Recent Advances of Hydroxyapatite and Its Applications

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomineralization and Biominerals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 22111

Special Issue Editors

Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina 64049-550, PI, Brazil
Interests: photostability; photoactive materials; material modification for environmental remediation; semiconductor; adsorption; antimicrobial properties
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina 64049-550, PI, Brazil
Interests: synthesis; characterization; modification; ion exchange; adsorption; biological properties
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-970, PB, Brazil
Interests: clay minerals; calcium phosphate; hydroxyapatite; hybrid materials; nanocomposite; adsorption; organic pollutants; drugs; antimicrobial materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Calcium phosphates are compounds of substantial interest in interdisciplinary fields of science encompassing chemistry, biology, medicine, and geology. Among the calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite is the most stable, with several practical applications. It is a crucial material for biomedical applications, owing to its excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, and osteoconductivity. Hydroxyapatite can also be utilized for various environmental applications, including the removal of organic pollutants, quantitative analysis for the detection of pollutants, and photocatalytic degradation. In the biomedical field, both pure and modified hydroxyapatite are utilized in various forms, such as bioceramics, coatings, dental materials, antimicrobial materials, and vehicles for bioactive compounds. We invite you to submit your recent work on hydroxyapatite and its various applications for publication in our Special Issue.

The topics of interest for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • the preparation, properties, and applications of hydroxyapatite;
  • advanced characterization techniques for hydroxyapatite;
  • functionalized hydroxyapatites and their applications;
  • doped hydroxyapatites and their applications;
  • biopolymer/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites;
  • biological properties of hydroxyapatite;
  • hydroxyapatite as a vehicle for drugs;
  • hydroxyapatite and its compounds for bone tissue engineering;
  • utilization of hydroxyapatite for environmental applications.

Dr. Josy Osajima
Prof. Edson Cavalcanti da Silva Filho
Dr. Maria Gardennia Fonseca
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bioactive material
  • Drug delivery
  • Environmental
  • Biopolymer
  • Nanocomposite
  • Doped hydroxyapatite
  • Functionalized hydroxyapatite
  • Biomaterial

