Geological and Tectonic Evolution of the East Asian Collage: Precambrian and Mesozoic

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 29947

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sung Won Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Geology Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea
Interests: petrology, geochronology, geochemistry and geological mapping of the Korean Peninsula as well as East Asian Continent; the Precambrian to mesozoic tectono-metamorphic-magmatic evolution of the Sino-Korean Peninsula as well as East Asian Continent
Geology Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea
Interests: mineral resouce exploration, mining, benefication, smelting and the utilization of overseas and domestic mineral resources; mineral resouce mapping of the Korean Peninsula as well as East Asian Continent; the Precambrian to mesozoic tectono-metamorphic-magmatic evolution of the Sino-Korean Peninsula as well as East Asian Continent

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Geological and tectonic evolution of the East Asian Collage has been a major topic in the global geological community. East Asian Continent comprises a complex assembly of allochthonous continental lithospheric crustal fragments (terranes) by volcanic arcs, and other terranes of oceanic, accretionary and rifting complex origins located at the various zones of convergence and divergence between the Eurasian and Pacific Plates. Especially, recent studies have been documented with a lot of important information due to the advanced analysis equipment technology development of geological dating, geochemistry and isotope studies with precise geological surveys in the Precambrian and Mesozoic. Accordingly, many discussions have been actively conducted on Geological and Tectonic Evolution of the East Asian Collage, and many models of tectonics have been proposed. However, there is still a lot of controversy regarding the crustal evolutional history and the geological correlation between East Asia countries.

In this respect, this special issue will handle studies of the Precambrian and Mesozoic geologic and tectonic histories of East Asia in geochemical and geochronological perspective and followings research topics will contribute this special issue.

  1. Geochronological and geochemical studies on igneous rocks and its tectonic implication.
  2. Detrital zircon provenance from the Precambrian or Mesozoic terrane and its tectonic implication.
  3. Precambrian or Mesozoic mineral deposition and its metallogeny.
  4. Reviews in Precambrian or Mesozoic geology of East Asia.
  5. All others related to this special issue.

Dr. Sung Won Kim
Dr. Seong-Jun Cho
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • East Asian collage
  • Tectonic evolution
  • Precambrian and Mesozoic
  • Geochronology
  • Geochemistry
  • Metallogeny
  • Geological evolution

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

27 pages, 7868 KiB  
Article
Petrogenesis and Tectonic Setting of Early Cretaceous Intrusive Rocks in the Northern Ulanhot Area, Central and Southern Great Xing’an Range, NE China
Minerals 2021, 11(12), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11121414 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
Abundant Early Cretaceous magmatism is conserved in the central and southern Great Xing’an Range (GXR) and has significant geodynamic implications for the study of the Late Mesozoic tectonic framework of northeast China. In this study, we provide new high-precision U–Pb zircon geochronology, whole-rock [...] Read more.
Abundant Early Cretaceous magmatism is conserved in the central and southern Great Xing’an Range (GXR) and has significant geodynamic implications for the study of the Late Mesozoic tectonic framework of northeast China. In this study, we provide new high-precision U–Pb zircon geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and zircon Hf isotopic data for representative intrusive rocks from the northern part of the Ulanhot area to illustrate the petrogenesis types and magma source of these rocks and evaluate the tectonic setting of the central-southern GXR. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U–Pb dating showed that magmatism in the Ulanhot area (monzonite porphyry: 128.07 ± 0.62 Ma, quartz monzonite porphyry: 127.47 ± 0.36, quartz porphyry: 124.85 ± 0.34, and granite porphyry: 124.15 ± 0.31 Ma) occurred during the Early Cretaceous. Geochemically, monzonite porphyry belongs to the metaluminous and alkaline series rocks and is characterized by high Al2O3 (average 17.74 wt.%) and TiO2 (average 0.88 wt.