Advances in Reagents for Mineral Processing

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2023) | Viewed by 11828

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Guest Editor
School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
Interests: flotation reagents; separation and purification of complex minerals; hydrometallurgical processing of minerals; comprehensive utilization of tailings
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mineral processing is an applied technical subject for the separation of valuable minerals from gangue minerals. Reagents, especially those used for flotation, such as collectors and depressants are always employed to tune the wettability of mineral particle surfaces in this process. Mineral processors usually use collectors to cause a valuable mineral surface to become sufficiently hydrophobic, while depressants cause gangue minerals to become hydrophilic. In recent years, with leaner and more complex ores, there are great challenge to our long-held technological solutions, especially in flotation reagents. In this Special Issue, we aim to discuss the latest developments in reagents for mineral processing. We invite you to contribute to this Special Issue by submitting research articles or comprehensive reviews concerning flotation reagents, including their molecular design and synthesis, quantitative structure–activity relationship, the mineral flotation behavior, the interaction between flotation reagents and mineral surfaces, etc.

Prof. Dr. Wengang Liu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mineral chemistry (surface reactivity, surface broken bonds, surface absorbability, etc.)
  • reagents (collectors, depressants, dispersants, etc.)
  • reagent chemistry (QSAR, molecular design, assembly, etc.)
  • mineral/reagent interaction (MD simulation, quantum chemistry simulation, XPS, etc.)
  • flotation kinetics
  • flotation bubbles

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 4199 KiB  
Article
Novel Hydroxyl-Containing Quaternary Ammonium Salt N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-N, N-Dimethyl-3-[(1-Oxododecyl)amino]-1-Propanaminium: Its Synthesis and Flotation Performance to Quartz
by Benying Wang, Panxing Zhao, Wengang Liu, Wenbao Liu, Ying Guo, Kelin Tong and Xudong Chen
Minerals 2023, 13(5), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13050702 - 21 May 2023
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
In this paper, a novel hydroxyl-containing quaternary ammonium surfactant N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-N, N-dimethyl-3-[(1-oxododecyl)amino]-1-propanaminium (LPDC) was synthesized and introduced as a collector for the reverse cationic flotation separation of apatite from quartz; the adsorption mechanisms between LPDC and two mineral surfaces were investigated by Fourier transform [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel hydroxyl-containing quaternary ammonium surfactant N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-N, N-dimethyl-3-[(1-oxododecyl)amino]-1-propanaminium (LPDC) was synthesized and introduced as a collector for the reverse cationic flotation separation of apatite from quartz; the adsorption mechanisms between LPDC and two mineral surfaces were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), zeta potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The micro-flotation tests showed that LPDC exhibited excellent flotation performance. When the pulp was at natural pH and LPDC concentration was 25 mg/L, the apatite concentrate with a P2O5 recovery of 95.45% and P2O5 grade of 38.94% could be obtained from artificially mixed minerals. FTIR, zeta potential, and XPS analysis indicated that the adsorption of LPDC onto quartz surface is stronger than that onto apatite surface; meanwhile, the adsorption of LPDC onto quartz surface is mainly provided by electrostatic force and hydrogen bonding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Reagents for Mineral Processing)
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14 pages, 3684 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Sodium of Polyaspartic Acid on Serpentine and Its Effects on Selective Pyrite/Serpentine Flotation
by Xihui Fang, Guanfei Zhao and Yu Zhang
Minerals 2022, 12(12), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12121558 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Due to the optimum dissolution of the hydroxyl ion, serpentine is positively charged and tends to cover the sulfide mineral surface as a slime coating through electrostatic attraction, which intensively worsens sulfide flotation. To handle this problem, the sodium of polyaspartic acid (PASP) [...] Read more.
Due to the optimum dissolution of the hydroxyl ion, serpentine is positively charged and tends to cover the sulfide mineral surface as a slime coating through electrostatic attraction, which intensively worsens sulfide flotation. To handle this problem, the sodium of polyaspartic acid (PASP) was employed as the selective depressant for the flotation of pyrite from serpentine in this work. Micro-flotation results showed that the fine serpentine of −10 µm could intensively hinder pyrite flotation, with a maximum decrease of about 75.8% in pyrite recovery at pH 9. However, at this pH, pyrite recovery remarkably increased from 20.17% to 92.68% when 15 mg/L PASP was introduced. Zeta potential results depicted that the addition of PASP overcompensated the positive charge on the serpentine surface and rendered it negative, while it had little impact on that of pyrite. Hence, the hetero-coagulation between serpentine and pyrite was broken due to the electrostatic repulsion, which was further confirmed by turbidity results. After that, the adsorption of PAX on the pyrite surface was restored, and the selective flotation of pyrite from serpentine was obtained. XPS analyses revealed that the chelation interaction between the carboxylate groups in PASP and the magnesium cations that remained on the serpentine surface were the main driving forces for the adsorption of PASP on the serpentine surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Reagents for Mineral Processing)
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13 pages, 4641 KiB  
Article
Improving the Copper-Molybdenum Ores Flotation Technology Using a Combined Collecting Agent
by Larissa Semushkina, Gulnar Abdykirova, Aynur Mukhanova and Aynur Mukhamedilova
Minerals 2022, 12(11), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12111416 - 08 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
The search for effective reagents for the flotation of non-ferrous metals from mineral raw materials is an actual problem. The article discusses the results of research on improving the technology of processing copper–molybdenum ores using a combined collector emulsion. The object of research [...] Read more.
The search for effective reagents for the flotation of non-ferrous metals from mineral raw materials is an actual problem. The article discusses the results of research on improving the technology of processing copper–molybdenum ores using a combined collector emulsion. The object of research was copper–molybdenum ore containing 0.43% copper and 0.0089% molybdenum. Copper minerals are represented by chalcopyrite 1.2% and chalcocite 0.015%, while covellite is present in a much smaller amount. The main mineral of molybdenum is molybdenite. The cycle of collective copper–molybdenum flotation includes the main flotation, control flotation, and three re-cleanings of concentrate. In the basic mode, the collective Cu–Mo concentrate was produced with the copper content of 16.25% with an extraction of 77.79% and with the molybdenum content of 0.45% with an extraction of 79.38%. Reaflot, thionocarbamate, and butyl xanthate were used in a ratio of 1:3:15 to prepare a combined collector agent. In order to produce the combined collector emulsion, the best degree of dispersion, which amounted to 99.5% of particles with a size of −3.6 μm, was chosen. During the Cu–Mo ore flotation using an optimally dispersed microemulsion of the combined collector agent, a collective Cu–Mo concentrate was obtained with a copper content of 18.2% with an extraction of 83.58%, and with a molybdenum content of 0.49% with an extraction of 88.46%. The use of a combined collector agent increases the extraction of copper into the collective Cu–Mo concentrate by 5.79%, while the extraction of molybdenum increases by 9.08%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Reagents for Mineral Processing)
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13 pages, 2755 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Polyethyleneimine on Fine Arsenopyrite and the Effect on Its Xanthate Flotation
by Pingtian Ming, Qingqing Xing, Zhen Wang, Kaile Zhao, Fei Li, Dan Zou and Youguo Guan
Minerals 2022, 12(11), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12111390 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Effective flotation of fine particles is a problem for mineral processing. In this paper, a flocculant mostly used in heavy metal ion treatment was used in an arsenopyrite flotation system. The adsorption behavior and flotation performance of PEI on the xanthate flotation of [...] Read more.
Effective flotation of fine particles is a problem for mineral processing. In this paper, a flocculant mostly used in heavy metal ion treatment was used in an arsenopyrite flotation system. The adsorption behavior and flotation performance of PEI on the xanthate flotation of arsenopyrite were investigated through zeta potential and adsorbed amount measurements, XPS and size distribution detections, and micro-flotation tests. Zeta potential results showed that the adsorption of 40 mg/L polyethyleneimine (PEI) caused an increase in the zeta potential of arsenopyrite, and had only a slight depression on the further adsorption of SBX, which was further confirmed by the results of the adsorbed amount measurements. However, when the dosage of PEI was 150 mg/L, the adsorption of SBX was strongly depressed. This was because moderate PEI only bridged different arsenopyrite particles, and most of the active sites for the SBX adsorption were still exposed; when PEI was in excess, the mineral particles would be covered so that there were not enough active sites for SBX adsorption. Fe and As on the mineral surface were the adsorption sites for the PEI molecules, which were resolved from the chemical shifts in the As/Fe peaks of the XPS spectra. PEI can increase particle size, and moderate PEI dosage can make the particle size suitable for flotation with SBX where bridging and hydrophobic effects take place. The flotation results showed that −20 μm arsenopyrite particles had poor flotation recovery with the SBX collector alone, but when they were treated with 40 mg/L PEI, the recovery largely increased. PEI can serve as an effective flocculant for the flocculation flotation of fine arsenopyrite. A comparison model, showing the possible interactions among reagents, particles, and bubbles in the pulp with different PEI dosages, is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Reagents for Mineral Processing)
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15 pages, 6241 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of L-arginine as an Eco-Friendly Activator for Malachite Sulfidization Flotation
by Bo Hu, Mengfei Liu, Daixiong Chen, Chenyang Zhang, Jianyu Zhu and Maolin Li
Minerals 2022, 12(11), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12111346 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
Sulfidization xanthate flotation remains the most promising method for the beneficiation of malachite. In this study, L-arginine (LA) was first used to modify the malachite surface and improve the efficiency of sulfidization flotation. The performance of LA was evaluated by the flotation experiments. [...] Read more.
Sulfidization xanthate flotation remains the most promising method for the beneficiation of malachite. In this study, L-arginine (LA) was first used to modify the malachite surface and improve the efficiency of sulfidization flotation. The performance of LA was evaluated by the flotation experiments. The mechanism of interaction between LA and the malachite surface was investigated by adsorption experiments, zeta potential measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Flotation experiments showed that LA had a significantly promoting effect on malachite sulfidization flotation. Adsorption experiments and SEM-EDS results indicated that LA improved the adsorption of S (II) species into the malachite surface and promoted the formation of sulfides. This finding was further confirmed by the XPS analysis. The XPS measurements results determined that S (II) species reacted with Cu (II) on the malachite surface and form polysulfides, adding LA promoted the reaction. The zeta potential measurements showed that LA increased the positive electrical properties of the mineral surface, which was conducive to S (II) species adsorption and the sulfidization reaction. This work sheds new light on the development of sulfidization activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Reagents for Mineral Processing)
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21 pages, 6318 KiB  
Article
Iron Extraction from South African Ilmenite Concentrate Leaching by Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) in the Presence of Reductant (Metallic Fe) and Additive (MgSO4)
by Khetho Daba, Munyadziwa Mercy Ramakokovhu, Tajudeen Mojisola, Mxolisi Brendon Shongwe and Nthabiseng Ntholeng
Minerals 2022, 12(10), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12101336 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2610
Abstract
The high content of iron in ilmenite ore poses a great challenge, particularly in the synthesis of titanium-containing products due to high susceptibility of iron (Fe) to corrosion. Direct leaching of ilmenite ore in hydrochloric acid (HCl) encouraging Fe dissolution was investigated. The [...] Read more.
The high content of iron in ilmenite ore poses a great challenge, particularly in the synthesis of titanium-containing products due to high susceptibility of iron (Fe) to corrosion. Direct leaching of ilmenite ore in hydrochloric acid (HCl) encouraging Fe dissolution was investigated. The influence of variable parameters, the use of additives, and the addition of metallic iron powder were studied to establish the optimum leaching parameters. The results showed that ilmenite with the particle size distribution of +150 µm yielded better efficiencies when leaching was performed with an acid concentration of 7.5 M and a solid-to-acid ratio of 1:10 at 90 °C. An agitation speed of 450 rpm yielded a superior Fe extraction of about 92.32% and a 2.40% titanium (Ti) loss. The addition of both metallic Fe and the MgSO4 additive significantly enhanced Fe dissolution and decreased Ti recovery in a leach solution. It was found that leaching under optimum conditions produced a solid residue with 1.37% Fe impurity while 98.63% was extracted. The leached residue was comprised of 91.4% TiO2 rutile phase and contained a high content of the ilmenite FeTiO3 (4.37%) and SiO2 (2.23%) impurities, while Al2O3, MgO, MnO2, CaO, V2O5, MnO2, and Cr2O3 were below 0.13%. The high TiO2 content in the leached residue makes it suitable for use as feed in the production of synthetic rutile. The leaching kinetics of Fe dissolution was found to conform to the shrinking core model, where diffusion through the product layer is rate controlling. The calculated activation energy according to the Arrhenius equation was 19.13 kJ/mol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Reagents for Mineral Processing)
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13 pages, 2611 KiB  
Article
Selective Separation of Fluorite from Scheelite Using N-Decanoylsarcosine Sodium as a Novel Collector
by Zekun Miao, Liming Tao, Jianjun Wang, Zheyi Jiang, Tao Peng, Wei Sun and Zhiyong Gao
Minerals 2022, 12(7), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12070855 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
Fluorite and scheelite, which are strategic calcium-bearing minerals, have similar active sites (Ca2+); as a result, the efficient separation of the two minerals is still one of the world’s most difficult problems in the field of flotation. In this work, N [...] Read more.
Fluorite and scheelite, which are strategic calcium-bearing minerals, have similar active sites (Ca2+); as a result, the efficient separation of the two minerals is still one of the world’s most difficult problems in the field of flotation. In this work, N-decanoylsarcosine sodium (SDAA), a non-toxic and low-cost amino acid surfactant, was applied in the flotation separation of fluorite from scheelite for the first time. In the test, single mineral, binary mixed minerals, and actual ore experiments showed that the pre-removal of fluorite from scheelite by reverse flotation can be achieved. The results of adsorption capacity detections, zeta potential tests, and FTIR analysis showed that the negatively charged SDAA prefers to adsorb onto the positively charged fluorite surface due to the electrostatic interaction. The results of crystal chemistry and DFT calculations showed that SDAA has a stronger chemical interaction and more electron transfer numbers to the Ca atom on the fluorite surface and forms a Ca-SDAA complex. Therefore, the significant difference in the adsorption behavior of SDAA on the surfaces of two minerals provided a new insight into the separation efficiency of amino acids and possesses a great potential for industrial application in scheelite flotation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Reagents for Mineral Processing)
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