Emerging Climate Change and Environmental Issues in Asian Countries

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 6828

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712, Korea
Interests: arsenic geochemistry; soil remediation; appropriate technology; removal of As in water
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many regions in Asia are facing climate change with scarcity of safe drinking water, high vulnerability in the coastal cities, and a shortage of irrigation water supply to agricultural land. Groundwater resources in these regions have not been properly secured, mainly due to a lack of expertise, resources, and technology. In particular, the absence of an effective coastal groundwater treatment technology partially stems from the lack of information regarding the status of coastal groundwater and the distribution of saltwater within the aquifers. The magnitude and pace of climate change have significantly affected the agriculture activities in many Asian countries. Climate variability not only increases the degree of drought and flood occurrence but also changes the groundwater recharge pattern. Moreover, arsenic-enriched aquifers in Mekong river regions, basin-fill deposits of alluvial lacustrine origin, volcanic deposits, inputs from geothermal sources, and mining waste associated with the natural weathering/leaching process have contaminated the soil system.

In order to share research outcomes in the field of climate change adaptation/mitigation technologies, this Special Issue “Emerging Climate Change and Environmental Issues in Asian Countries” is proposed. All manuscripts about climate change and environmental sectors ranging from survey to solution issues will be welcome.

Prof. Dr. Kyoung-Woong Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • climate change
  • groundwater
  • soil
  • adaptation and mitigation
  • Asia

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 1285 KiB  
Article
Derivation of Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for Heavy Metals in Freshwater Organisms in Korea Using Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs)
by Jinhee Park and Sang Don Kim
Minerals 2020, 10(8), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080697 - 6 Aug 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2966
Abstract
Natural and artificial heavy metal exposure to the environment requires finding thresholds to protect aquatic ecosystems from the toxicity of heavy metals. The threshold is commonly called a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) and is thought to protect most organisms in an ecosystem [...] Read more.
Natural and artificial heavy metal exposure to the environment requires finding thresholds to protect aquatic ecosystems from the toxicity of heavy metals. The threshold is commonly called a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) and is thought to protect most organisms in an ecosystem from a chemical. PNEC is derived by applying a large assessment factor (AF) to the toxicity value of the most sensitive organism to a chemical or by developing a species sensitivity distribution (SSD), which is a cumulative distribution function with many toxicity data for a chemical of diverse organisms. This study developed SSDs and derived PNECs using toxicity data of organisms living in Korea for four heavy metals: copper (Cd), cadmium (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Five distribution models were considered with log-transformed toxicity data, and their fitness and uncertainty were investigated. As a result, the normal distribution and Gumbel distribution fit the data well. In contrast, the Weibull distribution poorly accounted for the data at the lower tails for all of the heavy metals. The hazardous concentration for 5% of species (HC5) derived from the most suitable model for each heavy metal was calculated to be the preferred PNEC by AF 2 or AF 3. PNECs, obtained through a suitable SSD model with resident species and reasonable AF, will help protect freshwater organisms in Korea from heavy metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Climate Change and Environmental Issues in Asian Countries)
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Review

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14 pages, 295 KiB  
Review
Influence of Mining Activities on Arsenic Concentration in Rice in Asia: A Review
by Anh T. P. Hoang, Nouvarat Prinpreecha and Kyoung-Woong Kim
Minerals 2021, 11(5), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11050472 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3464
Abstract
Crop and livestock farming on contaminated soil has been found to induce the accumulation of trace elements in edible parts of plants, with subsequent risk to human and animal health. Since rice crop is a major source of energy in worldwide diets and [...] Read more.
Crop and livestock farming on contaminated soil has been found to induce the accumulation of trace elements in edible parts of plants, with subsequent risk to human and animal health. Since rice crop is a major source of energy in worldwide diets and is consumed by more than 3 billion people, the soil–rice pathway is regarded as a prominent route of human exposure to potentially toxic elements. This study provides an overview of arsenic contamination in paddy rice from mining-impacted areas in several Asian countries that are primary rice consumers. From this review, it may be concluded that mining activities, along with the associated residual waste, significantly contribute to arsenic contamination of this food crop as rice samples from these regions were highly contaminated, with the highest total arsenic concentrations recorded being 3–4 times higher than the maximum levels proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. While the contamination in China, Korea, Indonesia, and Thailand appeared to be slightly affected by mining activities, the elevated levels of arsenic in rice from mining areas in India, Bangladesh, and Vietnam could be derived from arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Climate Change and Environmental Issues in Asian Countries)
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