%) and low Ni (average 4.63 ppm), Cr (average 6.69 ppm), Mg# (average 31.11), Y (average 15.16 ppm), and Yb (average 1.62 ppm) content with enrichment in Ba, K, Pb, Sr, Zr, and Hf and depletion in Ti, Nb, and Ta. The granitic rocks (e.g., quartz monzonite porphyry, quartz porphyry, and granite porphyry) pertain to the category of high-K calc-alkaline rocks and are characterized by high SiO2 content (>66 wt.%) and low MgO (average 0.69 wt.%), Mg# (average 31.49 ppm), Ni (average 2.78 ppm), and Cr (average 8.10 ppm) content, showing an affinity to I-type granite accompanied by Nb, Ta, P, and Ti depletion and negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.57–0.96; average 0.82). The Hf isotopic data suggest that these rocks were the product of the partial melting of juvenile crustal rocks. Notably, fractionation crystallization plays a crucial role in the process of magma emplacement. Combining our study with published ones, we proposed that the Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks in the Ulanhot area were formed in an extensional tectonic background and compactly related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean plate. Full article
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30 pages, 13512 KiB  
Article
Petrogenesis of the Early Cretaceous Hongshan Complex in the Southern Taihang Mountains: Constraints from Element Geochemistry, Zircon U-Pb Geochronology and Hf Isotopes
Minerals 2021, 11(10), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101111 - 10 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
The Hongshan complex, located in the southern part of the Taihang Mountains in the central part of the North China Craton, consists of syenite stocks (including fine-grained biotite aegirine syenite, medium-grained aegirine gabbro syenite, coarse-grained aegirine gabbro syenite, syenite pegmatite, and biotite syenite [...] Read more.
The Hongshan complex, located in the southern part of the Taihang Mountains in the central part of the North China Craton, consists of syenite stocks (including fine-grained biotite aegirine syenite, medium-grained aegirine gabbro syenite, coarse-grained aegirine gabbro syenite, syenite pegmatite, and biotite syenite porphyry), with monzo-diorite and monzo-gabbro dikes. This paper presents zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data and whole-rock geochemical data from the Hongshan complex. LA–ICP-MS zircon U–Pb age from the fine-grained biotite aegirine syenite, monzo-diorite, and monzo-gabbro are 129.3 ± 2.0 Ma, 124.8 ± 1.3 Ma, and 124.1 ± 0.9 Ma, respectively, indicating their emplacement in the Early Cretaceous when the North China Craton was extensively reactivated. The monzo-diorite and monzo-gabbro have low SiO2 contents (48.94–57.75 wt%), total alkali contents (5.2–9.4 wt%), and εHf (t) values of −22.3 to −18.4 and are enriched in MgO (4.0–8.2 wt%), Al2O3 (14.3–15.8 wt%), light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs). Interpretation of elemental and isotopic data suggests that the magma of monzo-diorite and monzo-gabbro were derived from partial melting of the enriched lithospheric mantle metasomatized by slab-derived hydrous fluids. Syenites with high alkali (K2O + Na2O = 9.4–13.0 wt%) and Sr contents (356–1737 ppm) and low Yb contents (0.94–2.65 ppm) are enriched in Al (Al2O3 = 16.4–19.1 wt%), but depleted in MgO (0.09–2.56 w%), Cr (Avg = 7.16 ppm), Co (Avg = 6.85 ppm) and Ni (Avg = 9.79 ppm), showing the geochemical features of adakitic rocks associated with thickened lower crust. Combining zircon 176Hf/177Hf ratios of 0.282176 to 0.282359, εHf(t) values of −18.3 to −11.8 and εNd (t) values of −11.1 to −8.2, we conclude that the syenite magma was derived from the mixing of the thickened lower crust and the enriched lithospheric mantle magma. These magma processes were controlled by Paleo-Pacific plate subduction and resulted in the destruction and thinning of the central North China Craton. Full article
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21 pages, 4994 KiB  
Article
Genetic Environments of the Eunjeok Au–Ag Deposit in the Yeongam District: Implications for Cretaceous Epithermal Au–Ag Mineralization in South Korea
Minerals 2021, 11(10), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101088 - 03 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1642
Abstract
Eunjeok Au–Ag deposits are situated in the Yeongam district, Cheollanamdo-province, South Korea. They are genetically related to the Bulgugsa magmatic event (ca. 110–60 Ma), caused by the transition in the subduction direction and style of the Izanagi Plate. Three gold- and silver-bearing hydrothermal [...] Read more.
