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Sustainable Bioactive and Functional Molecules from Agri-Food Waste: A Tour to Applications

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 37062

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science, University of Vigo, Braga, Spain
Interests: green chemistry; bioactive molecules; cytotoxicity; isolation and characterization; innovative extraction methods; added-value products; pharmacology; food science
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science, University of Vigo, Vigo, Spain
Interests: sustainable process; agro-industrial residues; added-value products; isolation and characterization; innovative extraction methods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal
Interests: industrial engineering; bioprocesses; agro-industrial residues; food biotechnology; innovative extraction methods; green chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, agri-food waste is a social, economic, and ethical concern. The valorization of this agri-food waste is important due to the scarcity of resources and desirable from a circular economy perspective. Furthermore, the industry is increasingly focused on finding new sources of bio-based molecules, allowing for the replacement of synthetic products, for example antioxidants, colorants, and preservatives. These bio-based molecules can be an important dietary source of bioactive compounds that contribute to improvements to health and quality of life, demonstrating their potential as nutraceutical, functional foods, and/or pharmaceutical components for therapeutic purposes. 

This Special Issue deals with different aspects of this theme:

  • Nutritional value of food and agri-food by-products.
  • Application of green sustainable technologies for the extraction and purification of bioactive compounds from food and agri-food waste, e.g., ohmic heating, microwaves, supercritical fluids, ultrasound, pulsed electric field, enzyme-assisted extraction, etc.
  • Analytical methods for the identification and quantification of biomolecules.
  • Biological characterization of obtained extracts or isolated molecules, like antioxidants, antimicrobial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and other activities.
  • Functional properties of bio-based molecules recovered from agri-food by-products, like antioxidants, colorants, and preservatives.
  • Development of high added-value products from agri-food by-products for industrial applications.

We cordially invite submissions of original articles and reviews that describe research in these areas.

Dr. Pedro Ferreira-Santos
Dr. Beatriz Gullon
Dr. Zlatina Genisheva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Green chemistry
  • Bioactive molecules
  • Isolation and characterization
  • Innovative extraction methods
  • Added-value products
  • Functional foods
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Health applications

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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17 pages, 2402 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Phytochemical-Rich Citrus maxima Albedo Extract Using Response Surface Methodology
by Woorawee Inthachat, Piya Temviriyanukul, Nattira On-Nom, Panyaporn Kanoongon, Sirinapa Thangsiri, Chaowanee Chupeerach and Uthaiwan Suttisansanee
Molecules 2023, 28(10), 4121; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28104121 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
In the present study, response surface methodology (RSM) and Box–Behnken design (BBD) were employed to optimize the conditions for the extraction of C. maxima albedo from agricultural waste, to obtain notable phytochemicals. Ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time were included as key [...] Read more.
In the present study, response surface methodology (RSM) and Box–Behnken design (BBD) were employed to optimize the conditions for the extraction of C. maxima albedo from agricultural waste, to obtain notable phytochemicals. Ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time were included as key factors contributing to the extraction. The results showed that the optimum extraction condition for C. maxima albedo was 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at 30 °C for 4 h, which provided total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents at 15.79 mg of gallic equivalent/g dry weight (DW) and 4.50 mg of quercetin equivalent/g DW, respectively. Considerable amounts of hesperidin and naringenin at 161.03 and 3430.41 µg/g DW, respectively, were detected in the optimized extract using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS/MS). The extract was later subjected to a test for its enzyme-inhibitory activities against key enzymes relevant to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), obesity, and diabetes as well as for its mutagenicity potential. Among enzyme inhibitory activities, the extract showed the highest inhibitory strength against β-secretase (BACE-1), which is a drug target for AD treatment. The extract was also devoid of mutagenicity properties. Overall, this study demonstrated a simple and optimal extraction procedure for C. maxima albedo with a significant quantity of phytochemicals, health benefits, and genome safety. Full article
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20 pages, 3446 KiB  
Article
Potential of Atlantic Codfish (Gadus morhua) Skin Collagen for Skincare Biomaterials
by Cristina V. Rodrigues, Rita O. Sousa, Ana C. Carvalho, Ana L. Alves, Catarina F. Marques, Mariana T. Cerqueira, Rui L. Reis and Tiago H. Silva
Molecules 2023, 28(8), 3394; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28083394 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
Collagen is the major structural protein in extracellular matrix present in connective tissues, including skin, being considered a promising material for skin regeneration. Marine organisms have been attracting interest amongst the industry as an alternative collagen source. In the present work, Atlantic codfish [...] Read more.
