Geology and Characterization of Natural Graphite Deposits and Other Critical Minerals

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Deposits".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 2396

Special Issue Editors

Department of Mineral Resources, Geological Survey of Norway, NO 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: industrial minerals geology; graphite deposits; critical minerals; fennoscandian mineral deposits
Dr. Tuomo Törmänen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Geological Survey of Finland, PO Box 77, FI-96101 Rovaniemi, Finland
Interests: ore deposits, especially othomagmatic Ni–Cu–Co-PGE deposits and volcanogenic massive Cu–Zn sulfide deposits (VMS); cobalt metallogeny
Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), F-45060 Orléans, France
Interests: magmatic ore deposits, especially rare metal magmatism, lithium ore deposit, magmatic-related hydrothermal tin–tungsten or gold ore deposits

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decade, it has become obvious that a large number of metals and minerals (CRM) are critical for an increasing number of industrial mega sectors and an increasing number of countries, and most governments have increased their focus on this and related issues.

In this Special Issue, we welcome papers related to all types of studies of graphite and other critical minerals. Examples of topics that the contributions could focus on include but are not limited to mineral exploration for critical minerals, with descriptions both individual and regional overviews; hydrothermal and other metal enriching processes; and mineralogy. Papers that address multisource data integration and new discoveries and approaches for investigations and understanding of CRM deposits are particularly welcome.

Dr. Håvard Gautneb
Dr. Tuomo Törmänen
Dr. Eric Gloaguen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • critical minerals
  • mineral exploration
  • mineralogy
  • ore deposits
  • graphite deposits
  • cobalt
  • lithium
  • graphite vanadium
  • magnesium
  • REE

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 13616 KiB  
Article
Genesis of the Graphite from the Tugeman Graphite Deposit, Xinjiang, China: Evidence for Carbon Isotope Refining by Fluids Associated with the Ductile Shear Zone
Minerals 2023, 13(10), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13101328 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 850
Abstract
The Altun orogenic belt is situated along the northern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we present an analysis of the ore deposit, mineral composition, and carbon isotope signatures of the Tugeman graphite deposit within the Altun orogenic belt. The graphite [...] Read more.
The Altun orogenic belt is situated along the northern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we present an analysis of the ore deposit, mineral composition, and carbon isotope signatures of the Tugeman graphite deposit within the Altun orogenic belt. The graphite in the Tugeman graphite deposit occurs within graphite-bearing schists and marble. Graphite enrichment is observed in the ductile shear zone. The carbon isotope values of graphite range between −18.90‰ and −10.03‰ (with an average value of −12.70‰). These values differ significantly from those observed in organic matter and marine carbonates, suggesting the occurrence of a mixing process involving reduced carbon fluid derived from biological organic material during regional metamorphism as well as a potential influx of oxidized carbon fluid from external sources. In addition, the metamorphic temperature of Tugeman graphite calculated from Raman spectroscopy is between 494 °C and 570 °C, which indicates that the disordered material is transformed from greenschist-amphibolite facies metamorphism to moderate-crystalline graphite. Combining the geological and carbon isotope characteristics of the Tugeman graphite deposit, we argue that the Tugeman graphite deposit is a regional metamorphic graphite deposit of biogenic origin, and during the late stage of metamorphism, it underwent interaction with fluids. Full article
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20 pages, 11363 KiB  
Article
Proterozoic Deep Carbon—Characterisation, Origin and the Role of Fluids during High-Grade Metamorphism of Graphite (Lofoten–Vesterålen Complex, Norway)
Minerals 2023, 13(10), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13101279 - 29 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Graphite formation in the deep crust during granulite facies metamorphism is documented in the Proterozoic gneisses of the Lofoten–Vesterålen Complex, northern Norway. Graphite schist is hosted in banded gneisses dominated by orthopyroxene-bearing quartzofeldspathic gneiss, including marble, calcsilicate rocks and amphibolite. The schist has [...] Read more.
Graphite formation in the deep crust during granulite facies metamorphism is documented in the Proterozoic gneisses of the Lofoten–Vesterålen Complex, northern Norway. Graphite schist is hosted in banded gneisses dominated by orthopyroxene-bearing quartzofeldspathic gneiss, including marble, calcsilicate rocks and amphibolite. The schist has major graphite (<modality 39%), quartz, plagioclase, pyroxenes, biotite (Mg# = 0.67–0.91; Ti < 0.66 a.p.f.u.) and K-feldspar/perthite. Pyroxene is orthopyroxene (En69–74) and/or clinopyroxene (En33–53Fs1–14Wo44–53); graphite occurs in assemblage with metamorphic orthopyroxene. Phase diagram modelling (plagioclase + orthopyroxene (Mg#-ratio = 0.74) + biotite + quartz + rutile + ilmenite + graphite-assemblage) constrains pressure-temperature conditions of 810–835 °C and 0.73–0.77 GPa; Zr-in-rutile thermometry 726–854 °C. COH fluids stabilise graphite and orthopyroxene; the high Mg#-ratio of biotite and pyroxenes, and apatite Cl < 2 a.p.f.u., indicate the importance of fluids during metamorphism. Stable isotopic δ13Cgraphite in the graphite schist is −38 to −17‰; δ13Ccalcite of marbles +3‰ to +10‰. Samples with both graphite and calcite present give lighter values for δ13Ccalcite = −8.7‰ to −9.5‰ and heavier values for δ13Cgraphite = −11.5‰ to −8.9‰. δ18Ocalcite for marble shows lighter values, ranging from −15.4‰ to −7.5‰. We interpret the graphite origin as organic carbon accumulated in sediments, while isotopic exchange between graphite and calcite reflects metamorphic and hydrothermal re-equilibration. Full article
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