Eunjeok Au–Ag deposits are situated in the Yeongam district, Cheollanamdo-province, South Korea. They are genetically related to the Bulgugsa magmatic event (ca. 110–60 Ma), caused by the transition in the subduction direction and style of the Izanagi Plate. Three gold- and silver-bearing hydrothermal veins filled the fractures of the Cretaceous rhyolitic tuff. The major ore minerals were arsenopyrite (31.47–32.20 at.% As), pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite (8.58–10.71 FeS mole%) and galena with minor amounts of electrum (62.77–78.15 at.% Au), native silver, and argentite. Sericitization was dominant in the alteration zone. The various textures of quartz veins (i.e., breccia, crustiform, comb, and vuggy) may indicate the formation of an epithermal environment. The auriferous fluids with the H2O–NaCl system have homogenization temperatures and salinities of 204 °C to 314 °C, less than 10 wt.% equiv. NaCl, and experienced mixing (dilution and cooling) events during mineralization. Considering the characteristics of the geologic setting, major fault system, and host rock, the Eunjeok Au–Ag deposit within the Yeongam district tends to share the general geologic characteristics of Haenam–Jindo epithermal mineralization episodes. However, the age of gold–silver mineralization (86.0 Ma) is older than that of Haenam–Jindo epithermal mineralization episodes (<70.3 Ma), implying some differences exist in the genetic sequence of extensional characteristics caused by transcurrent Gwangju–Yeongdong faults. Full article
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10 pages, 3852 KiB  
Article
Geophysical Properties of Precambrian Igneous Rocks in the Gwanin Vanadiferous Titanomagnetite Deposit, Korea
Minerals 2021, 11(10), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101031 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Precambrian igneous rocks (851–873 Ma) occur in Pocheon City, Korea. These rocks—crystallized during magmatic differentiation—formed vanadiferous titanomagnetite (VTM) deposit. Vanadium is a crucial element in vanadium redox flow batteries that are most appropriate for large-scale energy storage systems. We investigated the VTM deposit [...] Read more.
Precambrian igneous rocks (851–873 Ma) occur in Pocheon City, Korea. These rocks—crystallized during magmatic differentiation—formed vanadiferous titanomagnetite (VTM) deposit. Vanadium is a crucial element in vanadium redox flow batteries that are most appropriate for large-scale energy storage systems. We investigated the VTM deposit to evaluate its size and the possible presence of a hidden orebody. We demonstrated laboratory experiments of density, susceptibility, resistivity, and chargeability of the Precambrian igneous rocks to enhance the interpretation accuracy of geophysical surveys. The rocks consisting of underground ore (UO), discovered ore (DO), gabbro (GA), monzodiorite (MD), and quartz monzodiorite (QMD) were sampled from drilling cores and outcrops. The average density values were UO: 4.57 g/cm3, DO: 3.63 g/cm3, GA: 3.26 g/cm3, MD: 3.18 g/cm3, and QMD: 2.85 g/cm3. The average susceptibility values were UO: 0.8175 SI, DO: 0.2317 SI, GA: 0.0780, MD: 0.0126 SI, and QMD: 0.0007. The average resistivity values were UO: 2 Ωm, DO: 36 Ωm, GA: 257 Ωm, MD: 4571Ωm, and QMD: 7801 Ωm. The chargeability values were UO: 143 mV/V, DO: 108 mV/V, GA: 79 mV/V, MD: 42 mV/V, and QMD: 9 mV/V. We found that the properties of the mineralized rocks are considerably different from those of the surrounding rocks. This result may facilitate the mineral exploration of VTM deposits. Full article
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12 pages, 7502 KiB  
Article
Lacustrine Slope-Related Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures in the Cretaceous Gyeokpori Formation, Buan Area, SW Korea, and Volcanism-Induced Seismic Shocks as Their Possible Trigger
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070721 - 04 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2551
Abstract
The Gyeokpori Formation in the Buan volcanic area primarily contains siliciclastic rocks interbedded with volcanoclastics. These sediments are characterized by a variety of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS). The SSDS in the Gyeokpori Formation are embedded in poorly sorted conglomerates; slump folds are also [...] Read more.
