Geomaterials: Compositional, Mineralogical and Textural Features

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Deposits".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2024 | Viewed by 3203

Special Issue Editors

Department of Engeneering and Geology, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti and Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
Interests: microporous materials; spectroscopy; CDW recover; archeometry; image processing
Department of Engeneering and Geology, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti and Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
Interests: construction materials; petrography; mineralogy; geochemistry; texture; CDW (construction and demolition waste); analytical methods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, 95129 Catania, Italy
Interests: alkaline-activated materials; stones; ceramics; mortars; concreate and degradation processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world of geomaterials is constantly evolving, both for the opening of new strategies aimed at environmental sustainability and the optimization of well-established procedures such as: supplying industrial minerals and critical elements, designing and manufacturing innovative construction materials, the transformation of waste in secondary resources in the circular economy point of view, storage of greenhouse gases, toxic and hazardous materials, knowledge of ancient technological processes (i.e., archaeological ceramics), etc. The prospection, extraction, treatment and employment of geomaterials are based on the analysis of their compositional, mineralogical and textural features. These latter can be obtained using by means many different analytical techniques, like optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, XRPD, XRF, TGA, EPMA-WDS, ICP-MS, FTIR, SWIR, Raman, TEM, X-ray and neutron tomography.

The goal of this Special Issue is to collect studies dealing with the characterisations of geomaterials, either natural (i.e., rocks and deposits), artificial or historic (i.e., ceramics, concretes, mortars, glasses, bricks, tiles and alloys). The characterisations of these materials may focus on the crystal-chemical attributes of phases and pores, their abundances, sizes, shapes, distribution and orientation, as well as their physic-mechanical attributes. The implications of these investigations reach beyond the Earth Sciences domains and may have strong implications, both in several technical–scientific areas such as material sciences, engineering, physics, chemistry, archaeometry, forensics and toxicology, and also to provide useful research to the industries.

Dr. Francesco Radica
Dr. Gianluca Iezzi
Dr. Claudio Finocchiaro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • construction and demolition waste
  • petrography
  • mineralogy
  • archaeometry
  • spectroscopy
  • XRPD
  • non-destructive techniques
  • alkali-activated materials
  • geopolymers
  • ceramics
  • mortars
  • concrete
  • degradation process

