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Polymers in Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 35187

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy
Interests: nanomaterials; biomaterials; carbon nanostructures; composite and hybrid materials; biomedical applications of functional materials; therapeutic devices; surface chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy
Interests: design, synthesis and characterization of polymer nanoparticles and hydrogels; synthesis and characterization of stimuli-responsive micro- and nanoparticle systems for controlled drug release
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Children's Cancer Institute, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2750, Australia
Interests: cancer; infectious diseases; neurological diseases; nanoparticles; hydrogels; vesicles; hybrid materials; blood–brain barrier; transdermal delivery; nasal delivery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymers are a class of biomaterials extensively exploited in biomedicine for a plethora of applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, biosensing, and so on. Their high biocompatibility guarantees safe contact with living tissues and organs, while their chemical versatility allows fine tuning of their properties for tailored applications.

This Special Issue aims to collect the recent advances in the synthesis, modification, and characterization of biomedical polymers, to strengthen the impact of such materials in modern medicine. The purpose is to collect contributions, either in the form of research or review articles, in a multidisciplinary context, taking advantages from the expertise of chemists, biologists, material scientists, engineers, and clinicians, to highlight the obtained results and catch the interest of scientists working in the field acting as a platform for knowledge exchange.

Dr. Giuseppe Cirillo
Dr. Manuela Curcio
Dr. Orazio Vittorio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomedical polymers
  • Biomaterials
  • Functional Polymers
  • Biodegradable polymers
  • Hydrogel
  • Nanoparticles
  • Drug Delivery
  • Tissue Engineering
  • Biosensors
  • Polymeric prodrug
  • Self-assembling polymers

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 11246 KiB  
Article
Optimization and Characterization of Sodium Alginate Beads Providing Extended Release for Antidiabetic Drugs
by Bence Sipos, Márk Benei, Gábor Katona and Ildikó Csóka
Molecules 2023, 28(19), 6980; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28196980 - 08 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
The current research is aimed at investigating the relationship between the formulation components and conditions in the case of a binary drug delivery system, where antidiabetic drugs are co-formulated into polymeric micelles embedded in sodium alginate. Compared to chemical modifications of polymers with [...] Read more.
The current research is aimed at investigating the relationship between the formulation components and conditions in the case of a binary drug delivery system, where antidiabetic drugs are co-formulated into polymeric micelles embedded in sodium alginate. Compared to chemical modifications of polymers with alginate, our development provides a simpler and scalable formulation process. Our results prove that a multi-level factorial design-based approach can ensure the development of a value-added polymeric micelle formulation with an average micelle size of 123.6 ± 3.1 nm and a monodisperse size distribution, showing a polydispersity index value of 0.215 ± 0.021. The proper nanoparticles were co-formulated with sodium alginate as a biologically decomposing and safe-to-administer biopolymer. The Box–Behnken factorial design ensured proper design space development, where the optimal sodium alginate bead formulation had a uniform, extended-release drug release mechanism similar to commercially available tablet preparations. The main conclusion is that the rapid-burst-like drug release can be hindered via the embedment of nanocarriers into biopolymeric matrices. The thermally stable formulation also holds the benefit of uniform active substance distribution after freeze-drying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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15 pages, 2477 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Green Extraction of Red Araçá (Psidium catteyanum Sabine) and Application in Alginate Membranes for Use as Dressings
by Douglas Hardt Lacorte, Alaor Valério Filho, Márcio Dantas Carvalho, Luisa Bataglin Avila, Caroline Costa Moraes and Gabriela Silveira da Rosa
Molecules 2023, 28(18), 6688; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28186688 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 812
Abstract
In this research, the aim was to introduce innovation to the pharmaceutical field through the exploration of an underutilized plant matrix, the red araçá, along with the utilization of sodium alginate for the development of membranes designed for active topical dressings. Within this [...] Read more.