Collagen is the major structural protein in extracellular matrix present in connective tissues, including skin, being considered a promising material for skin regeneration. Marine organisms have been attracting interest amongst the industry as an alternative collagen source. In the present work, Atlantic codfish skin collagen was analyzed, to evaluate its potential for skincare. The collagen was extracted from two different skin batches (food industry by-product) using acetic acid (ASColl), confirming the method reproducibility since no significant yield differences were observed. The extracts characterization confirmed a profile compatible with type I collagen, without significant differences between batches or with bovine skin collagen (a reference material in biomedicine). Thermal analyses suggested ASColl’s native structure loss at 25 °C, and an inferior thermal stability to bovine skin collagen. No cytotoxicity was found for ASColl up to 10 mg/mL in keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). ASColl was used to develop membranes, which revealed smooth surfaces without significative morphological or biodegradability differences between batches. Their water absorption capacity and water contact angle indicated a hydrophilic feature. The metabolic activity and proliferation of HaCaT were improved by the membranes. Hence, ASColl membranes exhibited attractive characteristics to be applied in the biomedical and cosmeceutical field envisaging skincare. Full article
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13 pages, 956 KiB  
Article
Bioavailability of Phenolic Compounds in Californian-Style Table Olives with Tunisian Aqueous Olive Leaf Extracts
by Dalel Mechi, Bechir Baccouri, Daniel Martín-Vertedor and Leila Abaza
Molecules 2023, 28(2), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28020707 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Recent advances in biotechnology have ensured that one of the main olive tree by-products is olive leaf extract (OLE), a rich source in bioactive compounds. The aim of this work was to study the phenolic composition in different OLEs of three Tunisian varieties, [...] Read more.
Recent advances in biotechnology have ensured that one of the main olive tree by-products is olive leaf extract (OLE), a rich source in bioactive compounds. The aim of this work was to study the phenolic composition in different OLEs of three Tunisian varieties, namely, ‘Sayali’, ‘Tkobri’, and ‘Neb Jmel’. The in vitro biodigestibility effect after ‘Sayali’ OLE addition to Californian-style ‘Hojiblanca’ table olives was also studied. This OLE contained bioactive molecules such as hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleropeine, Procianidine B1 (PB1), and p-cumaric acid. These compounds were also found in fresh olives after OLE was added. Furthermore, from fresh extract to oral digestion, the detected amount of bioavailable phenol was higher; however, its content decreased according to each phase of gastric and intestinal digestion. In the final digestion phase, the number of phenols found was lower than that of fresh olives. In addition, the phenolic content of Californian-style ‘Hojiblanca’ table olives decreased during the in vitro digestion process. The antioxidant activity of this variety decreased by 64% and 88% after gastrointestinal digestion, being the highest antioxidant capacity found in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, respectively. The results show us that the ‘Sayali’ variety is rich in phenolic compounds that are bioavailable after digestion, which could be used at an industrial level due to the related health benefits. Full article
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15 pages, 4039 KiB  
Article
Structural and Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Rejected Chestnut: Hydrothermal and High-Pressure Processing Dependence
by Enrique Pino-Hernández, Luiz Henrique Fasolin, Lina F. Ballesteros, Carlos A. Pinto, Jorge A. Saraiva, Luís Abrunhosa and José António Teixeira
Molecules 2023, 28(2), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28020700 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
The quality standards for the export of chestnuts generate large quantities of rejected fruits, which require novel processing technologies for their safe industrial utilization. This study aimed to investigate the impact of high-pressure processing (HPP) and hydrothermal treatments (HT) on the physicochemical properties [...] Read more.
