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Recent Advances in Functional Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 15810

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
Interests: electrochemistry; biosensors; bioimaging and bioanalysis; environmental analysis; food analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As is well-known, when the sizes of the materials are reduced to the nanometer range, some of their physical and chemical properties will change significantly, and a series of unique effects will appear including surface effect, volume effect, quantum size effect, and macroscopic quantum tunneling effect. With the development of nanoscience and nanotechnologies, various functional nanomaterials have been synthesized and applied in different fields of energy storage, light-emitting nano devices, optoelectronic devices, catalysis, and sensors.

This Special Issue is focused on the recent achievements in functional nanomaterials for electrochemical sensors and biosensors. We invite original contributions as well as review articles relating the synthesis, characterization, and application of novel functional nanomaterials with unique properties (carbon, semiconductor, metal-organic framework, covalent-organic framework, organic–inorganic nanocomposites, etc.) in electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

Prof. Dr. Liqiang Luo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Functional nanomaterials
  • Carbon
  • Semiconductor
  • Metal-organic framework
  • Covalent-organic framework
  • Polymer
  • Organic-inorganic nanocomposites
  • Electrochemical sensors
  • Biosensors

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Advances in Functional Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors
by Liqiang Luo
Molecules 2023, 28(19), 6798; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28196798 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Considering the unique advantages of the quantum size, volume, surface, and macroscopical quantum tunnel effects, nanomaterials have been paid increasing attention for various applications in environmental, medical, biological, and chemical analyses in recent decades [...] Full article