In this research, the aim was to introduce innovation to the pharmaceutical field through the exploration of an underutilized plant matrix, the red araçá, along with the utilization of sodium alginate for the development of membranes designed for active topical dressings. Within this context, optimal extraction conditions were investigated using the central composite rotational statistical design (CCRD) to obtain a red araçá epicarp extract (RAEE) rich in bioactive compounds utilizing the maceration technique. The extract acquired under the optimized conditions (temperature of 66 °C and a hydroalcoholic solvent concentration of 32%) was incorporated into a sodium alginate matrix for the production of active membranes using a casting method. Characterization of the membranes revealed that the addition of the extract did not significantly alter its morphology. Furthermore, satisfactory results were observed regarding mechanical and barrier properties, as well as the controlled release of phenolic compounds in an environment simulating wound exudate. Based on these findings, the material produced from renewable matrices demonstrates the promising potential for application as a topical dressing within the pharmaceutical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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14 pages, 3044 KiB  
Article
Amino Acid-Coated Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework for Delivery of Genetic Material in Prostate Cancer Cell
by Shakil Ahmed Polash, Koen Garlick-Trease, Suneela Pyreddy, Selvakannan Periasamy, Gary Bryant and Ravi Shukla
Molecules 2023, 28(12), 4875; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28124875 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are currently under progressive development as a tool for non-viral biomolecule delivery. Biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids can be encapsulated in MOFs for therapeutic purposes. The favorable physicochemical properties of MOFs make them an attractive choice [...] Read more.
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are currently under progressive development as a tool for non-viral biomolecule delivery. Biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids can be encapsulated in MOFs for therapeutic purposes. The favorable physicochemical properties of MOFs make them an attractive choice for delivering a wide range of biomolecules including nucleic acids. Herein, a green fluorescence protein (GFP)-expressing plasmid DNA (pDNA) is used as a representative of a biomolecule to encapsulate within a Zn-based metal–organic framework (MOF) called a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF). The synthesized biocomposites are coated with positively charged amino acids (AA) to understand the effect of surface functionalization on the delivery of pDNA to prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. FTIR and zeta potential confirm the successful preparation of positively charged amino acid-functionalized derivatives of pDNA@ZIF (i.e., pDNA@ZIFAA). Moreover, XRD and SEM data show that the functionalized derivates retain the pristine crystallinity and morphology of pDNA@ZIF. The coated biocomposites provide enhanced uptake of genetic material by PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. The AA-modulated fine-tuning of the surface charge of biocomposites results in better interaction with the cell membrane and enhances cellular uptake. These results suggest that pDNA@ZIFAA can be a promising alternative tool for non-viral gene delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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14 pages, 4804 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Silica-Polycaprolactone-Chlorogenic Acid Hybrids by Sol–Gel Route
by Michelina Catauro, Antonio D’Angelo, Veronica Viola, Giovanna Cimmino and Severina Pacifico
Molecules 2023, 28(8), 3486; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28083486 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
Organic–inorganic hybrid materials were synthesized by a sol–gel route, using silicon alkoxide together with low molecular weight polycaprolactone and caffetannic acid. The synthesized hybrids were characterized by scanning Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and their surface morphology was acquired by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) [...] Read more.
Organic–inorganic hybrid materials were synthesized by a sol–gel route, using silicon alkoxide together with low molecular weight polycaprolactone and caffetannic acid. The synthesized hybrids were characterized by scanning Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and their surface morphology was acquired by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The hybrids were investigated for their antiradical capacity using the DPPH and ABTS tests, while the Kirby–Bauer test was used to evaluate their effects on the growth of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Furthermore, a biologically active hydroxyapatite layer has been observed to form on the surface of intelligently synthesized materials. The MTT direct test showed that the hybrid materials are biocompatible with NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells, while they were cytotoxic towards colon, prostate, and brain tumor cell lines. These results shed new light on the suitability of the synthesized hybrids in the medical field, thus affording knowledge on the features of the bioactive silica–polycaprolactone–chlorogenic acid hybrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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13 pages, 3450 KiB  
Article
Supermolecule—Drug Conjugates Based on Acid-Degradable Polyrotaxanes for pH-Dependent Intracellular Release of Doxorubicin
by Atsushi Tamura, Mamoru Osawa and Nobuhiko Yui
Molecules 2023, 28(6), 2517; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28062517 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Doxorubicin (DOX)-conjugated acid-degradable polyrotaxanes (PRXs) were designed as supramolecular drug carriers capable of releasing drugs in acidic cellular environments. Acid-degradable PRXs composed of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) as a cyclic molecule, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a polymer axis, and N-triphenylmethyl (N-Trt) groups [...] Read more.