The quality standards for the export of chestnuts generate large quantities of rejected fruits, which require novel processing technologies for their safe industrial utilization. This study aimed to investigate the impact of high-pressure processing (HPP) and hydrothermal treatments (HT) on the physicochemical properties of rejected chestnut starch. Chestnuts were treated by HPP at 400, 500, and 600 MPa for 5 min and HT at 50 °C for 45 min. In general, all HPP treatments did not induce starch gelatinization, and their granules preserved the integrity and Maltese-cross. Moreover, starch granules’ size and resistant starch content increased with the intensity of pressure. Native and HT chestnut starches were the most susceptible to digestion. HPP treatments did not affect the C-type crystalline pattern of native starch, but the crystalline region was gradually modified to become amorphous. HPP-600 MPa treated starch showed modified pasting properties and exhibited the highest values of peak viscosity. This study demonstrates for the first time that after HPP-600 MPa treatment, a novel chestnut starch gel structure is obtained. Moreover, HPP treatments could increase the slow-digesting starch, which benefits the development of healthier products. HPP can be considered an interesting technology to obtain added-value starch from rejected chestnut fruits. Full article
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11 pages, 1443 KiB  
Article
In Vitro and In Vivo Antibiofilm Activity of Red Onion Scales: An Agro-Food Waste
by Nermeen B. Ali, Riham A. El-Shiekh, Rehab M. Ashour, Sabah H. El-Gayed, Essam Abdel-Sattar and Mariam Hassan
Molecules 2023, 28(1), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28010355 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
Red onion wastes (ROW) are valuable sources of bioactive metabolites with promising antimicrobial effects. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a growing risk in hospitals and communities. This study aims to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antibiofilm activities of the acidified [...] Read more.
Red onion wastes (ROW) are valuable sources of bioactive metabolites with promising antimicrobial effects. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a growing risk in hospitals and communities. This study aims to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antibiofilm activities of the acidified ethanolic extract of red onion scales (RO-T) and its fractions against an MRSA vaginal colonization model. The RO-T extract, as well as its anthocyanin-rich fraction (RO-P) and flavonoid-rich fraction (RO-S), recorded a promising antibacterial activity against highly virulent strains of bacteria (MRSA, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). RO-S showed the highest antibacterial activity (MBC of 0.33 ± 0.11 mg/mL) against MRSA USA300 and significantly eradicated its biofilm formation with an IC50 of 0.003. Using a rat model, in vivo assessment on all samples, which were formulated as a hydrogel, revealed a significant reduction of MRSA bacterial load recovered from an infected vagina compared to that of the negative control group (NCG). RO-T extract and vancomycin groups recorded the highest antibacterial activity with a bacterial load 2.998 and 3.358 logs lower than the NCG, respectively. The histopathological investigation confirmed our findings. RO-T and RO-S were standardized for their quercetin content. Finally, ROW offers a new potent antibiofilm agent mostly due to its high quercetin content. Full article
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14 pages, 1123 KiB  
Article
Development of a Protein-Rich By-Product by 23 Factorial Design: Characterization of Its Nutritional Value and Sensory Analysis
by Thamara R. dos Santos, Jakcline dos Santos Melo, Alysson V. dos Santos, Patrícia Severino, Álvaro S. Lima, Eliana B. Souto, Aleksandra Zielińska and Juliana C. Cardoso
Molecules 2022, 27(24), 8918; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27248918 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
The aim of this study was the development of a cereal bar based on bee pollen (BP), honey (H), and flour by-products (peel passion fruit flour—PPFF), generating an innovative product. BP is a protein-rich ingredient and can be used in the composition of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was the development of a cereal bar based on bee pollen (BP), honey (H), and flour by-products (peel passion fruit flour—PPFF), generating an innovative product. BP is a protein-rich ingredient and can be used in the composition of cereal bars. PPFF is a by-product rich in fibers. The formulations were developed using a 23 factorial design with four replicates in the center point, studying the sensory analysis as a response variable. The texture and nutritional parameters were performed for the optimal formulation. BP showed ca. 15% of protein. The final formulation (10.35% BP, 6.8% PPFF, and 25% H) presented 22.2% moisture, 1.8% ash, 0.4% total fat, 3.0% fiber, 63.1% carbohydrates, and 74.0 Kcal/25 g. The sensory analysis presented valued around 7 (typical of a traditional bar). Regarding the possibility of purchasing the product, 51% of the panelists said they would probably buy the developed product. The formulated cereal bar had a similar composition as those already marketed. Moreover, it can be considered a source of fiber and is sensory acceptable. This approach opens up new opportunities for developing nutritional and functional foodstuff with improved sensorial aspects. Full article
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12 pages, 624 KiB  
Article
Deep Eutectic Solvents as a Green Tool for the Extraction of Bioactive Phenolic Compounds from Avocado Peels
by Beatriz Rodríguez-Martínez, Pedro Ferreira-Santos, Irene Méndez Alfonso, Sidonia Martínez, Zlatina Genisheva and Beatriz Gullón
Molecules 2022, 27(19), 6646; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27196646 - 6 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2388
Abstract
Avocado peels are the main agro-industrial residue generated during the avocado processing, being a rich source of bioactive compounds like phenolic compounds. The growing demand for more sustainable processes requires the development of new and effective methods for extracting bioactive compounds from industrial [...] Read more.