The Gyeokpori Formation in the Buan volcanic area primarily contains siliciclastic rocks interbedded with volcanoclastics. These sediments are characterized by a variety of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS). The SSDS in the Gyeokpori Formation are embedded in poorly sorted conglomerates; slump folds are also present in the formation. The deformation mechanisms and triggers causing the deformation are not yet clear. In the present study, the trigger of the SSDS in the Gyeokpori Formation was investigated using facies analysis. This included evaluation of the reworking process of both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments. The analysis indicates that the SSDS are directly or indirectly associated with the alternation of conglomerates and mud layers with clasts. These layers underwent non-cohesive and cohesive deformation, respectively, which promoted SSDS formation. The slump folds were controlled by the extent of cohesive and non-cohesive deformation experienced by the sediment layers in the slope environment. The SSDS deformation style and morphology differ, particularly in the case of reworking by slump activity. This study contributes to the understanding of lacustrine slope-related soft-sediment deformation structures. Full article
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17 pages, 6192 KiB  
Article
Tracking and Evaluating the Concentrations of Natural Radioactivity According to Chemical Composition in the Precambrian and Mesozoic Granitic Rocks in the Jangsu-gun Area, Central Southwestern South Korea
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070684 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
The Jangsu-gun area in the central Southwestern South Korea consists of a well-preserved Middle Paleoproterozoic gneissic basement, as well as the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic granitic rocks. Here, we present the detailed zircon U-Pb age data and whole-rock chemical compositions, including radioactive [...] Read more.
The Jangsu-gun area in the central Southwestern South Korea consists of a well-preserved Middle Paleoproterozoic gneissic basement, as well as the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic granitic rocks. Here, we present the detailed zircon U-Pb age data and whole-rock chemical compositions, including radioactive elements (e.g., U and Th) and activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K for the Middle Paleoproterozoic gneisses, and Late Triassic and Early Jurassic granitic rocks of the Jangsu-gun area. The Middle Paleoproterozoic gneissic basement, and the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic granitic rocks have ages of ca. 1988 Ma and 1824 Ma, 230 Ma and 187–189 Ma, respectively. Geochemically, the Middle Paleoproterozoic orthogneiss, Late Triassic granites and Early Jurassic granitic rocks show typical arc-related metaluminous to weakly peraluminous fractionated granite features with ASI (aluminum saturation index) values of 0.92 to 1.40. The mean values of U (ppm) and Th (ppm) of the Middle Paleoproterozoic orthogneisses (6.4 and 20.5, respectively), Late Triassic granites (1.5 and 10.9), and Early Jurassic granites (3.5 and 16.5) were similar to those (5 and 15) of the granitic rocks in the Earth’s crust. The mean 226Ra (Bq/kg), 232Th (Bq/kg), and 40K (Bq/kg) activity concentrations and radioactivity concentration index (RCI) are 62, 71, 1,214 and 0.96 for the Middle Paleoproterozoic orthogneisses; 16, 39, 1,614 and 0.78 for the Late Triassic granites; and 56, 70, 1031 and 0.88 for the Early Jurassic granitic rocks, respectively. The U, Th, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and RCI of the Middle Paleoproterozoic biotite paragneisses are similar to those of the Middle Paleoproterozoic orthogneisses. The trend of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K activity concentrations, and the composition of U and Th from the Precambrian and Mesozoic rocks in the Jangsu-gun area indicates that monazite is the main accessory mineral controlling the concentration of natural radioactivity. Based on a detailed examination of the natural radioactivity in the rocks of the Jangsu-gun area, the Middle Paleoproterozoic orthogneisses and paragneisses, and Late Triassic and Early Jurassic granitic rocks show average high mean RCI values of 0.88−0.96, such that 32% of the rocks exceeded the recommended value of one in the guidelines for the RCI in South Korea. Especially, the RCI is closely related to the radon levels in the rocks. As a result, the Jangsu-gun area in South Korea is a relatively high radiological risk area, which exhibits higher indoor radon levels in the residences, compared with residences in the other areas in South Korea. Full article
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13 pages, 5317 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Iron Ore Mineral Distribution Using Aero-Magnetic Exploration Techniques: Case Study at Pocheon, Korea
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070665 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3232
Abstract
We present our aeromagnetic survey results from an investigation of the iron ore mineral distribution in Pocheon, Korea, in the west-central area of the Korean Peninsula. A manned aeromagnetic system using a helicopter for regional exploration and an unmanned aeromagnetic system using a [...] Read more.