Doxorubicin (DOX)-conjugated acid-degradable polyrotaxanes (PRXs) were designed as supramolecular drug carriers capable of releasing drugs in acidic cellular environments. Acid-degradable PRXs composed of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) as a cyclic molecule, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a polymer axis, and N-triphenylmethyl (N-Trt) groups as an acid-labile stopper molecules were synthesized and DOX was conjugated with the threaded α-CDs in the PRXs. Because the acid-induced cleavage of N-Trt groups in PRXs leads to PRX dissociation, the DOX-modified α-CDs were released under acidic conditions (pH 5.0). The cytotoxicity of DOX-conjugated PRXs in colon-26 cells revealed significant cell death for DOX-conjugated PRXs after 48 h of treatment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis revealed that the fluorescence signals derived from DOX-conjugated PRXs were observed in cellular nuclei after 48 h, suggesting that the DOX-modified α-CDs were released and accumulated in cellular nuclei. These results confirmed that acid-degradable PRXs can be utilized as drug carriers capable of releasing drug-modified α-CDs in acidic lysosomes and eliciting cytotoxicity. Overall, acid-degradable PRXs represent a promising supramolecular framework for the delivery and intracellular release of drug-modified α-CDs, and PRX–drug conjugates are expected to contribute to the development of pH-responsive drug carriers for cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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14 pages, 3681 KiB  
Article
Electrospun Polycaprolactone/Chitosan Nanofibers Containing Cordia myxa Fruit Extract as Potential Biocompatible Antibacterial Wound Dressings
by Amal A. Alyamani, Mastafa H. Al-Musawi, Salim Albukhaty, Ghassan M. Sulaiman, Kadhim M. Ibrahim, Elsadig M. Ahmed, Majid S. Jabir, Hassan Al-Karagoly, Abed Alsalam Aljahmany and Mustafa K. A. Mohammed
Molecules 2023, 28(6), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28062501 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2606
Abstract
The goal of the current work was to create an antibacterial agent by using polycaprolactone/chitosan (PCL/CH) nanofibers loaded with Cordia myxa fruit extract (CMFE) as an antimicrobial agent for wound dressing. Several characteristics, including morphological, physicomechanical, and mechanical characteristics, surface wettability, antibacterial activity, [...] Read more.
The goal of the current work was to create an antibacterial agent by using polycaprolactone/chitosan (PCL/CH) nanofibers loaded with Cordia myxa fruit extract (CMFE) as an antimicrobial agent for wound dressing. Several characteristics, including morphological, physicomechanical, and mechanical characteristics, surface wettability, antibacterial activity, cell viability, and in vitro drug release, were investigated. The inclusion of CMFE in PCL/CH led to increased swelling capability and maximum weight loss. The SEM images of the PCL/CH/CMFE mat showed a uniform topology free of beads and an average fiber diameter of 195.378 nm. Excellent antimicrobial activity was shown towards Escherichia coli (31.34 ± 0.42 mm), Salmonella enterica (30.27 ± 0.57 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (21.31 ± 0.17 mm), Bacillus subtilis (27.53 ± 1.53 mm), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.17 ± 0.12 mm) based on the inhibition zone assay. The sample containing 5 wt% CMFE had a lower water contact angle (47 ± 3.7°), high porosity, and high swelling compared to the neat mat. The release of the 5% CMFE-loaded mat was proven to be based on anomalous non-Fickian diffusion using the Korsmeyer–Peppas model. Compared to the pure PCL membrane, the PCL-CH/CMFE membrane exhibited suitable cytocompatibility on L929 cells. In conclusion, the fabricated antimicrobial nanofibrous films demonstrated high bioavailability, with suitable properties that can be used in wound dressings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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20 pages, 4040 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Porous Systems Based on Polylactide Loaded with Amikacin
by Marta Glinka, Katerina Filatova, Justyna Kucińska-Lipka, Tomáš Šopík, Eva Domincová Bergerová, Veronika Mikulcová, Andrzej Wasik and Vladimir Sedlařík
Molecules 2022, 27(20), 7045; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27207045 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
Three porous matrices based on poly(lactic acid) are proposed herein for the controlled release of amikacin. The materials were fabricated by the method of spraying a surface liquid. Description is given as to the possibility of employing a modifier, such as a silica [...] Read more.
