Special Issue "Advances in Prevention of Foodborne Pathogens of Public Health Concern during Manufacturing"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019) | Viewed by 45748

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Special Issue Editors

Faculty Director, Public Health Microbiology Laboratory, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209, USA
Interests: antibiotic resistance, and antimicrobial interventions against foodborne bacterial pathogens; ecology of planktonic cells and biofilms of foodborne, enteric, waterborne, and environmental bacteria in landscape of climate change; foodborne diseases epidemiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Interim Head and Associate Professor of Food Microbiology, Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
Interests: food microbiology and microbial safety of foods; ecology of foodborne pathogens; rapid diagnostics; sample preparation; study of microorganisms at the single cell level; antimicrobial resistance; microbial source tracking
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), achieving safe and healthier foods is one of the top ten achievements of public health in the 20th century. However, considerable persisting challenges currently exists in developed nations and transition economies for further assuring the safety and security of the food chain. According to CDC estimates, as many as 3000 American adults, as an example, and based on a recent epidemiological estimate of the World Health Organization, around 420,000 individuals around the globe, lose their lives every year due to foodborne diseases. This emphasizes the need for innovative and emerging interventions, for further prevention or mitigation of the risk of foodborne microbial pathogens during food processing and manufacturing.

The current Special Issue will publish recent advancements and progress in the elimination and decontamination of microbial pathogens during various stages of manufacturing and production. Special emphasis will be placed on hurdle validation studies, investigating decontamination of serovars of non-typhoidal Salmonella, various serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, public health significant serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic species of Vibrio, and various species of Campylobacter, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Norovirus. Researchers and practitioners conducting original laboratory studies, epidemiological research, and critical review papers are cordially invited to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue of Microorganisms.

Dr. Aliyar Fouladkhah
Dr. Bledar Bisha
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Microbial Food Safety
  • Public Health Microbiology
  • Food Microbiology
  • Food Manufacturing and Processing
  • Foodborne Diseases

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
Safety of Food and Water Supplies in the Landscape of Changing Climate
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100469 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
In response to evolving environmental, production, and processing conditions, microbial communities have tremendous abilities to move toward increased diversity and fitness by various pathways such as vertical and horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, biofilm formation, and quorum sensing [...] Full article

