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Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 18093

Special Issue Editors

College of Food and Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450001, China
Interests: polysaccharide; starch; jujube; NMR; polymer
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang, China
Interests: polysaccharide; structure; anti-inflammatory; immunologic activity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polysaccharides are the most abundant and diverse class of organic compounds occurring in nature. They could be found in almost all plants and are also one of the most versatile materials available, and, therefore, have played a critical role in the development of new products, ranging from foods, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and so on.

In recent years, with the increased attention paid to the study of natural polysaccharides, there has been a significant development around the polysaccharide in each related aspect, and which also promoted the exploitation of natural plant polysaccharides in the of food and pharmaceutical industries, among others. Therefore, the purpose of this Special Issue is to cover a broad spectrum of original research and reviews contributions on the natural plant polysaccharides.

We invite authors to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles, about the advances of study and exploitation of natural plant polysaccharides, which have current or potential applications in areas, such as functional foods, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Novel chemical, enzymatic, and physical extraction techniques for natural plant polysaccharides preparation;
  • Physicochemical characterization and biological effects of plant polysaccharides;
  • Structural analysis and modification of plant polysaccharides;
  • Recent developments in the analytical methodologies of plant polysaccharides;
  • Study on the functional activity mechanism of plant polysaccharides;
  • Application of nature plant polysaccharides to foods, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, or other products. Any other topics that are deemed relevant to the main scope of this Special Issue.

Dr. Xiaolong Ji
Dr. Xin Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • polysaccharide
  • characterization
  • structure
  • physiochemical properties
  • functional activity

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

18 pages, 8528 KiB  
Article
Phellinus igniarius Polysaccharides Ameliorate Hyperglycemia by Modulating the Composition of the Gut Microbiota and Their Metabolites in Diabetic Mice
Molecules 2023, 28(20), 7136; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28207136 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been reported as a risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polysaccharides from Phellinus igniarius (P. igniarius) possess various properties that help manage metabolic diseases; however, their underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been reported as a risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polysaccharides from Phellinus igniarius (P. igniarius) possess various properties that help manage metabolic diseases; however, their underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of P. igniarius polysaccharides (SH-P) on improving hyperglycemia in mice with T2DM and clarified its association with the modulation of gut microbiota and their metabolites using 16S rDNA sequencing and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used to verify the therapeutic effects of microbial remodeling. SH-P supplementation alleviated hyperglycemia symptoms in T2DM mice, ameliorated gut dysbiosis, and significantly increased the abundance of Lactobacillus in the gut. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that SH-P treatment altered metabolic pathways associated with the occurrence and development of diabetes. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed that changes in the dominant bacterial genera were significantly correlated with metabolite levels closely associated with hyperglycemia. Additionally, FMT significantly improved insulin sensitivity and antioxidative capacity and reduced inflammation and tissue injuries, indicating improved glucose homeostasis. These results indicate that the ameliorative effects of SH-P on hyperglycemia are associated with the modulation of gut microbiota composition and its metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides)
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12 pages, 2473 KiB  
Article
Research on the Impact of Deep Eutectic Solvent and Hot-Water Extraction Methods on the Structure of Polygonatum sibiricum Polysaccharides
Molecules 2023, 28(19), 6981; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28196981 - 08 Oct 2023
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Deep eutectic solvent (DES) and hot-water extraction (HWE) methods were utilized to extract polysaccharides from Polygonatum sibiricum, referred to as DPsP and WPsP, respectively. The extracted polysaccharides were purified using the Superdex-200 dextran gel purification system, resulting in three components for each [...] Read more.
Deep eutectic solvent (DES) and hot-water extraction (HWE) methods were utilized to extract polysaccharides from Polygonatum sibiricum, referred to as DPsP and WPsP, respectively. The extracted polysaccharides were purified using the Superdex-200 dextran gel purification system, resulting in three components for each type of polysaccharide. The structures of these components were characterized. The molecular weight analysis revealed that DPsP components had slightly larger molecular weights compared with WPsP, with DPsP-A showing a slightly higher dispersity index and broader molecular weight distribution. The main monosaccharide components of both DPsP and WPsP were mannose and glucose, while DPsP exhibited a slightly greater variety of sugar components compared with WPsP. FTIR analysis demonstrated characteristic polysaccharide absorption peaks in all six PSP components, with a predominance of acidic pyranose sugars. NMR analysis revealed the presence of pyranose sugars, including rhamnose and sugar aldehyde acids, in both DPsP-B and WPsP-A. DPsP-B primarily exhibited β-type glycosidic linkages, while WPsP-A predominantly displayed α-type glycosidic linkages, with a smaller fraction being β-type. These findings indicated differences in monosaccharide composition and structure between PSPs extracted using different methods. Overall, this study provided experimental evidence for future research on the structure–function relationship of PSPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides)
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19 pages, 5078 KiB  
Article
Effects of Four Extraction Methods on Structure and In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Soluble Dietary Fiber from Rape Bee Pollen
Molecules 2023, 28(12), 4800; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28124800 - 16 Jun 2023
Viewed by 952
Abstract
In this study, soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) were extracted from rape bee pollen using four methods including acid extraction (AC), alkali extraction (AL), cellulase extraction (CL) and complex enzyme extraction (CE). The effects of different extraction methods on the structure of SDFs and [...] Read more.
In this study, soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) were extracted from rape bee pollen using four methods including acid extraction (AC), alkali extraction (AL), cellulase extraction (CL) and complex enzyme extraction (CE). The effects of different extraction methods on the structure of SDFs and in vitro fermentation characteristics were further investigated. The results showed that the four extraction methods significantly affected the monosaccharide composition molar ratio, molecular weight, surface microstructure and phenolic compounds content, but showed little effect on the typical functional groups and crystal structure. In addition, all SDFs decreased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidota ratio, promoted the growth of beneficial bacteria such as Bacteroides, Parabacteroides and Phascolarctobacterium, inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia-Shigella, and increased the total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentrations by 1.63–2.45 times, suggesting that the bee pollen SDFs had a positive regulation on gut microbiota. Notably, the SDF obtained by CE exhibited the largest molecular weight, a relatively loose structure, higher extraction yield and phenolic compounds content and the highest SCFA concentration. Overall, our results indicated that CE was an appropriate extraction method of high-quality bee pollen SDF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides)
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17 pages, 2953 KiB  
Article
The Mechanism of Peach Gum Polysaccharide Preventing UVB-Induced Skin Photoaging by Regulating Matrix Metalloproteinanse and Oxidative Factors
Molecules 2023, 28(10), 4104; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28104104 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Exposure to ultraviolet light can cause oxidative damage and accelerate skin aging and is one of the main causes of skin aging. Peach gum polysaccharide (PG) is a natural edible plant component that has many biological activities, such as regulating blood glucose and [...] Read more.
Exposure to ultraviolet light can cause oxidative damage and accelerate skin aging and is one of the main causes of skin aging. Peach gum polysaccharide (PG) is a natural edible plant component that has many biological activities, such as regulating blood glucose and blood lipids and improving colitis, as well as antioxidant and anticancer properties. However, there are few reports on the antiphotoaging effect of peach gum polysaccharide. Therefore, in this paper, we study the basic composition of the raw material peach gum polysaccharide and its ability to improve UVB-induced skin photoaging damage in vivo and in vitro. The results show that peach gum polysaccharide is mainly composed of mannose, glucuronic acid, galactose, xylose, and arabinose, and its molecular weight (Mw) is 4.10 × 106 g/mol. The results of the in vitro cell experiments show that PG could significantly alleviate UVB-induced apoptosis of human skin keratinocytes, promote cell growth repair, reduce the expression of intracellular oxidative factors and matrix metal collagenase, and improve the extent of oxidative stress repair. Moreover, the results from the in vivo animal experiments showed that PG could not only effectively improve the phenotype of UVB-induced photoaged skin in model mice but also significantly improve their oxidative stress status, regulate the contents of ROS and the levels of SOD and CAT, and repair the oxidative skin damage induced by UVB in vivo. In addition, PG improved UVB-induced photoaging-mediated collagen degradation in mice by inhibiting the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. The above results indicate that peach gum polysaccharide has the ability to repair UVB-induced photoaging and may be used as a potential drug and antioxidant functional food to resist photoaging in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides)