Three porous matrices based on poly(lactic acid) are proposed herein for the controlled release of amikacin. The materials were fabricated by the method of spraying a surface liquid. Description is given as to the possibility of employing a modifier, such as a silica nanocarrier, for prolonging the release of amikacin, in addition to using chitosan to improve the properties of the materials, e.g., stability and sorption capacity. Depending on their actual composition, the materials exhibited varied efficacy for drug loading, as follows: 25.4 ± 2.2 μg/mg (matrices with 0.05% w/v of chitosan), 93 ± 13 μg/mg (with 0.08% w/v SiO2 amikacin modified nanoparticles), and 96 ± 34 μg/mg (matrices without functional additives). An in vitro study confirmed extended release of the drug (amikacin, over 60 days), carried out in accordance with the mathematical Kosmyer–Pepas model for all the materials tested. The matrices were also evaluated for their effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Concurrent research was conducted on the transdermal absorption, morphology, elemental composition, and thermogravimetric properties of the released drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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17 pages, 1780 KiB  
Article
Effect of Hydrophilic Polymers on the Release Rate and Pharmacokinetics of Acyclovir Tablets Obtained by Wet Granulation: In Vitro and In Vivo Assays
by D. Nagasamy Venkatesh, Subramanianainar N. Meyyanathan, Andjelka Kovacevic, Aleksandra Zielińska, Joel Fonseca, Piotr Eder, Agnieszka Dobrowolska and Eliana B. Souto
Molecules 2022, 27(19), 6490; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27196490 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of producing acyclovir-containing modified release matrix tablets by a wet granulation method based on the type and concentration of two pharmaceutical-grade hydrophilic matrix polymers (i.e., hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carbomers, and their combinations) commonly used in biomedical [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of producing acyclovir-containing modified release matrix tablets by a wet granulation method based on the type and concentration of two pharmaceutical-grade hydrophilic matrix polymers (i.e., hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carbomers, and their combinations) commonly used in biomedical applications. The mechanical properties of the tablets and in vitro and in vivo performance were studied. The physicochemical properties of the raw materials and corresponding physical mixtures were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, showing that the hydrophilic polymers did not influence the physicochemical properties of the drug. The wet granulation process improved the flow and compression properties of the obtained granules. This method enabled the preparation of the matrix tablets of acyclovir with appropriate mechanical properties concerning hardness and friability. The drug release kinetics was governed by the type and concentration of the hydrophilic polymers composing the matrices. The study has proven that HPMC-composed tablets were superior in modified drug release properties compared to carbomer- and HPMC/carbomer-based tablets. Mathematical analysis of the release profiles, determined in a medium adjusted to pH 1.2 followed by pH 7.4, revealed that the drug released from the hydrophilic tablets followed non-Fickian first-order kinetics. An optimal HPMC-based formulation submitted to accelerated stability studies (40 °C, 75% RH) was stable for three months. A complete cross-over bioavailability study of the selected acyclovir-loaded sustained release tablets and marketed immediate-release tablets were compared in six healthy male volunteers. The extent of drug absorption from the sustained release tablets was significantly greater than that from immediate-release pills, which may improve the drug’s antiviral properties attributed to the lower elimination rate and enhanced acyclovir half-life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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18 pages, 2494 KiB  
Article
Biogenic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Catharanthus roseus and Its Cytotoxicity Effect on Vero Cell Lines
by Khansa Jamil, Sahir Hameed Khattak, Anum Farrukh, Sania Begum, Muhammad Naeem Riaz, Aish Muhammad, Tahira Kamal, Touqeer Taj, Imran Khan, Sundus Riaz, Huma Batool, Kaleemullah Mandokhail, Sabahat Majeed, Sajid Ali Khan Bangash, Alia Mushtaq, Shahab Bashir, Imdad Kaleem, Fahed Pervaiz, Aamir Rasool, Muhammad Ammar Amanat and Ghulam Muhammad Aliadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Molecules 2022, 27(19), 6191; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27196191 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2518
Abstract
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a chronic and sometimes fatal condition which affects people all over the world. Nanotherapeutics have shown tremendous potential to combat chronic diseases—including DM2—as they enhance the overall impact of drugs on biological systems. Greenly synthesized [...] Read more.