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 4237 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Differently Nanostructured and High-Pressure Compressed Hydroxyapatite-Based Materials for Bone Tissue Regeneration
Minerals 2021, 11(12), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11121390 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2676
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has long been considered the gold standard in the biomedical field, considering its composition and close resemblance to human bone. However, the brittle nature of hydroxyapatite (HAp) biomaterial, constrained by its low fracture toughness (of up to 1.2 vs. 2–12 MPa [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has long been considered the gold standard in the biomedical field, considering its composition and close resemblance to human bone. However, the brittle nature of hydroxyapatite (HAp) biomaterial, constrained by its low fracture toughness (of up to 1.2 vs. 2–12 MPa m1/2 of human bone), remains one of the significant factors impairing its use in bone regeneration. In the present study, HAp nanoparticles synthesized by the solid-state (SHAp) and sonochemical (EHAp) approaches using eggshell-derived calcium hydroxide and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate as precursors are compared with those synthesized using commercially available calcium hydroxide and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate as precursors (CHAp) employing sonochemical method. The HAp samples were then compressed into compact materials using a uniaxial high-pressure compression technique at a preoptimized load and subsequently characterized for mechanical properties using the Vickers indentation method and compressive strength testing. The analysis revealed that the material with smaller particle size (30–40 nm) and crystalline nature (EHAp and CHAp) resulted in mechanically robust materials (σm = 54.53 MPa and 47.72 MPa) with high elastic modulus (E = 4011.1 MPa and 2750.25 MPa) and density/hardness-dependent fracture toughness (σf = 4.34 MPa m1/2and 6.57 MPa m1/2) than SHAp (σm =28.40 MPa, E = 2116.75 MPa, σf = 5.39 MPa m1/2). The CHAp material was found to be the most suitable for applications in bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Hydroxyapatite and Its Applications)
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13 pages, 3277 KiB  
Article
Gallium-Containing Hydroxyapatite as a Promising Material for Photocatalytic Performance
Minerals 2021, 11(12), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11121347 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
The development of photocatalystsor their modification to obtain new photocatalytic performances for the removal of contaminants is a challenge. Hydroxyapatite (HAp), (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), is an inorganic component with a high superficial area and low toxicity and [...] Read more.
The development of photocatalystsor their modification to obtain new photocatalytic performances for the removal of contaminants is a challenge. Hydroxyapatite (HAp), (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), is an inorganic component with a high superficial area and low toxicity and the presence of metal in its structure can be an interesting strategy for the photocatalytic approach. This work aimed to synthesize gallium-containing HAp (Ga-HAp) as a promising material for photocatalytic performance. The synthesis was performed by the suspension–precipitation method. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Morphological analysis employed field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). To evaluate the photocatalytic activity, methylene blue (MB) dye was used as a pollutant model under UV light for 120 min. The influence of Ga-HAp concentration (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 g·L−1) and kinetic reaction was also studied. The Ga-HAp was successfully obtained by the suspension–precipitation method. The structural characterization by XRD and FESEM-EDS elucidated the presence of gallium in the structure of hydroxyapatite. The XPS results indicated the substitution of gallium in the crystal lattice of the material. The discoloration rate of MB dye using Ga-Hap was calculated by pseudo first-order kinetics, and the best rate constant was 7.5 × 10−3 min−1 using 1.00 g·L−1 of photocatalyst. The concentration of Ga-HAp influenced the photocatalytic process, because the discoloration rate increased as a function of the concentration of material. Therefore, Ga-HAp is a promising material for environmental remediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Hydroxyapatite and Its Applications)
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15 pages, 3454 KiB  
Article
A Study of Thermal Stability of Hydroxyapatite
Minerals 2021, 11(12), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11121310 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 4578
Abstract
High-temperature powder sintering is an integral part of the dense ceramic manufacturing process. In order to find the optimal conditions for producing a ceramic product, the information about its behavior at high temperatures is required. However, the data available in the literature are [...] Read more.
High-temperature powder sintering is an integral part of the dense ceramic manufacturing process. In order to find the optimal conditions for producing a ceramic product, the information about its behavior at high temperatures is required. However, the data available in the literature are very contradictory. In this work, the thermal stability of hydroxyapatite prepared by a solid-state mechanochemical method and structural changes occurring during sintering were studied. Stoichiometric hydroxyapatite was found to remain as a single-phase apatite structure with the space group P63/m up to 1300 °C inclusively. A further increase in the sintering temperature leads to its partial decomposition, a decrease in the crystallite size of the apatite phase, and the appearance of significant structural strains. It was shown that small deviations from stoichiometry in the Ca/P ratio upward or downward during the hydroxyapatite synthesis lead to a significant decrease in the thermal stability of hydroxyapatite. An apatite containing almost no hydroxyl groups, which is close to the composition of oxyapatite, was prepared. It was shown that the congruent melting of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite upon slow heating in a high-temperature furnace does not occur. At the same time, the fast heating of hydroxyapatite by laser radiation allows, under certain conditions, its congruent melting with the formation of a recrystallized monolayer of oxyhydroxyapatite. The data obtained in this study can be used when choosing sintering conditions to produce hydroxyapatite-based ceramics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Hydroxyapatite and Its Applications)
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11 pages, 12493 KiB  
Article
Osteopontin and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Immunoreactivity in Critical Bone Defects Matrix Production: A Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate and Xenogeneic Hydroxyapatite Comparison
Minerals 2021, 11(10), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101048 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 2034
Abstract
The development of new bone substitutes has become an area of great interest in materials science. In fact, hydroxyapatite is the most commonly used biomaterial in defects that require bone reconstruction, and that is certainly why the discovery of new products with its [...] Read more.
The development of new bone substitutes has become an area of great interest in materials science. In fact, hydroxyapatite is the most commonly used biomaterial in defects that require bone reconstruction, and that is certainly why the discovery of new products with its formulation has been increasing continuously. The aim of this study was to analyze the biological behavior of a xenogeneic hydroxyapatite widely disclosed in the literature and a synthetic nano-hydroxyapatite/Beta tricalcium phosphate in critical defects in the calvaria of Wistar rats. For this, the groups were divided as follows: 24 adult male Wistar rats were used, weighing between 300 and 350 g, in three groups with eight animals each. In the CTRL group (control), only the clot was kept, without material insertion; in the Bioss group (bovine hydroxyapatite), Bio Oss®—Gleistlich® was introduced; and in the Blue Bone group (REG), the defect was filled in with synthetic nano-hydroxyapatite associated with betatriphosphate of calcium, Blue Bone®—Regener®. According to the results in Goldner’s Trichromics, we can observe a higher percentage of newly formed bone matrix in the REG group than in the CTRL and Bioss groups; in the VEGF, we had a more adequate cell modulation for blood vessel formation in the Blue Bone group (REG) compared to the Bioss and CTRL groups, while in osteopontin, a higher percentage of bone formation was observed in the Blue Bone group (REG) and Bioss group when compared to the CTRL group. We conclude that bone formation, mitosis-inducing cell modulation and main osteoblast activity were higher in the Blue Bone group (REG) than in the CTRL and Bioss groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Hydroxyapatite and Its Applications)
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22 pages, 7488 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cerium-Containing Hydroxyapatite in Bone Repair in Female Rats with Osteoporosis Induced by Ovariectomy
Minerals 2021, 11(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11040377 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3060
Abstract
Osteoporosis is a public health problem, with bone loss being the main consequence. Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been largely used as a bioceramic to stimulate bone growth. In our work, a cerium-containing HA (Ce-HA) has been proposed and its effects on the antimicrobial and [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is a public health problem, with bone loss being the main consequence. Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been largely used as a bioceramic to stimulate bone growth. In our work, a cerium-containing HA (Ce-HA) has been proposed and its effects on the antimicrobial and bone-inducing properties were investigated. The synthesis of the materials occurred by the suspension–precipitation method (SPM). The XRD (X-ray Diffraction) confirmed the crystalline phase, and the Rietveld refinement confirmed the crystallization of HA and Ce-HA in a hexagonal crystal structure in agreement with ICSD n° 26205. Characterizations by FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), XPS (X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy), and FESEM-EDS (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) confirmed the presence of cerium (Ce3+ and Ce4+). The antibacterial activity of Has was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus 25,923 and Escherichia coli 25,922 strains, which revealed that the material has antimicrobial properties and the cytotoxicity assay indicated that Ce-containing HA was classified as non-toxic. The effects of Ce-HA on bone repair, after application in bone defects in the tibia of female rats with osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy (OVX), were evaluated. After 15 and 30 days of implantation, the samples were analyzed by Raman, histology and X-ray microtomography. The results showed that the animals that had the induced bone defects filled with the Ce-HA materials had more expressive bone neoformation than the control group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Hydroxyapatite and Its Applications)
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Review