Avocado peels are the main agro-industrial residue generated during the avocado processing, being a rich source of bioactive compounds like phenolic compounds. The growing demand for more sustainable processes requires the development of new and effective methods for extracting bioactive compounds from industrial waste. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a new sustainable alternative to toxic organic solvents due to their non-toxicity and biocompatibility. In this study, five selected DESs were applied for the extraction of bioactive phenolic compounds from avocado peels. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by measuring the total phenolics and flavonoids content. The best extraction results were obtained with choline chloride-acetic acid and -lactic acid (92.03 ± 2.11 mg GAE/g DAP in TPC and 186.01 ± 3.27 mg RE/g DAP); however, all tested DESs show better extraction efficiency than ethanol. All the obtained NADES extracts have high antioxidant activity (FRAP: 72.5–121.1 mg TE/g; TAC: 90.0–126.1 mg AAE/g). The synthesized DESs and avocado peels DES extracts had activity against all tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida), and the extracts prepared with choline chloride-acetic acid and -lactic acid have the highest antibacterial activity against all microorganisms. These results, coupled with the non-toxic, biodegradable, low-cost, and environmentally friendly characteristics of DESs, provide strong evidence that DESs represent an effective alternative to organic solvents for the recovery of phenolic bioactive compounds from agro-industrial wastes. Full article
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19 pages, 1019 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Palynological, Chemical, and Bioactive Properties of Non-Studied Bee Pollen and Honey from Morocco
by Meryem Bakour, Hassan Laaroussi, Pedro Ferreira-Santos, Zlatina Genisheva, Driss Ousaaid, José Antonio Teixeira and Badiaa Lyoussi
Molecules 2022, 27(18), 5777; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27185777 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
Bee products are known for their beneficial properties widely used in complementary medicine. This study aims to unveil the physicochemical, nutritional value, and phenolic profile of bee pollen and honey collected from Boulemane–Morocco, and to evaluate their antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity. The results [...] Read more.
Bee products are known for their beneficial properties widely used in complementary medicine. This study aims to unveil the physicochemical, nutritional value, and phenolic profile of bee pollen and honey collected from Boulemane–Morocco, and to evaluate their antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity. The results indicate that Citrus aurantium pollen grains were the majority pollen in both samples. Bee pollen was richer in proteins than honey while the inverse was observed for carbohydrate content. Potassium and calcium were the predominant minerals in the studied samples. Seven similar phenolic compounds were found in honey and bee pollen. Three phenolic compounds were identified only in honey (catechin, caffeic acid, vanillic acid) and six phenolic compounds were identified only in bee pollen (hesperidin, cinnamic acid, apigenin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol). Naringin is the predominant phenolic in honey while hesperidin is predominant in bee pollen. The results of bioactivities revealed that bee pollen exhibited stronger antioxidant activity and effective α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory action. These bee products show interesting nutritional and bioactive capabilities due to their chemical constituents. These features may allow these bee products to be used in food formulation, as functional and bioactive ingredients, as well as the potential for the nutraceutical sector. Full article
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20 pages, 4045 KiB  
Article
Fungal Proteins from Sargassum spp. Using Solid-State Fermentation as a Green Bioprocess Strategy
by Adriana M. Bonilla Loaiza, Rosa M. Rodríguez-Jasso, Ruth Belmares, Claudia M. López-Badillo, Rafael G. Araújo, Cristóbal N. Aguilar, Mónica L. Chávez, Miguel A. Aguilar and Héctor A. Ruiz
Molecules 2022, 27(12), 3887; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27123887 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3157
Abstract
The development of green technologies and bioprocesses such as solid-state fermentation (SSF) is important for the processing of macroalgae biomass and to reduce the negative effect of Sargassum spp. on marine ecosystems, as well as the production of compounds with high added value [...] Read more.