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a chronic and sometimes fatal condition which affects people all over the world. Nanotherapeutics have shown tremendous potential to combat chronic diseases—including DM2—as they enhance the overall impact of drugs on biological systems. Greenly synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Catharanthus roseus methanolic extract (C. AgNPs) were examined primarily for their cytotoxic and antidiabetic effects. Methods: Characterization of C. AgNPs was performed by UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The C. AgNPs were trialed on Vero cell line and afterwards on an animal model (rats). Results: The C. AgNPs showed standard structural and functional characterization as revealed by FTIR and XRD analyses. The zetapotential analysis indicated stability while EDX analysis confirmed the formation of composite capping with Ag metal. The cytotoxic effect (IC50) of C. AgNPs on Vero cell lines was found to be 568 g/mL. The animal model analyses further revealed a significant difference in water intake, food intake, body weight, urine volume, and urine sugar of tested rats after treatment with aqueous extract of C. AgNPs. Moreover, five groups of rats including control and diabetic groups (NC1, PC2, DG1, DG2, and DG3) were investigated for their blood glucose and glycemic control analysis. Conclusions: The C. AgNPs exhibited positive potential on the Vero cell line as well as on experimental rats. The lipid profile in all the diabetic groups (DG1-3) were significantly increased compared with both of the control groups (p < 0.05). The present study revealed the significance of C. AgNPs in nanotherapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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25 pages, 3232 KiB  
Article
Biopolymer from Water Kefir as a Potential Clean-Label Ingredient for Health Applications: Evaluation of New Properties
by Monalisa de Alencar Lucena, Igor Frederico da Silveira Ramos, Maurycyo Silva Geronço, Ricardo de Araújo, Francisco Lopes da Silva Filho, Luís Manuel Lopes Rodrigues da Silva, Rayran Walter Ramos de Sousa, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, Josy Anteveli Osajima, Edson Cavalcanti Silva-Filho, Márcia dos Santos Rizzo, Alessandra Braga Ribeiro and Marcilia Pinheiro da Costa
Molecules 2022, 27(12), 3895; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27123895 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2283
Abstract
The present work aimed to characterize the exopolysaccharide obtained from water kefir grains (EPSwk), a symbiotic association of probiotic microorganisms. New findings of the technological, mechanical, and biological properties of the sample were studied. The EPSwk polymer presented an Mw of 6.35 × [...] Read more.
