang Xiao
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3526; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193526 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
An efficient approach for the synthesis of phosphorylated isoindoline fused with triazoles via Zn(OTf)2-catalyzed cascade cyclization of easily prepared ortho–propynol benzyl azides and diarylphosphine oxides is developed. The transformation occurred smoothly in moderate to excellent yields and tolerated various propargylic alcohol substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Homogeneous Catalysis)
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Review

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32 pages, 17328 KiB  
Review
High-Valent NiIII and NiIV Species Relevant to C–C and C–Heteroatom Cross-Coupling Reactions: State of the Art
by Noel Nebra
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051141 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5140
Abstract
Ni catalysis constitutes an active research arena with notable applications in diverse fields. By analogy with its parent element palladium, Ni catalysts provide an appealing entry to build molecular complexity via cross-coupling reactions. While Pd catalysts typically involve a M0/MII [...] Read more.
Ni catalysis constitutes an active research arena with notable applications in diverse fields. By analogy with its parent element palladium, Ni catalysts provide an appealing entry to build molecular complexity via cross-coupling reactions. While Pd catalysts typically involve a M0/MII redox scenario, in the case of Ni congeners the mechanistic elucidation becomes more challenging due to their innate properties (like enhanced reactivity, propensity to undergo single electron transformations vs. 2e redox sequences or weaker M–Ligand interaction). In recent years, mechanistic studies have demonstrated the participation of high-valent NiIII and NiIV species in a plethora of cross-coupling events, thus accessing novel synthetic schemes and unprecedented transformations. This comprehensive review collects the main contributions effected within this topic, and focuses on the key role of isolated and/or spectroscopically identified NiIII and NiIV complexes. Amongst other transformations, the resulting NiIII and NiIV compounds have efficiently accomplished: i) C–C and C–heteroatom bond formation; ii) C–H bond functionalization; and iii) N–N and C–N cyclizative couplings to forge heterocycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Homogeneous Catalysis)
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16 pages, 5008 KiB  
Review
An Update of Transition Metal-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Transformations of Cyclic Carbonates and Carbamates
by Linhong Zuo, Teng Liu, Xiaowei Chang and Wusheng Guo
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3930; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213930 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 79 | Viewed by 4999
Abstract
Functionalized cyclic organic carbonates and carbamates are frequently used in a number of transition metal-catalyzed decarboxylative reactions for the construction of interesting molecules. These decarboxylative transformations have attracted more and more research attention in recent years mainly due to their advantages of less [...] Read more.
Functionalized cyclic organic carbonates and carbamates are frequently used in a number of transition metal-catalyzed decarboxylative reactions for the construction of interesting molecules. These decarboxylative transformations have attracted more and more research attention in recent years mainly due to their advantages of less waste generation and versatile reactivities. On the basis of previous reviews on this hot topic, the present review will focus on the development of transition metal-catalyzed decarboxylative transformations of functionalized cyclic carbonates and carbamates in the last two years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Homogeneous Catalysis)
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