We present our aeromagnetic survey results from an investigation of the iron ore mineral distribution in Pocheon, Korea, in the west-central area of the Korean Peninsula. A manned aeromagnetic system using a helicopter for regional exploration and an unmanned aeromagnetic system using a multicopter for high-resolution exploration were used for the survey. The inversion results of the magnetic data confirmed the possibility of the existence of a new iron ore body. Drilling was carried out based on inversion results and drilling revealed amphibolite including iron ore, as indicated by a strong magnetic response. The position and depth of the iron ore were consistent with the interpretation results of the magnetic data. Full article
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26 pages, 24049 KiB  
Article
Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Age Constraints on the Axinite-Bearing Gukjeon Pb–Zn Skarn Deposit in the Miryang Area, South Korea
Minerals 2021, 11(6), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11060619 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2968
Abstract
The axinite-bearing Gukjeon Pb–Zn deposit is hosted by the limestone, a member of the Jeonggaksan Formation, which, in turn, forms the part of the Jusasan subgroup of the Yucheon Group in the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. In [...] Read more.
The axinite-bearing Gukjeon Pb–Zn deposit is hosted by the limestone, a member of the Jeonggaksan Formation, which, in turn, forms the part of the Jusasan subgroup of the Yucheon Group in the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. In this study, we attempted to interpret the spatial and temporal relationships among geologic events, including the mineralization of this deposit. We constructed a new 3D orebody model and suggested a relationship between skarn alteration and related mineralization. Mineralization timing was constrained using SHRIMP zircon age dating results combined with boron geochemistry on coeval intrusive rocks. Skarn alterations are restrictively found in several horizons of the limestone formation. The major skarn minerals are garnet (grossular), pyroxene (hedenbergite), amphibole (actinolite and ferro-actinolite), axinite (tizenite and ferro-axinite), and epidote (clinozoisite and epidote). The three stages of pre-skarn, syn-skarn, and post-skarn alteration are recognized within the deposit. The syn-skarn alteration is characterized by prograde metasomatic pyroxene and garnet, and the retrograde metasomatic amphibole, axinite, and epidote. Major skarn sulfide minerals are sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, and pyrite, which were predominantly precipitated during the retrograde stage and formed amphibole and axinite skarns. The skarn orebodies seem to be disc- or flat-shaped with a convex form at the central part of the orebodies. The vertical ascending and horizontal infiltration of boron-rich hydrothermal fluid probably controlled the geometry of the orebodies. Considering the whole-rock major, trace, and boron geochemical and geochronological results, the timing of Pb–Zn mineralization can be tightly constrained between the emplacement of boron-poor intrusion (fine-grained granodiorite, 82.8 Ma) and boron-rich intrusion (porphyritic andesite in Beomdori andesitic rocks, 83.8 Ma) in a back-arc basin setting. The boron for mineralization was sourced from late Cretaceous (Campanian), subduction-related magmatic rocks along the margin of the Pacific plate. Full article
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11 pages, 3419 KiB  
Article
Application of 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography in the Yeoncheon Titanomagnetite Deposit, South Korea
Minerals 2021, 11(6), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11060563 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
The Yeoncheon titanomagnetite deposit formed by Precambrian magma differentiation is located in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Our team conducted an airborne magnetic survey for multiscale mineral exploration and then selected a promising survey area. An electrical resistivity survey was carried out in the potential [...] Read more.
The Yeoncheon titanomagnetite deposit formed by Precambrian magma differentiation is located in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Our team conducted an airborne magnetic survey for multiscale mineral exploration and then selected a promising survey area. An electrical resistivity survey was carried out in the potential area to image subsurface structure. Because ore minerals are mainly distributed in gabbro monzodiorite rather than quartz monzodiorite, we applied three-dimensional inversion of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data to identify lithology boundaries related to magma differentiation. The resistivity criterion distinguishing the lithologies of gabbro and quartz monzodiorite was determined from laboratory resistivity experimental results performed on drilling cores. The selected region for gabbro monzodiorite extends to the northeast direction, which is consistent with the geology map, magnetic anomaly, and drilling data. The inversion results of ERT can help in selecting the location of geophysical survey or drilling. Full article
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17 pages, 8663 KiB  
Article
Statherian (ca. 1714–1680 Ma) Extension-Related Magmatism and Deformation in the Southwestern Korean Peninsula and Its Geological Significance: Constraints from the Petrological, Structural, Geochemical and Geochronological Studies of Newly Identified Granitoids
Minerals 2021, 11(6), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11060557 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1816
Abstract
In this study, petrological, structural, geochemical, and geochronological analyses of the Statherian alkali feldspar granite and porphyritic alkali feldspar granite in the southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula were conducted to examine petrogenesis of the granitoids and their tectonic setting. Zircon U-Pb dating [...] Read more.
In this study, petrological, structural, geochemical, and geochronological analyses of the Statherian alkali feldspar granite and porphyritic alkali feldspar granite in the southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula were conducted to examine petrogenesis of the granitoids and their tectonic setting. Zircon U-Pb dating revealed that the two granites formed around 1.71 Ga and 1.70–1.68 Ga, respectively. The results of the geochemical analyses showed that both of the granites have a high content of K2O, Nb, Ta, and Y, as well as high FeOt/MgO and Ga/Al ratios. Both granites have alkali-calcic characteristics with a ferroan composition, indicating an A-type affinity. Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic compositions yielded negative εHf(t) values (−3.5 to −10.6), indicating a derivation from ancient crustal materials. Both granite types underwent ductile deformation and exhibited a dextral sense of shear with a minor extension component. Based on field relationships and zircon U-Pb dating, it was considered that the deformation event postdated the emplacement of the alkali feldspar granite and terminated soon after the emplacement of the porphyritic alkali feldspar granite in an extensional setting. These data indicated that there were extension-related magmatic activities accompanying ductile deformation in the southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula during 1.71–1.68 Ga. The Statherian extension-related events are well correlated with those in the midwestern part of the Korean and eastern parts of the North China Craton. Full article
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18 pages, 6960 KiB  
Article
Geochronological and Paleomagnetic Constraints on the Lower Cretaceous Dalazi Formation from the Yanji Basin, NE China, and its Tectonic Implication
Minerals 2021, 11(5), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11050527 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2303
Abstract
The Lower Cretaceous Dalazi Formation in the Yanji Basin, eastern Jilin Province is of particular interest because it contains key fresh water fossil taxa, oil and gas resources, a potential terrestrial Albian–Cenomanian boundary, and regional unconformities. However, the lack of a precise chronology [...] Read more.
The Lower Cretaceous Dalazi Formation in the Yanji Basin, eastern Jilin Province is of particular interest because it contains key fresh water fossil taxa, oil and gas resources, a potential terrestrial Albian–Cenomanian boundary, and regional unconformities. However, the lack of a precise chronology for the non-marine strata has precluded a better understanding of the regional stratigraphic correlation and terrestrial processes. Here, we report magnetostratigraphic and U–Pb geochronologic results of a sedimentary sequence from the Xing’antun section in the Yanji Basin. Thirty-two zircons from the tuff sample were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS); the U–Pb zircon dating method yielded a weighted mean of 206Pb/238U age of 105.7 ± 0.8 Ma (2σ, internal error). Paleomagnetic results show that the Dalazi Formation is of normal polarity, which was correlated to the early chron C34n constrained by the SIMS U–Pb zircon geochronologic data, further demonstrating that the terrestrial sedimentary sequence of the upper Dalazi Formation is of late Albian age. The established geochronologic framework allows the regional correlation of the Dalazi Formation in the Yanji Basin to the strata from other terrestrial sequences in northeastern China. The similar geodynamic and geologic background between the Yanji Basin and other terrestrial rift basins in northeastern China suggests that the unconformity between the Dalazi and Longjing formations may represent syn-rift and post-rift stages in the Yanji Basin, and thus the switch from extension to contraction during the mid-Cretaceous, precisely constrained to ~106–101 Ma based on our new chronology and previously published high-precision U–Pb dating of the lower Longjing Formation. It is most likely attributable to the docking of the west Pacific plate along the East Asian continental margin. Full article
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15 pages, 4915 KiB  
Article
U-Pb Age Dating and Geochemistry of Soft-Sediment Deformation Structure-Bearing Late Cretaceous Volcano-Sedimentary Basins in the SW Korean Peninsula and Their Tectonic Implications
Minerals 2021, 11(5), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11050520 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary basins and successions in the Korean Peninsula are located along NE-SW- and NNE-SSW-trending sinistral strike–slip fault systems. Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) of lacustrine sedimentary strata occur in the Wido, Buan, and Haenam areas of the southwestern Korean Peninsula. In this study, [...] Read more.
Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary basins and successions in the Korean Peninsula are located along NE-SW- and NNE-SSW-trending sinistral strike–slip fault systems. Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) of lacustrine sedimentary strata occur in the Wido, Buan, and Haenam areas of the southwestern Korean Peninsula. In this study, systematic geological, geochronological, and geochemical investigations of the volcanic-sedimentary successions were conducted to constrain the origin and timing of SSDS-bearing lacustrine strata. The SSDS-bearing strata is conformably underlain and overlain by volcanic rocks, and it contains much volcaniclastic sediment and is interbedded with tuffs. The studied SSDSs were interpreted to have formed by ground shaking during syndepositional earthquakes. U-Pb zircon ages of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks within the studied volcano-sedimentary successions were ca. 87–84 Ma, indicating that active volcanism was concurrent with lacustrine sedimentation. Geochemical characteristics indicate that these mostly rhyolitic rocks are similar to subduction-related calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from an active continental margin. This suggests that the SSDSs in the study area were formed by earthquakes related to proximal volcanic activity due to the oblique subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate during the Late Cretaceous. Full article
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21 pages, 6486 KiB  
Article
Jurassic Igneous Activity in the Yuseong Area on the Southern Margin of the Gyeonggi Massif, Korean Peninsula, and Its Implications for the Tectonic Evolution of Northeast Asia during the Jurassic
Minerals 2021, 11(5), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11050466 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
Jurassic dioritic to granitic igneous rocks extensively intrude into the southern Korean Peninsula, including the Yuseong area located at the boundary between the southern margin of the Gyeonggi Massif and the northern margin of the Okcheon Belt. In this study, the petrogenesis and [...] Read more.
Jurassic dioritic to granitic igneous rocks extensively intrude into the southern Korean Peninsula, including the Yuseong area located at the boundary between the southern margin of the Gyeonggi Massif and the northern margin of the Okcheon Belt. In this study, the petrogenesis and sources of Jurassic igneous rocks in the Yuseong area were investigated. The U–Pb zircon age data from the Jurassic plutonic rocks in the Yuseong area give two igneous ages, ca. 178–177 Ma and 169–168 Ma, indicating that two stages of igneous activity occurred in the Yuseong area during the Jurassic. The geochemical characteristics of Jurassic diorites indicate that they originated from enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt (E-MORB; Nb/Yb = 5.63–7.27; Zr/Yb = 118–156). The enriched Th/Yb ratios (5.5–8.0) in the diorites imply that they experienced crustal contamination during magma ascent. The Jurassic granitoids in the Yuseong area are divided into I- and S-type granites. The Jurassic I-type granitoids may have formed via the partial melting of mafic rocks with mixtures of 10–40% pelite-derived melt, while the S-type granites originated from felsic pelite. The Jurassic diorites have low Nb/Th ratios with depletion of the Nb and Ta components, indicating that they formed in a volcanic arc tectonic environment. On the other hand, the Jurassic granitoids show two different tectonic environments: a volcanic arc, and a syncollisional environment. The granites with syncollisional character are S-type granites, and may give incorrect information about tectonic setting because of the changes in the trace elements of the S-type granite due to fractional crystallization. Early Jurassic (200–190 Ma) igneous rocks are distributed only in the southeastern Korean Peninsula, including the Yeongnam Massif; Jurassic igneous rocks formed at ca. 190–180 Ma occur mainly in the Okcheon Belt and southern Gyeonggi Massif, which includes the Yuseong area. Middle Jurassic igneous rocks widely intruded from the Okcheon Belt, through the Gyeonggi and Nangrim massifs in the Korean Peninsula, to the Liaoning area in the North China Craton at 180–160 Ma. This distribution pattern of the Jurassic granitoids suggests that flat subduction started after 180 Ma in Northeast Asia. Full article
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