molecules-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Biomass-Derived Nanomaterials: Sustainable Production and Application

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 3 July 2025 | Viewed by 6328

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre (NanoCat), Institute of Advances Studies, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Interests: nanocellulose gels; Pickering emulsion gels; bio-based Pickering particles; nanotechnology; renewable materials; hydrogels; biopolymers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomass is a renewable carbon-based residue/waste that is mainly generated from agroforestry sectors. The high abundance of biomass feedstocks includes forestry residues and wood waste, agricultural residues, dedicated energy crops, and organic fractions of municipal solid wastes, which are mainly composed of polysaccharides (starch/cellulose and hemicellulose) and aromatic polymers (lignin) that create 35–65% of organic carbon. Thus, biomass feedstock has attracted great interest as an alternative to petroleum feedstock for sustainable and green product development.  Researchers and industrialists are highly focused on the R&D of biomass-derived nanomaterials, which aim to apply nanotechnology to the fields of materials and coatings; electronics; biomedicine; environment; energy; food science; etc. The superior characteristics of biomass-derived nanomaterials as synthetic nanomaterials include their mechanical strength with thermal stability; being light in weight; tunable optical transparency; electro-magnetic response; thermal conductivity; adsorption capacity; and tunable wettability. Most importantly, biomass-derived materials promise to have low toxicity, and to be biocompatible, sustainable, eco-friendly, greener, and a sophisticated application for human usage.  To date, there are several types of biomass-derived nanomaterials that were successfully established, which include zero-dimensional (quantum dots), one-dimensional (nanotubes), two-dimensional (nanofibers), and three-dimensional (nanocrystals) nanomaterials. Although biomass-derived nanomaterials meet the green line of sustainable concern, the top-down production and processing of nanomaterials from complex biomass, as well as the challenge of nanomaterial application, toxicity, and environmental risk, are the major concerns of manufacturers and consumers. Hence, the aim of this Special Issue, “Biomass-derived Nanomaterials: Sustainable Production and Application”, is to provide potential readers with an overview of recent challenges and developments in the fields of biomass-derived nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, nanocrystalline cellulose, nanofiber cellulose, lignin nanoparticles, starch nanostructures, etc.

Dr. Hwei Voon Lee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • carbon nanotubes
  • nanocellulose
  • nanostructures
  • lignin nanoparticles
  • top-down approaches
  • surface functionalization
  • applications
  • cytoxicity
  • toxicology
  • life-cycle assessment