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14 pages, 3774 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Characterization and Antitumor Activity of Fucoidan and Its Degraded Products from Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turner) C. Agardh
Molecules 2023, 28(6), 2610; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28062610 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Fucoidan has many biological functions, including anti-tumor activity. Additionally, it has been suggested that low-molecular-weight fucoidans have greater bioactivities. This study aimed to examine the degradation, purification, physicochemical characterization and in vitro antitumor activity of fucoidan from Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turner) C. Agardh. Fucoidan [...] Read more.
Fucoidan has many biological functions, including anti-tumor activity. Additionally, it has been suggested that low-molecular-weight fucoidans have greater bioactivities. This study aimed to examine the degradation, purification, physicochemical characterization and in vitro antitumor activity of fucoidan from Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turner) C. Agardh. Fucoidan was isolated using DEAE-cellulose-52 (F1, F2), Vc-H2O2 degration, and Sepharose CL-6B gel (DF1, DF2) from crude Sargassum fucoidans. Physicochemical characteristics of four isolated fucoidans were examined using chemical and monosaccharide composition, average molecular weight (Mw), and FTIR. Furthermore, the anti-proliferative effects of purified fucoidans on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), human Burkitt Lymphoma cells (MCF-7), human uterine carcinoma cells (Hela) and human lung cancer cells (A549) were analyzed by MTT method. The apoptosis of HepG2 cells was detected by flow cytometry. Our data suggest that the contents of polysaccharide, L-fucose and sulfate of DF2 were the highest, which were 73.93%, 23.02% and 29.88%, respectively. DF1 has the smallest molecular weight (14,893 Da) followed by DF2 (21,292 Da). The four fractions are mainly composed of fucose, mannose and rhamnose, and the infrared spectra are similar, all of which contain polysaccharide and sulfate characteristic absorption peaks. The results of MTT assay showed that the four fractions had inhibitory effects on HepG2 and A549 in the range of 0.5–8 mg/mL, and the four fractions had strong cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells. DF2 had the best inhibitory effect on HepG2 (IC50 = 2.2 mg/mL). In general, the antitumor activity of Sargassum fucoidans is related to the content of L-fucose, sulfate and molecular weight, and Sargassum fucoidan has the best inhibitory effect on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Furthermore, when compared to MCF-7, Hela, and A549 cells, Sargassum fucoidans had the best capacity to reduce the viability of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and to induce cell apoptosis, proving itself to have a good potential in anti-liver cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides)
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13 pages, 4370 KiB  
Article
A Novel Method for the Pre-Column Derivatization of Saccharides from Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. by Integrating Lambert–Beer Law and Response Surface Methodology
Molecules 2023, 28(5), 2186; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28052186 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) safety and effectiveness can be ensured by establishing a suitable quality assessment system. This work aims to develop a pre-column derivatization HPLC method for Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. quality control. In this study, 1-(4′-cyanophenyl)-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (CPMP) was synthesized and reacted with [...] Read more.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) safety and effectiveness can be ensured by establishing a suitable quality assessment system. This work aims to develop a pre-column derivatization HPLC method for Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. quality control. In this study, 1-(4′-cyanophenyl)-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (CPMP) was synthesized and reacted with monosaccharides derived from P. cyrtonema polysaccharides (PCPs), followed by HPLC separation. According to the Lambert–Beer law, CPMP has the highest molar extinction coefficient of all synthetic chemosensors. A satisfactory separation effect was obtained under a detection wavelength of 278 nm using a carbon-8 column and gradient elution over 14 min, with a flow rate of 1 mL per minute. Glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), and mannose (Man) make up the majority of the monosaccharide components in PCPs, and their molar ratios are 1.73:0.58:1. The confirmed HPLC method has outstanding precision and accuracy, establishing a quality control method for PCPs. Additionally, the CPMP showed a visual improvement from colorless to orange after the detection of reducing sugars, allowing for further visual analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides)
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15 pages, 3051 KiB  
Article
Polysaccharides from Nitraria retusa Fruit: Extraction, Purification, Structural Characterization, and Antioxidant Activities
Molecules 2023, 28(3), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28031266 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Polysaccharides are important bioactive components of Nitraria retusa fruit (NRF). In this study, the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions of polysaccharides from Nitraria retusa fruit (NRFPs) were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The structural characteristics and antioxidant activity were investigated. The maximum NRFPs [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides are important bioactive components of Nitraria retusa fruit (NRF). In this study, the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions of polysaccharides from Nitraria retusa fruit (NRFPs) were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The structural characteristics and antioxidant activity were investigated. The maximum NRFPs yield of 3.35% was obtained under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 59.5 °C, time of 30.5 min, liquid-to-solid ratio of 19.5 mL/g. Three polysaccharide fractions, NRFP-1 (20.01 kDa), NRFP-2 (28.96 kDa), and NRFP-3 (67.45 kDa), were isolated. Glucose, galactose, and arabinose in different percentages were identified as the primary monosaccharide units. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated the presence of α- and β-glycosidic bonds in NRFPs. The NRFP-3 exhibited the highest scavenging activities against DPPH, ABTS, -OH free radicals, and Fe+3-reducing activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides)
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8 pages, 593 KiB  
Article
Systematic Comparison of Structural Characterization of Polysaccharides from Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Muzao
Molecules 2023, 28(2), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28020562 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
To investigate the structural information differences of Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Muzao polysaccharides, ten samples were successfully extracted from aqueous and alkaline solutions, prepared via DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow through different eluents and Sephacryl S-300 columns, and systematically analyzed. Their characteristics were studied and then [...] Read more.
To investigate the structural information differences of Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Muzao polysaccharides, ten samples were successfully extracted from aqueous and alkaline solutions, prepared via DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow through different eluents and Sephacryl S-300 columns, and systematically analyzed. Their characteristics were studied and then compared using chemical testing, high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), gas chromatography (GC), methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy. The data achieved demonstrated that different jujube polysaccharide fractions possessed different structural characteristics, and most of them belonged to pectic polysaccharides. Overall, the structural information difference of jujube polysaccharides was preliminarily illuminated, which could not only promote the potential application of Z. Jujuba cv. Muzao polysaccharides but also provide an effective way to analyze the structures of polysaccharides from other genera jujube fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides)
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Review