The present work aimed to characterize the exopolysaccharide obtained from water kefir grains (EPSwk), a symbiotic association of probiotic microorganisms. New findings of the technological, mechanical, and biological properties of the sample were studied. The EPSwk polymer presented an Mw of 6.35 × 105 Da. The biopolymer also showed microcrystalline structure and characteristic thermal stability with maximum thermal degradation at 250 °C. The analysis of the monosaccharides of the EPSwk by gas chromatography demonstrated that the material is composed of glucose units (98 mol%). Additionally, EPSwk exhibited excellent emulsifying properties, film-forming ability, a low photodegradation rate (3.8%), and good mucoadhesive properties (adhesion Fmax of 1.065 N). EPSwk presented cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results of this study expand the potential application of the exopolysaccharide from water kefir as a potential clean-label raw material for pharmaceutical, biomedical, and cosmetic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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18 pages, 2468 KiB  
Communication
A Soft Zwitterionic Hydrogel as Potential Coating on a Polyimide Surface to Reduce Foreign Body Reaction to Intraneural Electrodes
by Manuele Gori, Sara Maria Giannitelli, Gianluca Vadalà, Rocco Papalia, Loredana Zollo, Massimo Sanchez, Marcella Trombetta, Alberto Rainer, Giovanni Di Pino and Vincenzo Denaro
Molecules 2022, 27(10), 3126; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27103126 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
Invasive intraneural electrodes can control advanced neural-interfaced prostheses in human amputees. Nevertheless, in chronic implants, the progressive formation of a fibrotic capsule can gradually isolate the electrode surface from the surrounding tissue leading to loss of functionality. This is due to a nonspecific [...] Read more.
Invasive intraneural electrodes can control advanced neural-interfaced prostheses in human amputees. Nevertheless, in chronic implants, the progressive formation of a fibrotic capsule can gradually isolate the electrode surface from the surrounding tissue leading to loss of functionality. This is due to a nonspecific inflammatory response called foreign-body reaction (FBR). The commonly used poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based low-fouling coatings of implantable devices can be easily encapsulated and are susceptible to oxidative damage in long-term in vivo applications. Recently, sulfobetaine-based zwitterionic hydrogels have emerged as an important class of robust ultra-low fouling biomaterials, holding great potential to mitigate FBR. The aim of this proof-of-principle in vitro work was to assess whether the organic zwitterionic—poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) [poly(SBMA)]—hydrogel could be a suitable coating for Polyimide (PI)-based intraneural electrodes to reduce FBR. We first synthesized and analyzed the hydrogel through a mechanical characterization (i.e., Young’s modulus). Then, we demonstrated reduced adhesion and activation of fibrogenic and pro-inflammatory cells (i.e., human myofibroblasts and macrophages) on the hydrogel compared with PEG-coated and polystyrene surfaces using cell viability assays, confocal fluorescence microscopy and high-content analysis of oxidative stress production. Interestingly, we successfully coated PI surfaces with a thin film of the hydrogel through covalent bond and demonstrated its high hydrophilicity via water contact angle measurement. Importantly, we showed the long-term release of an anti-fibrotic drug (i.e., Everolimus) from the hydrogel. Because of the low stiffness, biocompatibility, high hydration and ultra-low fouling characteristics, our zwitterionic hydrogel could be envisioned as long-term diffusion-based delivery system for slow and controlled anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug release in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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17 pages, 1845 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Investigation of the Structural, Thermal, and Biological Properties of Fully Randomized Biomedical Polyesters Synthesized with a Nontoxic Bismuth(III) Catalyst
by Izabela M. Domańska, Anna Zgadzaj, Sebastian Kowalczyk, Aldona Zalewska, Ewa Oledzka, Krystyna Cieśla, Andrzej Plichta and Marcin Sobczak
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27031139 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
Aliphatic polyesters are the most common type of biodegradable synthetic polymer used in many pharmaceutical applications nowadays. This report describes the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of l-lactide (L-LA), ε-caprolactone (CL) and glycolide (Gly) in the presence of a simple, inexpensive and convenient PEG200-BiOct [...] Read more.
Aliphatic polyesters are the most common type of biodegradable synthetic polymer used in many pharmaceutical applications nowadays. This report describes the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of l-lactide (L-LA), ε-caprolactone (CL) and glycolide (Gly) in the presence of a simple, inexpensive and convenient PEG200-BiOct3 catalytic system. The chemical structures of the obtained copolymers were characterized by 1H- or 13C-NMR. GPC was used to estimate the average molecular weight of the resulting polyesters, whereas TGA and DSC were employed to determine the thermal properties of polymeric products. The effects of temperature, reaction time, and catalyst content on the polymerization process were investigated. Importantly, the obtained polyesters were not cyto- or genotoxic, which is significant in terms of the potential for medical applications (e.g., for drug delivery systems). As a result of transesterification, the copolymers obtained had a random distribution of comonomer units along the polymer chain. The thermal analysis indicated an amorphous nature of poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLACL) and a low degree of crystallinity of poly(ε-caprolactone-co-glycolide) (PCLGA, Xc = 15.1%), in accordance with the microstructures with random distributions and short sequences of comonomer units (l = 1.02–2.82). Significant differences in reactivity were observed among comonomers, confirming preferential ring opening of L-LA during the copolymerization process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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16 pages, 3311 KiB  
Article
Development of Antibacterial, Degradable and pH-Responsive Chitosan/Guar Gum/Polyvinyl Alcohol Blended Hydrogels for Wound Dressing
by Muhammad Umar Aslam Khan, Iqra Iqbal, Mohamed Nainar Mohamed Ansari, Saiful Izwan Abd Razak, Mohsin Ali Raza, Amna Sajjad, Faiza Jabeen, Mohd Riduan Mohamad and Norhana Jusoh
Molecules 2021, 26(19), 5937; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195937 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 4529
Abstract
The present research is based on the fabrication preparation of CS/PVA/GG blended hydrogel with nontoxic tetra orthosilicate (TEOS) for sustained paracetamol release. Different TEOS percentages were used because of their nontoxic behavior to study newly designed hydrogels’ crosslinking and physicochemical properties. These hydrogels [...] Read more.
The present research is based on the fabrication preparation of CS/PVA/GG blended hydrogel with nontoxic tetra orthosilicate (TEOS) for sustained paracetamol release. Different TEOS percentages were used because of their nontoxic behavior to study newly designed hydrogels’ crosslinking and physicochemical properties. These hydrogels were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and wetting to determine the functional, surface morphology, hydrophilic, or hydrophobic properties. The swelling analysis in different media, degradation in PBS, and drug release kinetics were conducted to observe their response against corresponding media. The FTIR analysis confirmed the components added and crosslinking between them, and surface morphology confirmed different surface and wetting behavior due to different crosslinking. In various solvents, including water, buffer, and electrolyte solutions, the swelling behaviour of hydrogel was investigated and observed that TEOS amount caused less hydrogel swelling. In acidic pH, hydrogels swell the most, while they swell the least at pH 7 or higher. These hydrogels are pH-sensitive and appropriate for controlled drug release. These hydrogels demonstrated that, as the ionic concentration was increased, swelling decreased due to decreased osmotic pressure in various electrolyte solutions. The antimicrobial analysis revealed that these hydrogels are highly antibacterial against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) bacterial strains. The drug release mechanism was 98% in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) media at pH 7.4 in 140 min. To analyze drug release behaviour, the drug release kinetics was assessed against different mathematical models (such as zero and first order, Higuchi, Baker–Lonsdale, Hixson, and Peppas). It was found that hydrogel (CPG2) follows the Peppas model with the highest value of regression (R2 = 0.98509). Hence, from the results, these hydrogels could be a potential biomaterial for wound dressing in biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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23 pages, 18905 KiB  
Article
Photomechanical Polymer Nanocomposites for Drug Delivery Devices
by Jonathan David López-Lugo, Reinher Pimentel-Domínguez, Jorge Alejandro Benítez-Martínez, Juan Hernández-Cordero, Juan Rodrigo Vélez-Cordero and Francisco Manuel Sánchez-Arévalo
Molecules 2021, 26(17), 5376; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175376 - 04 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
We demonstrate a novel structure based on smart carbon nanocomposites intended for fabricating laser-triggered drug delivery devices (DDDs). The performance of the devices relies on nanocomposites’ photothermal effects that are based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). Upon evaluating the main features [...] Read more.
