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Natural Bioactive Compounds Characterization and Application for Food Quality and Shelf Life Improvement

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 22117

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Sciences, University of West Attica (former Technological Educational Institute of Athens), Ag. Spyridonos 28, 12243 Egaleo, Athens, Greece
Interests: processing, preservation techniques and quality control of fruits and vegetables; methods of food processing; shelf life studies and quality assessment; non-thermal processes; osmotic pretreatment of animal (meat and fish products) and vegetable tissues for shelf life extension; smart packaging (time temperature indicators); hurdle technology application; novel food production; sensory evaluation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instrumental Food Analysis, Laboratory of Chemistry, Analysis & Design of Food Processes, Department of Food Science and Technology, Food Sciences School, University of West Attica, 12210 Egaleo, Greece
Interests: instrumental food analysis (chromatography, mass spectrometry, spectroscopy) analytical methods development; natural antioxidants extraction from agricultural side-streams; biomolecular structure identification; organoleptic properties (color and texture) measurement; image analysis of foods; chemometrics and application of statistical analysis for the classification and monitoring of the nutritional value of food products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural bioactive compounds include chemical compounds found in small amounts in plants (aromatic, nutraceutical, edible flowers, etc.), certain foods (fruits, vegetables, nuts, oils, grains, etc.), as well as food industry waste (olive mill waste, tomato waste, winery waste, etc.). They exert actions in the body that may promote health benefits and are being extensively studied for the prevention of cancer, heart disorders, and other diseases. Examples of bioactive compounds include carotenoids, phenolic acids, polyphenols, tocopherols, vitamins, essential fatty acids. These compounds are nowadays incorporated into food products in order to enhance their nutritional and organoleptic properties as well as their shelf life and stability.

This Special Issue aims at collecting papers dealing with the characterization of bioactive compounds in plants, certain foods, and food industry waste. Focus will be also drawn upon their potential application in different food products, mainly as a source of functional ingredients and as alternative, natural preservatives.

Dr. Maria C. Giannakourou
Prof. Dr. Vassilia J. Sinanoglou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Natural antioxidants
  • Extraction process
  • Food enrichment
  • Chemical characterization
  • Quality and stability measurements
  • Shelf life testing
  • Functional foods

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 1512 KiB  
Article
Towards the Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction and the Assessment of Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Wine Lees Extracts
by Dimitra Tagkouli, Thalia Tsiaka, Eftichia Kritsi, Marina Soković, Vassilia J. Sinanoglou, Dimitra Z. Lantzouraki and Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis
Molecules 2022, 27(7), 2189; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072189 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
Wine lees, a sub-exploited byproduct of vinification, is considered a rich source of bioactive compounds, such as (poly)phenols, anthocyanins and tannins. Thus, the effective and rapid recovery of these biomolecules and the assessment of the bioactive properties of wine lees extracts is of [...] Read more.
Wine lees, a sub-exploited byproduct of vinification, is considered a rich source of bioactive compounds, such as (poly)phenols, anthocyanins and tannins. Thus, the effective and rapid recovery of these biomolecules and the assessment of the bioactive properties of wine lees extracts is of utmost importance. Towards this direction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) factors (i.e., extraction time, microwave power and solvent/material ratio) were optimized using experimental design models in order to maximize the (poly)phenolic yield of the extracts. After optimizing the MAE process, the total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the antiradical, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracts were evaluated. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate the chemical profile of wine lees extracts. Red varieties exhibited higher biological activity than white varieties. The geographical origin and fermentation stage were also considered as critical factors. The white variety Moschofilero presented the highest antioxidant, antiradical and antimicrobial activity, while Merlot and Agiorgitiko samples showed noteworthy activities among red varieties. Moreover, IR spectra confirmed the presence of sugars, amino acids, organic acids and aromatic compounds. Thus, an efficient, rapid and eco-friendly process was proposed for further valorization of wine lees extracts. Full article
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16 pages, 2682 KiB  
Article
Lipidomics of the Edible Brown Alga Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Electrospray Ionization and Tandem Mass Spectrometry
by Davide Coniglio, Mariachiara Bianco, Giovanni Ventura, Cosima D. Calvano, Ilario Losito and Tommaso R. I. Cataldi
Molecules 2021, 26(15), 4480; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154480 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
The lipidome of a brown seaweed commonly known as wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), which is grown and consumed around the world, including Western countries, as a healthy nutraceutical food or supplement, was here extensively examined. The study was focused on the characterization [...] Read more.