Research

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14 pages, 16872 KiB  
Article
Bismuth-Decorated Honeycomb-like Carbon Nanofibers: An Active Electrocatalyst for the Construction of a Sensitive Nitrite Sensor
by Fengyi Wang, Ye Li, Chenglu Yan, Qiuting Ma, Xiaofeng Yang, Huaqiao Peng, Huiyong Wang, Juan Du, Baozhan Zheng and Yong Guo
Molecules 2023, 28(9), 3881; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28093881 - 04 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
The existence of carcinogenic nitrites in food and the natural environment has attracted much attention. Therefore, it is still urgent and necessary to develop nitrite sensors with higher sensitivity and selectivity and expand their applications in daily life to protect human health and [...] Read more.
The existence of carcinogenic nitrites in food and the natural environment has attracted much attention. Therefore, it is still urgent and necessary to develop nitrite sensors with higher sensitivity and selectivity and expand their applications in daily life to protect human health and environmental safety. Herein, one-dimensional honeycomb-like carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were synthesized with electrospun technology, and their specific structure enabled controlled growth and highly dispersed bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) on their surface, which endowed the obtained Bi/HCNFs with excellent electrocatalytic activity towards nitrite oxidation. By modifying Bi/HCNFs on the screen-printed electrode, the constructed Bi/HCNFs electrode (Bi/HCNFs-SPE) can be used for nitrite detection in one drop of solution, and exhibits higher sensitivity (1269.9 μA mM−1 cm−2) in a wide range of 0.1~800 μM with a lower detection limit (19 nM). Impressively, the Bi/HCNFs-SPE has been successfully used for nitrite detection in food and environment samples, and the satisfactory properties and recovery indicate its feasibility for further practical applications. Full article
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15 pages, 2365 KiB  
Article
H-rGO-Pd NPs Nanozyme Enhanced Silver Deposition Strategy for Electrochemical Detection of Glypican-3
by Guiyin Li, Bo Wang, Ling Li, Xinhao Li, Ruijie Yan, Jintao Liang, Xinchun Zhou, Liuxun Li and Zhide Zhou
Molecules 2023, 28(5), 2271; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28052271 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Glypican-3 (GPC3), as an emerging biomarker, has been shown to be beneficial for the early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for GPC3 detection has been constructed based on the hemin-reduced graphene oxide-palladium nanoparticles (H-rGO-Pd [...] Read more.
Glypican-3 (GPC3), as an emerging biomarker, has been shown to be beneficial for the early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for GPC3 detection has been constructed based on the hemin-reduced graphene oxide-palladium nanoparticles (H-rGO-Pd NPs) nanozyme-enhanced silver deposition signal amplification strategy. When GPC3 specifically interacted with GPC3 antibody (GPC3Ab) and GPC3 aptamer (GPC3Apt), an “H-rGO-Pd NPs-GPC3Apt/GPC3/GPC3Ab” sandwich complex was formed with peroxidase-like properties which enhanced H2O2 to reduce the silver (Ag) ions in solution to metallic Ag, resulting in the deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the surface of the biosensor. The amount of deposited Ag, which was derived from the amount of GPC3, was quantified by the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. Under ideal circumstances, the response value was linearly correlated with GPC3 concentration at 10.0–100.0 μg/mL with R2 of 0.9715. When the GPC3 concentration was in the range from 0.01 to 10.0 μg/mL, the response value was logarithmically linear with the GPC3 concentration with R2 of 0.9941. The limit of detection was 3.30 ng/mL at a signal-to-noise ratio of three and the sensitivity was 1.535 μAμM−1cm−2. Furthermore, the electrochemical biosensor detected the GPC3 level in actual serum samples with good recoveries (103.78–106.52%) and satisfactory relative standard deviations (RSDs) (1.89–8.81%), which confirmed the applicability of the sensor in practical applications. This study provides a new analytical method for measuring the level of GPC3 in the early diagnosis of HCC. Full article
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11 pages, 2242 KiB  
Article
Porphyrin Functionalized Carbon Quantum Dots for Enhanced Electrochemiluminescence and Sensitive Detection of Cu2+
by Xinying Zhang, Xialing Hou, Decheng Lu, Yingying Chen and Lingyan Feng
Molecules 2023, 28(3), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28031459 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
Porphyrin (TMPyP) functionalized carbon quantum dots (CQDs-TMPyP), a novel and efficient carbon nanocomposite material, were developed as a novel luminescent material, which could be very useful for the sensitive detection of copper ions in the Cu2+ quenching luminescence of functionalized carbon quantum [...] Read more.
Porphyrin (TMPyP) functionalized carbon quantum dots (CQDs-TMPyP), a novel and efficient carbon nanocomposite material, were developed as a novel luminescent material, which could be very useful for the sensitive detection of copper ions in the Cu2+ quenching luminescence of functionalized carbon quantum dots. Therefore, we constructed a sensitive “signal off” ECL biosensor for the detection of Cu2+. This sensor can sensitively respond to copper ions in the range of 10 nM to 10 μM, and the detection limit is 2.78 nM. At the same time, it has good selectivity and stability and a benign response in complex systems. With excellent properties, this proposed ECL biosensor provides an efficient and ultrasensitive method for Cu2+ detection. Full article
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11 pages, 3921 KiB  
Communication
Simultaneous Determination of Xanthine and Hypoxanthine Using Polyglycine/rGO-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode
by Ting Wang, Lin Zhang, Chengyu Zhang, Dongmei Deng, Dejia Wang and Liqiang Luo
Molecules 2023, 28(3), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28031458 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
A novel electrochemical sensor was developed for selective and sensitive determination of xanthine (XT) and hypoxanthine (HX) based on polyglycine (p-Gly) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). A mixed dispersion of 7 μL of 5 mM glycine and 1 [...] Read more.
A novel electrochemical sensor was developed for selective and sensitive determination of xanthine (XT) and hypoxanthine (HX) based on polyglycine (p-Gly) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). A mixed dispersion of 7 μL of 5 mM glycine and 1 mg/mL GO was dropped on GCE for the fabrication of p-Gly/rGO/GCE, followed by cyclic voltammetric sweeping in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution within −0.45~1.85 V at a scanning rate of 100 mV·s−1. The morphological and electrochemical features of p-Gly/rGO/GCE were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the linear relationship was acquired for the simultaneous determination of XT and HX in 1–100 μM. The preparation of the electrode was simple and efficient. Additionally, the sensor combined the excellent conductivity of rGO and the polymerization of Gly, demonstrating satisfying simultaneous sensing performance to both XT and HX. Full article
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11 pages, 2624 KiB  
Article
Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Rutin in Food Based on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Quantum Dots as Fluorescent Probe
by Yue Huang, Xiaojing Si, Mei Han and Chen Bai
Molecules 2022, 27(24), 8834; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27248834 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
The aim of this study was to establish a rapid detection method of rutin in food based on nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CDs) as the fluorescent probe. N-CDs were prepared via a single-step hydrothermal process using citric acid as the carbon source and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to establish a rapid detection method of rutin in food based on nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CDs) as the fluorescent probe. N-CDs were prepared via a single-step hydrothermal process using citric acid as the carbon source and thiourea as the nitrogen source. The optical properties of N-CDs were characterized using an electron transmission microscope, X-ray diffractometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, and nanoparticle size potential analyzer. The UV/Vis absorption property and fluorescence intensity of N-CDs were also characterized using the respective spectroscopy techniques. On this basis, the optimal conditions for the detection of rutin by N-CDs fluorescent probes were also explored. The synthesized N-CDs were amorphous carbon structures with good water solubility and optical properties, and the quantum yield was 24.1%. In phosphate-buffered solution at pH = 7.0, Rutin had a strong fluorescence-quenching effect on N-CDs, and the method showed good linearity (R2 = 0.9996) when the concentration of Rutin was in the range of 0.1–400 μg/mL, with a detection limit of 0.033 μg/mL. The spiked recoveries in black buckwheat tea and wolfberry were in the range of 93.98–104.92%, the relative standard deviations (RSD) were in the range of 0.35–4.11%. The proposed method is simple, rapid, and sensitive, and it can be used for the rapid determination of rutin in food. Full article
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11 pages, 1893 KiB  
Article
A Universal Biofilm Reactor Sensor for the Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Different Water Areas
by Liang Wang, Huan Lv, Qian Yang, Yiliang Chen, Junjie Wei, Yiyuan Chen, Ci’en Peng, Changyu Liu, Xiaolong Xu and Jianbo Jia
Molecules 2022, 27(15), 5046; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27155046 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
In this study, we developed a simple strategy to prepare a biofilm reactor (BFR) sensor for the universal biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) determination. The microorganisms in fresh water were domesticated by artificial seawater with different salinity gradients successively to prepare the BFR sensor. [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a simple strategy to prepare a biofilm reactor (BFR) sensor for the universal biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) determination. The microorganisms in fresh water were domesticated by artificial seawater with different salinity gradients successively to prepare the BFR sensor. The prepared BFR sensor exhibits an efficient ability to degrade a variety of organic substances. The linear range of BOD determination by the BFR sensor is 1.0–10.0 mg/L−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9951. The detection limit is 0.30 mg/L according to three times of signal-to-noise ratio. What is more, the BFR sensor displayed excellent performances for the BOD determination of different water samples, including both fresh water and seawater. The 16S-rRNA gene sequencing technology was used to analyze the microbial species before and after the domestication. The results show that it is a general approach for the rapid BOD determination in different water samples. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 2552 KiB  
Review
Metal-Oxide FET Biosensor for Point-of-Care Testing: Overview and Perspective
by Mohamed Taha Amen, Thuy Thi Thanh Pham, Edward Cheah, Duy Phu Tran and Benjamin Thierry
Molecules 2022, 27(22), 7952; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27227952 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
Metal-oxide semiconducting materials are promising for building high-performance field-effect transistor (FET) based biochemical sensors. The existence of well-established top-down scalable manufacturing processes enables the reliable production of cost-effective yet high-performance sensors, two key considerations toward the translation of such devices in real-life applications. [...] Read more.
Metal-oxide semiconducting materials are promising for building high-performance field-effect transistor (FET) based biochemical sensors. The existence of well-established top-down scalable manufacturing processes enables the reliable production of cost-effective yet high-performance sensors, two key considerations toward the translation of such devices in real-life applications. Metal-oxide semiconductor FET biochemical sensors are especially well-suited to the development of Point-of-Care testing (PoCT) devices, as illustrated by the rapidly growing body of reports in the field. Yet, metal-oxide semiconductor FET sensors remain confined to date, mainly in academia. Toward accelerating the real-life translation of this exciting technology, we review the current literature and discuss the critical features underpinning the successful development of metal-oxide semiconductor FET-based PoCT devices that meet the stringent performance, manufacturing, and regulatory requirements of PoCT. Full article
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35 pages, 5838 KiB  
Review
Hybrid Nanobioengineered Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors
by Dayana Soto and Jahir Orozco
Molecules 2022, 27(12), 3841; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27123841 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
Nanoengineering biosensors have become more precise and sophisticated, raising the demand for highly sensitive architectures to monitor target analytes at extremely low concentrations often required, for example, for biomedical applications. We review recent advances in functional nanomaterials, mainly based on novel organic-inorganic hybrids [...] Read more.
Nanoengineering biosensors have become more precise and sophisticated, raising the demand for highly sensitive architectures to monitor target analytes at extremely low concentrations often required, for example, for biomedical applications. We review recent advances in functional nanomaterials, mainly based on novel organic-inorganic hybrids with enhanced electro-physicochemical properties toward fulfilling this need. In this context, this review classifies some recently engineered organic-inorganic metallic-, silicon-, carbonaceous-, and polymeric-nanomaterials and describes their structural properties and features when incorporated into biosensing systems. It further shows the latest advances in ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensors engineered from such innovative nanomaterials highlighting their advantages concerning the concomitant constituents acting alone, fulfilling the gap from other reviews in the literature. Finally, it mentioned the limitations and opportunities of hybrid nanomaterials from the point of view of current nanotechnology and future considerations for advancing their use in enhanced electrochemical platforms. Full article
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