The development of green technologies and bioprocesses such as solid-state fermentation (SSF) is important for the processing of macroalgae biomass and to reduce the negative effect of Sargassum spp. on marine ecosystems, as well as the production of compounds with high added value such as fungal proteins. In the present study, Sargassum spp. biomass was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatments at different operating temperatures (150, 170, and 190 °C) and pressures (3.75, 6.91, and 11.54 bar) for 50 min, obtaining a glucan-rich substrate (17.99, 23.86, and 25.38 g/100 g d.w., respectively). The results indicate that Sargassum pretreated at a pretreatment temperature of 170 °C was suitable for fungal growth. SSF was performed in packed-bed bioreactors, obtaining the highest protein content at 96 h (6.6%) and the lowest content at 72 h (4.6%). In contrast, it was observed that the production of fungal proteins is related to the concentration of sugars. Furthermore, fermentation results in a reduction in antinutritional elements, such as heavy metals (As, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Sn), and there is a decrease in ash content during fermentation kinetics. Finally, this work shows that Aspergillus oryzae can assimilate nutrients found in the pretreated Sargassum spp. to produce fungal proteins as a strategy for the food industry. Full article
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16 pages, 4401 KiB  
Article
Docking Analysis of Some Bioactive Compounds from Traditional Plants against SARS-CoV-2 Target Proteins
by Nourhan M. Abd El-Aziz, Ibrahim Khalifa, Amira M. G. Darwish, Ahmed N. Badr, Huda Aljumayi, El-Sayed Hafez and Mohamed G. Shehata
Molecules 2022, 27(9), 2662; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092662 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3869
Abstract
COVID-19 is still a global pandemic that has not been stopped. Many traditional medicines have been demonstrated to be incredibly helpful for treating COVID-19 patients while fighting the disease worldwide. We introduced 10 bioactive compounds derived from traditional medicinal plants and assessed their [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is still a global pandemic that has not been stopped. Many traditional medicines have been demonstrated to be incredibly helpful for treating COVID-19 patients while fighting the disease worldwide. We introduced 10 bioactive compounds derived from traditional medicinal plants and assessed their potential for inhibiting viral spike protein (S-protein), Papain-like protease (PLpro), and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) using molecular docking protocols where we simulate the inhibitors bound to target proteins in various poses and at different known binding sites using Autodock version 4.0 and Chimera 1.8.1 software. Results found that the chicoric acid, quinine, and withaferin A ligand strongly inhibited CoV-2 S -protein with a binding energy of −8.63, −7.85, and −7.85 kcal/mol, respectively. Our modeling work also suggested that curcumin, quinine, and demothoxycurcumin exhibited high binding affinity toward RdRp with a binding energy of −7.80, −7.80, and −7.64 kcal/mol, respectively. The other ligands, namely chicoric acid, demothoxycurcumin, and curcumin express high binding energy than the other tested ligands docked to PLpro with −7.62, −6.81, and −6.70 kcal/mol, respectively. Prediction of drug-likeness properties revealed that all tested ligands have no violations to Lipinski’s Rule of Five except cepharanthine, chicoric acid, and theaflavin. Regarding the pharmacokinetic behavior, all ligand predicted to have high GI-absorption except chicoric acid and theaflavin. At the same way chicoric acid, withaferin A, and withanolide D predicted to be substrate for multidrug resistance protein (P-gp substrate). Caffeic acid, cepharanthine, chicoric acid, withaferin A, and withanolide D also have no inhibitory effect on any cytochrome P450 enzymes. Promisingly, chicoric acid, quinine, curcumin, and demothoxycurcumin exhibited high binding affinity on SARS-CoV-2 target proteins and expressed good drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic properties. Further research is required to investigate the potential uses of these compounds in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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23 pages, 4536 KiB  
Article
Novel Bio-Functional Aloe vera Beverages Fermented by Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus lactis
by Ruth B. Cuvas-Limón, Pedro Ferreira-Santos, Mario Cruz, José António Teixeira, Ruth Belmares and Clarisse Nobre
Molecules 2022, 27(8), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27082473 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4172
Abstract
Aloe vera has been medicinally used for centuries. Its bioactive compounds have been shown to be very effective in the treatment of numerous diseases. In this work, a novel functional beverage was developed and characterized to combine the health benefits of probiotic bacteria [...] Read more.
Aloe vera has been medicinally used for centuries. Its bioactive compounds have been shown to be very effective in the treatment of numerous diseases. In this work, a novel functional beverage was developed and characterized to combine the health benefits of probiotic bacteria with the Aloe vera plant itself. Two Aloe vera juices were obtained by fermentation either by a novel isolated Enterococcus faecium or a commercial Lactococcus lactis. The extraction of Aloe vera biocompounds for further fermentation was optimized. Extraction with water plus cellulase enhanced the carbohydrates and phenolic compounds in the obtained extracts. The biotransformation of the bioactive compounds from the extracts during fermentation was assessed. Both probiotic bacteria were able to grow on the Aloe vera extract. Lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) together with fourteen individual phenolic compounds were quantified in the produced Aloe vera juice, mainly epicatechin, aloin, ellagic acid, and hesperidin. The amount of total phenolic compounds was maintained through fermentation. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased in the produced juice by the ABTS method. The novel produced Aloe vera juice showed great potential as a functional beverage containing probiotics, prebiotics, SCFA, and phenolic compounds in its final composition. Full article
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12 pages, 1563 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Procedures of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Waste Orange Peels by Response Surface Methodology
by Chao-Hui Feng
Molecules 2022, 27(7), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072268 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
The simultaneous effects of three continuous factors: solvent concentration (50–100%), treated times (25–85 min), treated temperatures (25–55 °C), and two categorical factors: type of solvents (methanol or ethanol) and ultrasonic frequency (28 kHz or 40 kHz) on ultrasonic-assisted extraction yield from waste orange [...] Read more.
The simultaneous effects of three continuous factors: solvent concentration (50–100%), treated times (25–85 min), treated temperatures (25–55 °C), and two categorical factors: type of solvents (methanol or ethanol) and ultrasonic frequency (28 kHz or 40 kHz) on ultrasonic-assisted extraction yield from waste orange peels were evaluated and optimized by response surface methodology. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with a wavelength of 500 cm−1 to 4000 cm−1 was employed to rapidly identify the orange extracts. The significant polynomial regression models on crude extraction, sediments after evaporation, and precipitation yield were established (p < 0.05). Results revealed that solvent concentration affected crude extraction and precipitation yield linearly (p < 0.01). The optimal and practical ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for increasing the precipitation yield were using 61.42% methanol with 85 min at 55 °C under 40 kHz ultrasonic frequency. The spectra of extracts showed a similar fingerprint of hesperidin. Full article
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15 pages, 1658 KiB  
Article
An Organic Solvent-Free Method for the Extraction of Ellagic Acid Compounds from Raspberry Wine Pomace with Assistance of Sodium Bicarbonate
by Ning Jin, Shouyu Zhang, Shibo Sun, Minghuo Wu, Xiaojing Yang, Jianqiang Xu, Kun Ma, Shui Guan and Weiping Xu
Molecules 2022, 27(7), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072145 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2393
Abstract
Industrial processing of raspberry juice and wine generates considerable byproducts of raspberry pomace. Ellagic acids/ellagitannins, being characterized by their antioxidant and antiproliferation properties, constitute the majority of polyphenolics in the pomace and are valuable for recovery. In the present study, we developed a [...] Read more.
Industrial processing of raspberry juice and wine generates considerable byproducts of raspberry pomace. Ellagic acids/ellagitannins, being characterized by their antioxidant and antiproliferation properties, constitute the majority of polyphenolics in the pomace and are valuable for recovery. In the present study, we developed a novel procedure with sodium bicarbonate assisted extraction (SBAE) to recover ellagic acid from raspberry wine pomace. Key parameters in the procedure, i.e., sodium bicarbonate concentration, temperature, time and solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, were investigated by single factor analysis and optimized subsequently by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Optimal parameters for the SBAE method here were found to be 1.2% (w/v) NaHCO3, 1:93 (w/v) S/L ratio, 22 min and 100 °C. Under these conditions, the ellagic acid yield was 6.30 ± 0.92 mg/g pomace with an antioxidant activity of 79.0 ± 0.96 μmol Trolox eq/g pomace (DPPH assay), which are 2.37 and 1.32 times the values obtained by extraction with methanol–acetone–water solvent, respectively. The considerable improvement in ellagic acid extraction efficiency could be highly attributed to the reactions of lipid saponification and ellagitannin hydrolysis resulted from sodium bicarbonates. The present study has established an organic solvent-free method for the extraction of ellagic acid from raspberry wine pomace, which is feasible and practical in nutraceutical applications. Full article
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18 pages, 2331 KiB  
Article
Influence of Plant Extract Addition to Marinades on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Formation in Grilled Pork Meat
by Anna Onopiuk, Klaudia Kołodziejczak, Monika Marcinkowska-Lesiak, Iwona Wojtasik-Kalinowska, Arkadiusz Szpicer, Adrian Stelmasiak and Andrzej Poltorak
Molecules 2022, 27(1), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010175 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2438
Abstract
Marinating is one of the most common methods of pre-processing meat. Appropriate selection of marinade ingredients can influence the physicochemical properties of the meat and can reduce the level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the final product. The effects of the inclusion [...] Read more.
Marinating is one of the most common methods of pre-processing meat. Appropriate selection of marinade ingredients can influence the physicochemical properties of the meat and can reduce the level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the final product. The effects of the inclusion of natural plant extracts such as bay leaf (BL), black pepper (BP), turmeric (TU), jalapeno pepper (JP) and tamarind paste (TA) in marinades on the physicochemical properties of grilled pork neck were studied. The addition of spice extracts to marinades increased the proportion of colour components L* and b*. The use of TU, TA, JP, MX and C marinades lowered the hardness and pH of the meat. The highest phenolic compound levels were observed in the case of the mixture of all extracts (MX) and JP marinades, and the highest total antioxidant capacity was exhibited by the BL and MX marinades. The highest PAH content was recorded in the CON marinade (Σ12PAH 98.48 ± 0.81 µg/kg) and the lowest in the JP marinade (4.76 ± 0.08 µg/kg), which had the strongest, statistically significant reducing effect (95% reduction) on PAH levels. Analysis of correlation coefficients showed a relationship between the total antioxidant capacity of the marinades and the PAH content in grilled pork. Full article
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Review

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12 pages, 840 KiB  
Review
Challenges in Using Ionic Liquids for Cellulosic Ethanol Production
by Francieli Colussi, Héctor Rodríguez, Michele Michelin and José A. Teixeira
Molecules 2023, 28(4), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28041620 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
The growing need to expand the use of renewable energy sources in a sustainable manner, providing greater energy supply security and reducing the environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels, finds in the agricultural by-product bioethanol an economically viable alternative with significant expansion potential. [...] Read more.
The growing need to expand the use of renewable energy sources in a sustainable manner, providing greater energy supply security and reducing the environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels, finds in the agricultural by-product bioethanol an economically viable alternative with significant expansion potential. In this regard, a dramatic boost in the efficiency of processes already in place is required, reducing costs, industrial waste, and our carbon footprint. Biofuels are one of the most promising alternatives to massively produce energy sustainably in a short-term period. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is highly recalcitrant, and an effective pretreatment strategy should also minimize carbohydrate degradation by diminishing enzyme inhibitors and other products that are toxic to fermenting microorganisms. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been playing an important role in achieving cleaner processes as a result of their excellent physicochemical properties and outstanding performance in the dissolution and fractionation of lignocellulose. This review provides an analysis of recent advances in the production process of biofuels from LCB using ILs as pretreatment and highlighting techniques for optimizing and reducing process costs that should help to develop robust LCB conversion processes. Full article
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