Published Papers (3 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

16 pages, 5203 KiB  
Article
Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized from Apis mellifera Honey
by Hamna Shahid, Aqeel Ahmed Shah, Syed Nizam Uddin Shah Bukhari, Anjum Zehra Naqvi, Iqra Arooj, Mehvish Javeed, Muhammad Aslam, Ali Dad Chandio, Muhammad Farooq, Sadaf Jamal Gilani and May Nasser Bin Jumah
Molecules 2023, 28(18), 6504; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28186504 - 7 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Green approaches for nanoparticle synthesis have emerged as biocompatible, economical, and environment-friendly alternatives to counteract the menace of microbial drug resistance. Recently, the utilization of honey as a green source to synthesize Fe2O3-NPs has been introduced, but its antibacterial [...] Read more.
Green approaches for nanoparticle synthesis have emerged as biocompatible, economical, and environment-friendly alternatives to counteract the menace of microbial drug resistance. Recently, the utilization of honey as a green source to synthesize Fe2O3-NPs has been introduced, but its antibacterial activity against one of the opportunistic MDR pathogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, has not been explored. Therefore, this study employed Apis mellifera honey as a reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs). Subsequent to the characterization of nanoparticles, their antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties were appraised. In UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis, the absorption band ascribed to the SPR peak was observed at 350 nm. XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of Fe2O3-NPs, and the crystal size was deduced to be 36.2 nm. Elemental analysis by EDX validated the presence of iron coupled with oxygen in the nanoparticle composition. In ICP-MS, the highest concentration was of iron (87.15 ppm), followed by sodium (1.49 ppm) and other trace elements (<1 ppm). VSM analysis revealed weak magnetic properties of Fe2O3-NPs. Morphological properties of Fe2O3-NPs revealed by SEM demonstrated that their average size range was 100–150 nm with a non-uniform spherical shape. The antibacterial activity of Fe2O3-NPs was ascertained against 30 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, with the largest inhibition zone recorded being 10 mm. The MIC value for Fe2O3-NPs was 30 µg/mL. However, when mingled with three selected antibiotics, Fe2O3-NPs did not affect any antibacterial activity. Momentous antioxidant (IC50 = 22 µg/mL) and anti-inflammatory (IC50 = 70 µg/mL) activities of Fe2O3-NPs were discerned in comparison with the standard at various concentrations. Consequently, honey-mediated Fe2O3-NP synthesis may serve as a substitute for orthodox antimicrobial drugs and may be explored for prospective biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass-Derived Nanomaterials: Sustainable Production and Application)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 2606 KiB  
Article
Extraction and Surface Functionalization of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Sugarcane Bagasse
by Sen Tang, Zhipeng Chen, Feifan Chen, Xuanren Lai, Qiaoyan Wei, Xianling Chen and Caiyun Jiang
Molecules 2023, 28(14), 5444; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28145444 - 16 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
The present study aimed to optimize the process for extracting cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from sugarcane bagasse through ultrasonic-assisted sulfuric acid hydrolysis and its subsequent modification with L-malic acid and silane coupling agent KH-550. The effects of the different modification methods and the order [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to optimize the process for extracting cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from sugarcane bagasse through ultrasonic-assisted sulfuric acid hydrolysis and its subsequent modification with L-malic acid and silane coupling agent KH-550. The effects of the different modification methods and the order of modification on the structures and properties of bagasse CNCs were explored. The results indicated that the optimal process conditions were achieved at an acid-digestion temperature of 50 °C, a reaction time of 70 min, an ultrasonic power of 250 W, and a volume fraction of 55%. The modified CNCs were analyzed using infrared spectral, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric techniques, which revealed that L-malic acid was attached to the hydroxyl group on the CNCs via ester bond formations, and the silane coupling agent KH-550 was adsorbed effectively on the CNCs’ surfaces. Moreover, it was observed that the modification of the CNCs by L-malic acid and the KH-550 silane coupling agent occurred only on the surface, and the esterification–crosslinking modification method provided the best thermal stability. The performance of self-made CNC was found to be superior to that of purchased CNC based on the transmission electron microscopy analysis. Furthermore, the modified esterified-crosslinked CNCs exhibited the best structure and performance, thereby offering a potential avenue for the high-value utilization of sugarcane bagasse, a byproduct of sugarcane sugar production, and the expansion of the comprehensive utilization of sugarcane bagasse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass-Derived Nanomaterials: Sustainable Production and Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

43 pages, 3492 KiB  
Review
Review of Functional Aspects of Nanocellulose-Based Pickering Emulsifier for Non-Toxic Application and Its Colloid Stabilization Mechanism
by Shao Hui Teo, Ching Yern Chee, Mochamad Zakki Fahmi, Satya Candra Wibawa Sakti and Hwei Voon Lee
Molecules 2022, 27(21), 7170; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217170 - 23 Oct 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3071
Abstract
In the past few years, the research on particle-stabilized emulsion (Pickering emulsion) has mainly focused on the usage of inorganic particles with well-defined shapes, narrow size distributions, and chemical tunability of the surfaces such as silica, alumina, and clay. However, the presence of [...] Read more.
In the past few years, the research on particle-stabilized emulsion (Pickering emulsion) has mainly focused on the usage of inorganic particles with well-defined shapes, narrow size distributions, and chemical tunability of the surfaces such as silica, alumina, and clay. However, the presence of incompatibility of some inorganic particles that are non-safe to humans and the ecosystem and their poor sustainability has led to a shift towards the development of materials of biological origin. For this reason, nano-dimensional cellulose (nanocellulose) derived from natural plants is suitable for use as a Pickering material for liquid interface stabilization for various non-toxic product formulations (e.g., the food and beverage, cosmetic, personal care, hygiene, pharmaceutical, and biomedical fields). However, the current understanding of nanocellulose-stabilized Pickering emulsion still lacks consistency in terms of the structural, self-assembly, and physio-chemical properties of nanocellulose towards the stabilization between liquid and oil interfaces. Thus, this review aims to provide a comprehensive study of the behavior of nanocellulose-based particles and their ability as a Pickering functionality to stabilize emulsion droplets. Extensive discussion on the characteristics of nanocelluloses, morphology, and preparation methods that can potentially be applied as Pickering emulsifiers in a different range of emulsions is provided. Nanocellulose’s surface modification for the purpose of altering its characteristics and provoking multifunctional roles for high-grade non-toxic applications is discussed. Subsequently, the water–oil stabilization mechanism and the criteria for effective emulsion stabilization are summarized in this review. Lastly, we discuss the toxicity profile and risk assessment guidelines for the whole life cycle of nanocellulose from the fresh feedstock to the end-life of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass-Derived Nanomaterials: Sustainable Production and Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop