A Perspective on Genesis, Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Global Distribution, Global Production and Market Dependent Significance of REE Deposits

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Deposits".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2024 | Viewed by 3747

Special Issue Editor

School of Chemistry-Laboratory of Chemical & Environmental Technology Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: REE; mineralogy; geochemistry; minerals economics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Minerals, “A Perspective on Genesis, Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Global Distribution, Global Production and Market Dependent Significance of REE Deposits”, focuses on REE deposits characteristics, genesis but also on the economic significance of REE deposits, encouraging the submission of research articles about metallurgical methods aiming to have a reduced environmental impact. Research upon REE global exploitation and future trends on the market are also welcome.

This Special Issue intends to attract experts working on REE deposits and provide them with the latest advances in REE metallurgical methods, as well as the future and current trends on REE global market and thus new areas of REE mining.

We look forward for your submissions!

Dr. Argyrios Papadopoulos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • REE
  • minerals market
  • minerals economics
  • mineralogy
  • geochemistry
  • metallurgy

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 8772 KiB  
Article
Geochemical and Mineralogical Characteristics of Ion-Adsorption Type REE Mineralization in the Mosuoying Granite, Panxi Area, Southwest China
Minerals 2023, 13(11), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13111449 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 755
Abstract
The ion-adsorption rare earth deposit developed on the Mosuoying granite in the Panxi area of southwestern China represents a significant advancement in the exploration of ion-adsorption rare earth deposits in Sichuan. Being the first and currently the sole ion-adsorption rare earth deposit in [...] Read more.
The ion-adsorption rare earth deposit developed on the Mosuoying granite in the Panxi area of southwestern China represents a significant advancement in the exploration of ion-adsorption rare earth deposits in Sichuan. Being the first and currently the sole ion-adsorption rare earth deposit in Sichuan, studying its rare earth mineralization characteristics holds great importance. This paper aims to investigate the geochemical properties of the Mosuoying granite and its overlying weathered crust using rock geochemical methods based on field geological investigations. The findings reveal that the deposit belongs to the light rare earth type, with the ore-forming parent rock attributed to the high-potassium calc-alkaline series. It exhibits a high rock REE content ranging from 419 to 578 ppm, indicating favorable mineralization potential. Hydrothermal alteration reduces the REE content of the parent rock, leading to a notable increase in the LREE/HREE ratio, thus impacting the partitioning of rare earth elements and subsequent ore formation. The distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in each layer of the weathered crust are controlled by the parent rock and exhibit a light rare earth distribution pattern. The completely weathered layer is the main enrichment zone for rare earth elements, and the migration and enrichment patterns of rare earth elements in the weathered crust are evident. From the semi-weathered layer to the completely weathered layer, all REEs were gained, with a higher degree of migration for LREE. From the completely weathered layer to the clay layer, all REEs were lost, and the vertical distribution of rare earth content shows a “low-high-low” pattern. Full article
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26 pages, 9983 KiB  
Article
Fluid Inclusions and REE Geochemistry of White and Purple Fluorite: Implications for Physico-Chemical Conditions of Mineralization; an Example from the Pinavand F Deposit, Central Iran
Minerals 2023, 13(7), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13070836 - 21 Jun 2023
Viewed by 908
Abstract
The Pinavand fluorite deposit is hosted by lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks in the structural-geological transitional zone of Central Iran. The purple and white fluorite occur, respectively, as early replacement masses and late cross-cutting veins. Both fluorites have different and distinct physicochemical characteristics. The [...] Read more.
The Pinavand fluorite deposit is hosted by lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks in the structural-geological transitional zone of Central Iran. The purple and white fluorite occur, respectively, as early replacement masses and late cross-cutting veins. Both fluorites have different and distinct physicochemical characteristics. The purple fluorite has higher homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions (170–260 °C) and lower ∑REE (1.6 ppm) and Y (1.3 ppm) than the white variety (90–150 °C, 11.12 ppm, and 21.3 ppm, respectively). All fluorite samples show positive Y anomalies (Y/Y*) in the range of 1.15–3.5. The average values of La/Ho in the purple and white fluorites are 23.1 and 3.4, respectively. The purple fluorite samples have lower Y/Ho values (an average of 63.45) than the white fluorite samples (an average of 87.64). The Tb/Ca ratio in the Pinavand fluorites ranges between 0.0000000348 and 0.00000105, and the Tb/La ratio varies between 0.01 and 0.4; these values suggest that both fluorite types are “hydrothermal” in origin. The purple fluorites have a lower Sr and a negative Eu anomaly. These differences in concentrations and ratios of various REE suggest that the physico–chemical conditions of mineralization changed during fluorite deposition at the Pinavand. These changes correspond to an increase in oxygen fugacity and pH, which occurred during white fluorite mineralization at lower temperatures. The δ34S values of the Pinavand barite samples (an average of 23.25‰) are similar to those of seawater sulfate in the upper Proterozoic. The δ34S values of galena range from −0.2‰ to −3.7‰, compatible with bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). These features are similar to those in the hydrothermal and magmatic deposits. Full article
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15 pages, 4646 KiB  
Article
Geochemical Studies of Detrital Zircon Grains from the River Banks and Beach Placers of Coastal Odisha, India
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020192 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Zircon grains are reasonably ubiquitous in river banks and beach placers as detrital minerals, including along the ~1700 km long Indian east coast, from Odisha state to the state of Kerala. Zircons from beach placers and river banks located along the eastern part [...] Read more.
Zircon grains are reasonably ubiquitous in river banks and beach placers as detrital minerals, including along the ~1700 km long Indian east coast, from Odisha state to the state of Kerala. Zircons from beach placers and river banks located along the eastern part of Odisha, India, were studied using LA-ICP-MS in order to delineate their geochemical characteristics. Hf (mean = 11270 ppm) and Y (mean = 1064 ppm) were the two most abundant trace elements found within zircon grains as compared to other trace elements. The abundance of uranium was observed to be 2–4 times larger than that of thorium. Zircon overgrowths formed in equilibrium with a partial melt and were similar to magmatic zircon in terms of the high Y, Hf and P content, steep heavy-enriched REE pattern, positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly. The average low Th/U ratio of the studied zircon grains distinguished them from the magmatic ones. The REE present in zircon grains was restricted to high-grade metamorphic events. The result of the present study would be useful for delineating the source region and the efficacy of resource potential and indigenous export. Full article
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