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32 pages, 5693 KiB  
Review
Preparation of Nanocellulose-Based Aerogel and Its Research Progress in Wastewater Treatment
Molecules 2023, 28(8), 3541; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28083541 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2934
Abstract
Nowadays, the fast expansion of the economy and industry results in a considerable volume of wastewater being released, severely affecting water quality and the environment. It has a significant influence on the biological environment, both terrestrial and aquatic plant and animal life, and [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the fast expansion of the economy and industry results in a considerable volume of wastewater being released, severely affecting water quality and the environment. It has a significant influence on the biological environment, both terrestrial and aquatic plant and animal life, and human health. Therefore, wastewater treatment is a global issue of great concern. Nanocellulose’s hydrophilicity, easy surface modification, rich functional groups, and biocompatibility make it a candidate material for the preparation of aerogels. The third generation of aerogel is a nanocellulose-based aerogel. It has unique advantages such as a high specific surface area, a three-dimensional structure, is biodegradable, has a low density, has high porosity, and is renewable. It has the opportunity to replace traditional adsorbents (activated carbon, activated zeolite, etc.). This paper reviews the fabrication of nanocellulose-based aerogels. The preparation process is divided into four main steps: the preparation of nanocellulose, gelation of nanocellulose, solvent replacement of nanocellulose wet gel, and drying of nanocellulose wet aerogel. Furthermore, the research progress of the application of nanocellulose-based aerogels in the adsorption of dyes, heavy metal ions, antibiotics, organic solvents, and oil-water separation is reviewed. Finally, the development prospects and future challenges of nanocellulose-based aerogels are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides)
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19 pages, 4786 KiB  
Review
A Review Concerning the Polysaccharides Found in Edible and Medicinal Plants in Xinjiang
Molecules 2023, 28(5), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28052054 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Approximately 110 types of medicinal materials are listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, both for medicinal purposes and for use as food. There are several domestic scholars who have carried out research on edible plant medicine in China and the results are satisfactory. Though [...] Read more.
Approximately 110 types of medicinal materials are listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, both for medicinal purposes and for use as food. There are several domestic scholars who have carried out research on edible plant medicine in China and the results are satisfactory. Though these related articles have appeared in domestic magazines and journals, many of them are yet to be translated into English. Most of the research stays in the extraction and quantitative testing stage, and there are a few medicinal and edible plants that are still under in-depth study. A majority of these edible and herbal plants are also highly enriched in polysaccharides, and this has an effect on immune systems for the prevention of cancer, inflammation, and infection. Comparing the polysaccharide composition of medicinal and edible plants, the monosaccharide and polysaccharide species were identified. It is found that different polysaccharides of different sizes have different pharmacological properties, with some polysaccharides containing special monosaccharides. The pharmacological properties of polysaccharides can be summarized as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive and anti-hyperlipemic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. There have been no poisonous effects found in studies of plant polysaccharides, probably because the substances have a long history of use and are safe. In this paper, the application potential of polysaccharides in medicinal and edible plants in Xinjiang was reviewed, and the research progress in the extraction, separation, identification, and pharmacology of these plant polysaccharides was reviewed. At present, the research progress of plant polysaccharides in medicines and food in Xinjiang has not been reported. This paper will provide a data summary for the development and utilization of medical and food plant resources in Xinjiang. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides)
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14 pages, 984 KiB  
Review
Preparation, Structural Characterisation, and Bioactivities of Fructans: A Review
Molecules 2023, 28(4), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28041613 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2640
Abstract
Polysaccharides are important components of higher plants and have attracted increasing attention due to their many nutraceutical benefits in humans. Fructans, heterogeneous fructose polymers that serve as storage carbohydrates in various plants, represent one of the most important types of natural polysaccharides. Fructans [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides are important components of higher plants and have attracted increasing attention due to their many nutraceutical benefits in humans. Fructans, heterogeneous fructose polymers that serve as storage carbohydrates in various plants, represent one of the most important types of natural polysaccharides. Fructans have various physiological and therapeutic effects, which are beneficial to health, and have the ability to prevent or treat various diseases, allowing their wide use in the food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. This article reviews the occurrence, metabolism, preparation, characterisation, analysis, and bioactivity of fructans. Further, their molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, linkages, and structural determination are described. Taken together, this review provides a theoretical foundation for further research into the structure–function relationships of fructans, as well as valuable new information and directions for further research and application of fructans in functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Application of Plant Sourced Polysaccharides)
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