We demonstrate a novel structure based on smart carbon nanocomposites intended for fabricating laser-triggered drug delivery devices (DDDs). The performance of the devices relies on nanocomposites’ photothermal effects that are based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). Upon evaluating the main features of the nanocomposites through physicochemical and photomechanical characterizations, we identified the main photomechanical features to be considered for selecting a nanocomposite for the DDDs. The capabilities of the PDMS/CNPs prototypes for drug delivery were tested using rhodamine-B (Rh-B) as a marker solution, allowing for visualizing and quantifying the release of the marker contained within the device. Our results showed that the DDDs readily expel the Rh-B from the reservoir upon laser irradiation and the amount of released Rh-B depends on the exposure time. Additionally, we identified two main Rh-B release mechanisms, the first one is based on the device elastic deformation and the second one is based on bubble generation and its expansion into the device. Both mechanisms were further elucidated through numerical simulations and compared with the experimental results. These promising results demonstrate that an inexpensive nanocomposite such as PDMS/CNPs can serve as a foundation for novel DDDs with spatial and temporal release control through laser irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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16 pages, 3913 KiB  
Article
Facile and Green Synthesis of Starfruit-Like ZIF-L, and Its Optimization Study
by Christian J. Wijaya, Suryadi Ismadji, Hakun W. Aparamarta and Setiyo Gunawan
Molecules 2021, 26(15), 4416; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154416 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3311
Abstract
Due to its excellent characteristics, zeolitic imidazole framework-L (ZIF-L) is widely used in various applications, such as drug delivery, wastewater treatments and energy storage. In the synthesis of ZIF-L, the molar ratio of ligand to metal, the reaction time and the temperature are [...] Read more.
Due to its excellent characteristics, zeolitic imidazole framework-L (ZIF-L) is widely used in various applications, such as drug delivery, wastewater treatments and energy storage. In the synthesis of ZIF-L, the molar ratio of ligand to metal, the reaction time and the temperature are essential parameters to produce excellent ZIF-L. In this work, ZIF-L was synthesized using a facile and green synthesis method. It was statistically investigated and optimized to obtain the best operating conditions. The optimization was carried out toward the amount of adsorbed crystal violet (CV) dye (q) as the response in the statistics. The optimal ZIF-L was obtained using a molar ratio of ligand to metal of 8.2220 for 97 min at 29 °C, where the q value of the CV adsorption onto this optimal ZIF-L reached 823.02 mg/g. The obtained ZIF-L was characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA analyses to ensure its excellent characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

18 pages, 1535 KiB  
Review
Advances in Biodegradable Polymers and Biomaterials for Medical Applications—A Review
by Małgorzata Oleksy, Klaudia Dynarowicz and David Aebisher
Molecules 2023, 28(17), 6213; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28176213 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
The introduction of new materials for the production of various types of constructs that can connect directly to tissues has enabled the development of such fields of science as medicine, tissue, and regenerative engineering. The implementation of these types of materials, called biomaterials, [...] Read more.
The introduction of new materials for the production of various types of constructs that can connect directly to tissues has enabled the development of such fields of science as medicine, tissue, and regenerative engineering. The implementation of these types of materials, called biomaterials, has contributed to a significant improvement in the quality of human life in terms of health. This is due to the constantly growing availability of new implants, prostheses, tools, and surgical equipment, which, thanks to their specific features such as biocompatibility, appropriate mechanical properties, ease of sterilization, and high porosity, ensure an improvement of living. Biodegradation ensures, among other things, the ideal rate of development for regenerated tissue. Current tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies aim to restore the function of damaged tissues. The current gold standard is autografts (using the patient’s tissue to accelerate healing), but limitations such as limited procurement of certain tissues, long operative time, and donor site morbidity have warranted the search for alternative options. The use of biomaterials for this purpose is an attractive option and the number of biomaterials being developed and tested is growing rapidly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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