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27 pages, 2709 KiB  
Review
Light-Activated Hydroxyapatite Photocatalysts: New Environmentally-Friendly Materials to Mitigate Pollutants
Minerals 2022, 12(5), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12050525 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3040
Abstract
This review focuses on a reasoned search for articles to treat contaminated water using hydroxyapatite (HAp)-based compounds. In addition, the fundamentals of heterogeneous photocatalysis were considered, combined with parameters that affect the pollutants’ degradation using hydroxyapatite-based photocatalyst design and strategies of this photocatalyst, [...] Read more.
This review focuses on a reasoned search for articles to treat contaminated water using hydroxyapatite (HAp)-based compounds. In addition, the fundamentals of heterogeneous photocatalysis were considered, combined with parameters that affect the pollutants’ degradation using hydroxyapatite-based photocatalyst design and strategies of this photocatalyst, and the challenges of and perspectives on the development of these materials. Many critical applications have been analyzed to degrade dyes, drugs, and pesticides using HAp-based photocatalysts. This systematic review highlights the recent state-of-the-art advances that enable new paths and good-quality preparations of HAp-derived photocatalysts for photocatalysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Hydroxyapatite and Its Applications)
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10 pages, 241 KiB  
Review
Effects of Nanohydroxyapatite Incorporation into Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC)
Minerals 2022, 12(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12010009 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3424
Abstract
Glass ionomer cement (GIC) or polyalkenoate cement is a water-based cement that is commonly used in clinical dentistry procedures as a restorative material. It exhibits great properties such as fluoride-ion release, good biocompatibility, ease of use and great osteoconductive properties. However, GIC’s low [...] Read more.
Glass ionomer cement (GIC) or polyalkenoate cement is a water-based cement that is commonly used in clinical dentistry procedures as a restorative material. It exhibits great properties such as fluoride-ion release, good biocompatibility, ease of use and great osteoconductive properties. However, GIC’s low mechanical properties have become a major drawback, limiting the cement’s usage, especially in high stress-bearing areas. Nanohydroxyapatite, which is a biologically active phosphate ceramic, is added as a specific filler into glass ionomer cement to improve its properties. In this review, it is shown that incorporating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA) into GIC has been proven to exhibit better physical properties, such as increasing the compressive strength and fracture toughness. It has also been shown that the addition of nanohydroxyapatite into GIC reduces cytotoxicity and microleakage, whilst heightening its fluoride ion release and antibacterial properties. This review aims to provide a brief overview of the recent studies elucidating their recommendations which are linked to the benefits of incorporating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles into glass ionomer cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Hydroxyapatite and Its Applications)
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