The lipidome of a brown seaweed commonly known as wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), which is grown and consumed around the world, including Western countries, as a healthy nutraceutical food or supplement, was here extensively examined. The study was focused on the characterization of phospholipids (PL) and glycolipids (GL) by liquid chromatography (LC), either hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC) or reversed-phase LC (RPLC), coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) and mass spectrometry (MS), operated both in high and in low-resolution mode. Through the acquisition of single (MS) and tandem (MS/MS) mass spectra more than 200 PL and GL of U. pinnatifida extracts were characterized in terms of lipid class, fatty acyl (FA) chain composition (length and number of unsaturations), and regiochemistry, namely 16 SQDG, 6 SQMG, 12 DGDG, 5 DGMG, 29 PG, 8 LPG, 19 PI, 14 PA, 19 PE, 8 PE, 38 PC, and 27 LPC. The FA (C16:0) was the most abundant saturated acyl chain, whereas the monounsaturated C18:1 and the polyunsaturated C18:2 and C20:4 chains were the prevailing ones. Odd-numbered acyl chains, iJ., C15:0, C17:0, C19:0, and C19:1, were also recognized. While SQDG exhibited the longest and most unsaturated acyl chains, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, in the sn-1 position of glycerol, they were preferentially located in the sn-2 position in the case of PL. The developed analytical approach might pave the way to extend lipidomic investigations also for other edible marine algae, thus emphasizing their potential role as a source of bioactive lipids. Full article
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9 pages, 1532 KiB  
Article
One-Step Extraction of Olive Phenols from Aqueous Solution Using β-Cyclodextrin in the Solid State, a Simple Eco-Friendly Method Providing Photochemical Stability to the Extracts
by Aurélia Malapert, Emmanuelle Reboul, Olivier Dangles, Alain Thiéry, N’nabinty Sylla and Valérie Tomao
Molecules 2021, 26(15), 4463; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154463 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
The extraction of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastes is important, not only to avoid environmental damages, but also because of the intrinsic value of those biophenols, well-known for their high antioxidant potential and health benefits. This study focuses on tyrosol (Tyr) and [...] Read more.
The extraction of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastes is important, not only to avoid environmental damages, but also because of the intrinsic value of those biophenols, well-known for their high antioxidant potential and health benefits. This study focuses on tyrosol (Tyr) and hydroxytyrosol (HT), two of the main phenolic compounds found in olive mill wastes. A new, simple, and eco-friendly extraction process for the removal of phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions using native β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in the solid state has been developed. Several β-CD/biophenol molar ratios and biophenol concentrations were investigated, in order to maintain β-CD mostly in the solid state while optimizing the extraction yield and the loading capacity of the sorbent. The extraction efficiencies of Tyr and HT were up to 61%, with a total solid recovery higher than 90% using an initial concentration of 100 mM biophenol and 10 molar equivalents of β-CD. The photochemical stability of the complexes thus obtained was estimated from ∆E*ab curve vs. illumination time. The results obtained showed that the phenols encapsulated into solid β-CD are protected against photodegradation. The powder obtained could be directly developed as a safe-grade food supplement. This simple eco-friendly process could be used for extracting valuable biophenols from olive mill wastewater. Full article
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15 pages, 1454 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Volatile Composition and Bioactive Potential of Vegetables and Fruits of Regular Consumption—An Integrative Approach
by Joselin Aguiar, João L. Gonçalves, Vera L. Alves and José S. Câmara
Molecules 2021, 26(12), 3653; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123653 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3311
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in studying and exploring the potential health benefits of foods, mainly from vegetables and fruits from regular intake. The presence of secondary metabolites, namely polyphenols, carotenoids and terpenes, in certain food matrices seems to [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in studying and exploring the potential health benefits of foods, mainly from vegetables and fruits from regular intake. The presence of secondary metabolites, namely polyphenols, carotenoids and terpenes, in certain food matrices seems to contribute to their functional properties, expressed through an increased prevention in the development of certain chronic diseases, namely coronary heart diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and