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 2685 KiB  
Article
Bulk Composition Effects on Vitrification of Mixed Fine Construction–Demolition and Inorganic Solid Waste
Minerals 2023, 13(11), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13111378 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 713
Abstract
Re-use of neglected and frequently landfilled wastes, including earthquake-generated rubble, can reduce the environmental impact of such waste materials, avoiding georesource exploitation, and potentially provide a source for new upcycling applications. Here, the fine fraction (<0.125 mm) of different wastes was selected according [...] Read more.
Re-use of neglected and frequently landfilled wastes, including earthquake-generated rubble, can reduce the environmental impact of such waste materials, avoiding georesource exploitation, and potentially provide a source for new upcycling applications. Here, the fine fraction (<0.125 mm) of different wastes was selected according to chemical composition (mostly silicate/oxide-rich materials), including construction and demolition waste (CDW), commercial glass, ceramic industry waste and incinerator bottom and fly ashes. Mixtures of these materials were used for vitrification experiments conducted at atmospheric pressure, 1200 °C, 8 h duration, preparing ten mixes containing 30 to 70 wt% of different waste materials added to a CDW starting material. X-ray powder diffraction and SEM/electron microprobe analyses show that the amorphous content (glass) varies from a maximum of 100 wt.% in products made of CDW with 70 wt.% added ceramic materials (e.g., roof tile) to a minimum of ~53 wt.% amorphous material when CDW was mixed with 30 wt.% brick powder. Mixtures of other waste materials (commercial glass, bottom/fly ash, ceramic waste) produced variable amounts of amorphous component, interpreted in terms of thermal minima in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system. Lack crystallinity and characteristic microstructures of experimental products suggest that vitrification is a promising choice for rendering inert chemically complex waste materials like CDW for possible upcycling applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials: Compositional, Mineralogical and Textural Features)
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26 pages, 6056 KiB  
Article
Improved Bond Strength Performance of Geopolymer Mortars: Role of High Volume Ground Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash, and Palm Oil Fuel Ash Incorporation
Minerals 2023, 13(8), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13081096 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
Alkali-activated binders have become popular in the construction industry for their eco-friendly attributes. Various wastes from industries and agricultural sectors containing high concentrations of aluminosilicate and calcium oxides can be used to design these binders. This study evaluated the effect of high-volume granulated [...] Read more.
Alkali-activated binders have become popular in the construction industry for their eco-friendly attributes. Various wastes from industries and agricultural sectors containing high concentrations of aluminosilicate and calcium oxides can be used to design these binders. This study evaluated the effect of high-volume granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and palm oil fuel ash additions on the bond strength performance of the proposed geopolymer mortars. Various levels of slag (50, 60, and 70%) and fly ash were substituted by palm oil fuel ash to determine the impact of SiO2:Al2O3, CaO:SiO2, and CaO:Al2O3 and their proportions on the geopolymerization process and the strength performance of the designed mortars. The bond strength performance of the mortars was assessed in terms of slant shear, flexural, and splitting tensile strength tests. The mineral properties of the designed mortars were obtained using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared measurements. The incorporation of fly ash and palm oil fuel ash in the mortars caused a considerable decrease in the CaO:SiO2 and CaO:Al2O3 ratios, thus reducing the geopolymerization process and strength performance. The reduction in slag from 70% to 50% was counterbalanced by the increasing content of fly ash and palm oil fuel ash, which led to a drop in the compressive strength from 97 MPa to 56 MPa. In each level of slag, the replacement of fly ash by up to 10% palm oil fuel ash added more loss in strength values. In addition, the surface morphology of prepared mortars with lower palm oil fuel ash content was significantly enhanced, indicating the presence of less porosity and unreacted particles. The achieved mortars were asserted to be extremely well matched with the concrete substrates, offering effective binders for widespread construction uses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials: Compositional, Mineralogical and Textural Features)
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20 pages, 7619 KiB  
Article
Textural and Chemical Characters of Lean Grade Placer Monazite of Bramhagiri Coast, Odisha, India
Minerals 2023, 13(6), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13060742 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
The present study aims to investigate the textural, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of lean grade placer monazite from the Bramhagiri beach sand deposit to assess the possibility for its use in industrial applications. The bulk back dune sand deposit with 18 samples showed [...] Read more.
The present study aims to investigate the textural, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of lean grade placer monazite from the Bramhagiri beach sand deposit to assess the possibility for its use in industrial applications. The bulk back dune sand deposit with 18 samples showed the elements uranium and thorium in traces, phosphorus and calcium in minor amounts, and alumina, silica and titanium in major amounts. Since apatite was absent in this placer deposit, P and Ca were attributed to monazite only. Based on the chemical analysis, it was established that the monazite mineral exists in this deposit. The monazite is generally below the −150- to +90-micron size range, and the concentration of the monazite mineral in the bulk back dune sand is around 0.01% by weight. The structural data and complete chemical analysis established that the monazite is Ce-monazite. The monazites with other heavy mineral sands of the Bramhagiri beach placer deposits were derived from the Eastern Ghats, which closely resembles the mineralogical composition of khondalite, charnockite, leptynite and pegmatite groups of rocks. The Eastern Ghats’ provenance appears to be the primary source for the heavy mineral assemblages of the Bramhagiri placer deposit. Thus, these monazite sands are derived from the granulite facies of metamorphic rocks such as khondalites and charnockites from the Eastern Ghats group of rocks. Garnet is the major mineral, following ilmenite and sillimanite. Zircon, rutile and monazite are minor minerals in the deposit. All these minerals are well liberated and have uniform shapes with variable densities and size ranges, with different magnetic, electrical and surface properties. Hence, the occurrences of these heavy minerals are of economic importance. Further, these minerals can be recovered individually for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials: Compositional, Mineralogical and Textural Features)
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