diabetes. However, some foods’ volatile secondary metabolites also present important bioactive properties, although this is a poorly scientifically explored field. In this context, and in order to explore the potential bioactivity of volatile metabolites in different vegetables and fruits from regular consumption, the volatile composition was established using a green extraction technique, solid phase microextraction in headspace mode (HS-SPME), combined with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 320 volatile metabolites, comprising 51 terpenic compounds, 45 organosulfur compounds, 31 aldehydes, 37 esters, 29 ketones, 28 alcohols, 23 furanic compounds, 22 hydrocarbons, 19 benzene compounds, 13 nitrogenous compounds, 9 carboxylic acids, 7 ethers, 4 halogenated compounds and 3 naphthalene derivatives, were positively identified. Each investigated fruit and vegetable showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. The obtained results revealed that terpenic compounds, to which are associated antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, are the most predominant chemical family in beetroot (61%), orange carrot (58%) and white carrot (61%), while organosulfur compounds (antiviral activity) are dominant in onion, garlic and watercress. Broccoli and spinach are essentially constituted by alcohols and aldehydes (enzyme-inhibition and antimicrobial properties), while fruits from the Solanaceae family are characterized by esters in tamarillo and aldehydes in tomato. Full article
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14 pages, 1154 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Potential of Wild Moroccan Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton Leaves
by Fadoua Asraoui, Ayoub Kounnoun, Francesco Cacciola, Fouad El Mansouri, Imad Kabach, Yassine Oulad El Majdoub, Filippo Alibrando, Katia Arena, Emanuela Trovato, Luigi Mondello and Adnane Louajri
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3134; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113134 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3132
Abstract
Medicinal plants offer imperative sources of innovative chemical substances with important potential therapeutic effects. Among them, the members of the genus Inula have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The present study investigated the antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS [...] Read more.
Medicinal plants offer imperative sources of innovative chemical substances with important potential therapeutic effects. Among them, the members of the genus Inula have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The present study investigated the antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays) and the in vitro anti-hyperglycemic potential of aerial parts of Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton (I. viscosa) extracts through the inhibition of digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), responsible of the digestion of poly and oligosaccharides. The polyphenolic profile of the Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton EtOAc extract was also investigated using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis, whereas the volatile composition was elucidated by GC-MS. The chemical analysis resulted in the detection of twenty-one polyphenolic compounds, whereas the volatile profile highlighted the occurrence of forty-eight different compounds. Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton presented values as high as 87.2 ± 0.50 mg GAE/g and 78.6 ± 0.55mg CE/g, for gallic acid and catechin, respectively. The EtOAc extract exhibited the higher antioxidant activity compared to methanol and chloroform extracts in different tests with (IC50 = 0.6 ± 0.03 µg/mL; IC50 = 8.6 ± 0.08 µg/mL; 634.8 mg ± 1.45 AAE/g extract) in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP tests. Moreover, Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton leaves did show an important inhibitory effect against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. On the basis of the results achieved, such a species represents a promising traditional medicine, thanks to its remarkable content of functional bioactive compounds, thus opening new prospects for research and innovative phytopharmaceuticals developments. Full article
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10 pages, 415 KiB  
Article
Attempts for Developing Novel Sugar-Based and Sugar-Free Sea Buckthorn Marmalades
by Oana-Viorela Nistor, Carmen Alina Bolea, Doina-Georgeta Andronoiu, Mihaela Cotârleț and Nicoleta Stănciuc
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3073; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113073 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Sea buckthorn (Hippophaė rhamnoides L.) is recognized as a valuable source of vitamin C and antioxidants, frequently used as nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. In the present study, attempts are made to produce and characterize a novel type of marmalade using sea buckthorn berries [...] Read more.
Sea buckthorn (Hippophaė rhamnoides L.) is recognized as a valuable source of vitamin C and antioxidants, frequently used as nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. In the present study, attempts are made to produce and characterize a novel type of marmalade using sea buckthorn berries processed at 102 °C into marmalade in two combinations, with whole cane or stevia sugar. Changes in the phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity, color, shelf-life, texture, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics were determined. The total carotenoids content in the marmalades were significantly different, with values of 0.91 ± 0.03 mg/g dry weight (DW) in the sample with whole sugar cane (Cz) and 2.69 ± 0.14 mg/g DW in the sample with Stevia sugar (Cs). Significant values of polyphenols were found, of 59.41 ± 1.13 mg GAE/g DW in Cz and 72.44 ± 2.31 mg GAE/g DW in Cs, leading to an antioxidant activity of 45.12 ± 0.001 μMol Trolox/g DW and 118.07 ± 0.01 μMol Trolox/g DW, respectively. Accelerated storage study showed a decrease in all the phytochemicals, however no significant changes were found in antioxidant activity. Values of <100 CFU/g for yeasts and molds and <5 CFU/g for Enterobacteriaceae after 21 days of storage at the room temperature of the marmalades were determined. The sensorial and color results were more than acceptable. Overall, the results highlighted the potential of using sea buckthorn as a potential rich source of bioactive compounds to be used in the sugar-based products manufacturing. Full article
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19 pages, 2064 KiB  
Article
Combined Effect of Impregnation with an Origanum vulgare Infusion and Osmotic Treatment on the Shelf Life and Quality of Chilled Chicken Fillets
by Maria C. Giannakourou, Stylianos Poulis, Spyridon J. Konteles, Akrivi Dipla, Vladimiros P. Lougovois, Vassiliki Kyrana, Charalampos Proestos and Vassilia J. Sinanoglou
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092727 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
The scope of this work is the study of a combined process including a dipping step into an oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) infusion (OV) followed by osmotic treatment of chicken fillets at 15 °C. Chicken fillets were immersed in an [...] Read more.
The scope of this work is the study of a combined process including a dipping step into an oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) infusion (OV) followed by osmotic treatment of chicken fillets at 15 °C. Chicken fillets were immersed in an osmotic solution consisting of 40% glycerol and 5% NaCl with (OV/OD) and without (OD) prior antioxidant enrichment in a hypotonic oregano solution. A comparative shelf life study of all the samples (untreated, OD and OV/OD treated) was then conducted at 4 °C in order to assess the impact of this process on the quality and shelf life of chilled chicken fillets. Microbial growth, lipid oxidation and color/texture changes were measured throughout the chilled storage period. Rates of microbial growth of pretreated fillets were significantly reduced, mainly as a result of water activity decrease (OD step). Rancidity development closely related to off odors and sensory rejection was greatly inhibited in treated fillets owing to both inhibitory factors (OD and OV), with water-soluble phenols (OV step) exhibiting the main antioxidant effect. Shelf life of treated chicken fillets exhibited a more than three-fold increase as compared to the untreated samples based on both chemical and microbial spoilage indices, maintaining a positive and pleasant sensory profile throughout the storage period examined. Full article
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Review

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13 pages, 701 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in the Application of the Antimicrobial Peptide Nisin in the Inactivation of Spore-Forming Bacteria in Foods
by Christian Anumudu, Abarasi Hart, Taghi Miri and Helen Onyeaka
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5552; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185552 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4646
Abstract
Conventional thermal and chemical treatments used in food preservation have come under scrutiny by consumers who demand minimally processed foods free from chemical agents but microbiologically safe. As a result, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as bacteriocins and nisin that are ribosomally synthesised by [...] Read more.
Conventional thermal and chemical treatments used in food preservation have come under scrutiny by consumers who demand minimally processed foods free from chemical agents but microbiologically safe. As a result, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as bacteriocins and nisin that are ribosomally synthesised by bacteria, more prominently by the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have appeared as a potent alternative due to their multiple biological activities. They represent a powerful strategy to prevent the development of spore-forming microorganisms in foods. Unlike thermal methods, they are natural without an adverse impact on food organoleptic and nutritional attributes. AMPs such as nisin and bacteriocins are generally effective in eliminating the vegetative forms of spore-forming bacteria compared to the more resilient spore forms. However, in combination with other non-thermal treatments, such as high pressure, supercritical carbon dioxide, electric pulses, a synergistic effect with AMPs such as nisin exists and has been proven to be effective in the inactivation of microbial spores through the disruption of the spore structure and prevention of spore outgrowth. The control of microbial spores in foods is essential in maintaining food safety and extension of shelf-life. Thus, exploration of the mechanisms of action of AMPs such as nisin is critical for their design and effective application in the food industry. This review harmonises information on the mechanisms of bacteria inactivation from published literature and the utilisation of AMPs in the control of microbial spores in food. It highlights future perspectives in research and application in food processing. Full article
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