Research

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11 pages, 3943 KiB  
Article
Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by High Hydrostatic Pressure Combined with Gas Packaging
Microorganisms 2019, 7(6), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7060154 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
The inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli) in physiological saline and lotus roots by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in combination with CO2 or N2 was studied. Changes in the morphology, cellular structure, and membrane permeability of the cells [...] Read more.
The inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli) in physiological saline and lotus roots by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in combination with CO2 or N2 was studied. Changes in the morphology, cellular structure, and membrane permeability of the cells in physiological saline after treatments were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and flow cytometry, respectively. It was shown that after HHP treatments at 150–550 MPa, CO2-packed E. coli cells had higher inactivation than the N2-packed and vacuum-packed cells, and no significant difference was observed in the latter two groups. Further, both the morphology and intracellular structure of CO2-packed E.coli cells were strongly destroyed by high hydrostatic pressure. However, serious damage to the intracellular structures occurred in only the N2-packed E. coli cells. During HHP treatments, the presence of CO2 caused more disruptions in the membrane of E. coli cells than in the N2-packed and vacuum-packed cells. These results indicate that the combined treatment of HHP and CO2 had a strong synergistic bactericidal effect, whereas N2 did not have synergistic effects with HHP. Although these two combined treatments had different effects on the inactivation of E. coli cells, the inactivation mechanisms might be similar. During both treatments, E. coli cells were inactivated by cell damage induced to the cellular structure through the membrane components and the extracellular morphology, unlike the independent HHP treatment. Full article
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15 pages, 3718 KiB  
Article
Interactions of Carvacrol, Caprylic Acid, Habituation, and Mild Heat for Pressure-Based Inactivation of O157 and Non-O157 Serogroups of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Acidic Environment
Microorganisms 2019, 7(5), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7050145 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2833
Abstract
The current study investigated synergism of elevated hydrostatic pressure, habituation, mild heat, and antimicrobials for inactivation of O157 and non-O157 serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Various times at a pressure intensity level of 450 MPa were investigated at 4 and 45 °C [...] Read more.
The current study investigated synergism of elevated hydrostatic pressure, habituation, mild heat, and antimicrobials for inactivation of O157 and non-O157 serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Various times at a pressure intensity level of 450 MPa were investigated at 4 and 45 °C with and without carvacrol, and caprylic acid before and after three-day aerobic habituation in blueberry juice. Experiments were conducted in three biologically independent repetitions each consist of two replications and were statistically analyzed as a randomized complete block design study using ANOVA followed by Tukey- and Dunnett’s-adjusted mean separations. Under the condition of this experiment, habituation of the microbial pathogen played an influential (p < 0.05) role on inactivation rate of the pathogen. As an example, O157 and non-O157 serogroups were reduced (p < 0.05) by 1.4 and 1.6 Log CFU/mL after a 450 MPa treatment at 4 °C for seven min, respectively, before habituation. The corresponding log reductions (p < 0.05) after three-day aerobic habituation were: 2.6, and 3.3, respectively at 4 °C. Carvacrol and caprylic acid addition both augmented the pressure-based decontamination efficacy. As an example, Escherichia coli O157 were reduced (p < 0.05) by 2.6 and 4.2 log CFU/mL after a seven-min treatment at 450 MPa without, and with presence of 0.5% carvacrol, respectively, at 4 °C. Full article
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18 pages, 728 KiB  
Article
Biocidal Effectiveness of Selected Disinfectants Solutions Based on Water and Ozonated Water against Listeria monocytogenes Strains
Microorganisms 2019, 7(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7050127 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3269
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the biocidal effectiveness of disinfectants solutions prepared with ozonated and non-ozonated water against Listeria monocytogenes. Six L. monocytogenes strains were the research material (four isolates from food: meat (LMO-M), dairy products (LMO-N), vegetables (LMO-W), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the biocidal effectiveness of disinfectants solutions prepared with ozonated and non-ozonated water against Listeria monocytogenes. Six L. monocytogenes strains were the research material (four isolates from food: meat (LMO-M), dairy products (LMO-N), vegetables (LMO-W), and fish (LMO-R); one clinical strain (LMO-K) and reference strain ATCC 19111). The evaluation of the biocidal effectiveness of disinfectant solutions (QAC—quaternary ammonium compounds; OA—oxidizing agents; ChC—chlorine compounds; IC—iodine compounds; NANO—nanoparticles) was carried out, marking the MBC values. Based on the obtained results, the effectiveness coefficient (A) were calculated. The smaller the A value, the greater the efficiency of disinfection solutions prepared on the basis of ozonated versus non-ozonated water. Ozonated water showed biocidal efficacy against L. monocytogenes. Among tested disinfectentants, independent on type of water used for preparation, the most effective against L. monocytogenes were: QAC 1 (benzyl-C12-18-alkydimethyl ammonium chlorides) (1.00 × 10−5–1.00 × 10−4 g/mL) in quaternary ammonium compounds, OA 3 (peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, bis (sulphate) bis (peroxymonosulfate)) (3.08 × 10−4 –3.70 × 10−3 g/mL) in oxidizing agents, ChC 1 (chlorine dioxide) (5.00 × 10−8 –7.00 × 10−7 g/mL) in chlorine compounds, IC 1 (iodine) (1.05–2.15 g/mL) in iodine compounds, and NANO 1 (nanocopper) (1.08 × 10−4 – 1.47 × 10−4 g/mL) in nanoparticles. The values of the activity coefficient for QAC ranged from 0.10 to 0.40, for OA—0.15–0.84, for ChC—0.25–0.83, for IC—0.45–0.60, and for NANO—0.70–0.84. The preparation of disinfectants solution on the basis of ozonated water, improved the microbicidal efficiency of the tested disinfectant, especially the quaternary ammonium compounds. An innovative element of our work is the use of ozonated water for the preparation of working solutions of the disinfection agents. Use ozonated water can help to reduce the use of disinfectant concentrations and limit the increasing of microbial resistance to disinfectants. This paper provides many new information to optimize hygiene plans in food processing plants and limit the spread of microorganisms such as L. monocytogenes. Full article
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11 pages, 6151 KiB  
Article
Biofilm Formation by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli on Stainless Steel Coupons as Affected by Temperature and Incubation Time
Microorganisms 2019, 7(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7040095 - 31 Mar 2019
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 5102
Abstract
Forming biofilm is a strategy utilized by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) to survive and persist in food processing environments. We investigated the biofilm-forming potential of STEC strains from 10 clinically important serogroups on stainless steel at 22 °C or 13 °C after [...] Read more.
Forming biofilm is a strategy utilized by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) to survive and persist in food processing environments. We investigated the biofilm-forming potential of STEC strains from 10 clinically important serogroups on stainless steel at 22 °C or 13 °C after 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. Results from crystal violet staining, plate counts, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified a single isolate from each of the O113, O145, O91, O157, and O121 serogroups that was capable of forming strong or moderate biofilms on stainless steel at 22 °C. However, the biofilm-forming strength of these five strains was reduced when incubation time progressed. Moreover, we found that these strains formed a dense pellicle at the air-liquid interface on stainless steel, which suggests that oxygen was conducive to biofilm formation. At 13 °C, biofilm formation by these strains decreased (P < 0.05), but gradually increased over time. Overall, STEC biofilm formation was most prominent at 22 °C up to 24 h. The findings in this study identify the environmental conditions that may promote STEC biofilm formation in food processing facilities and suggest that the ability of specific strains to form biofilms contributes to their persistence within these environments. Full article
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12 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
Presence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Fresh Beef Marketed in 13 Regions of ITALY (2017)
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040126 - 06 Dec 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3385
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in fresh beef marketed in 2017 in 13 regions of Italy, to evaluate the potential risk to human health. According to the ISO/TS 13136:2012 standard, 239 samples were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in fresh beef marketed in 2017 in 13 regions of Italy, to evaluate the potential risk to human health. According to the ISO/TS 13136:2012 standard, 239 samples were analysed and nine were STEC positive, from which 20 strains were isolated. The STEC-positive samples were obtained from Calabria (n = 1), Campania (n = 1), Lazio (n = 2), Liguria (n = 1), Lombardia (n = 1) and Veneto (n = 3). All STEC strains were analysed for serogroups O26, O45, O55, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145, O146 and O157, using Real-Time PCR. Three serogroups were identified amongst the 20 strains: O91 (n = 5), O113 (n = 2), and O157 (n = 1); the O-group for each of the 12 remaining STEC strains was not identified. Six stx subtypes were detected: stx1a, stx1c, stx2a, stx2b, stx2c and stx2d. Subtype stx2c was the most common, followed by stx2d and stx2b. Subtype stx2a was identified in only one eae-negative strain and occurred in combination with stx1a, stx1c and stx2b. The presence in meat of STEC strains being potentially harmful to human health shows the importance, during harvest, of implementing additional measures to reduce contamination risk. Full article
12 pages, 3331 KiB  
Article
Synergism of Mild Heat and High-Pressure Pasteurization Against Listeria monocytogenes and Natural Microflora in Phosphate-Buffered Saline and Raw Milk
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040102 - 03 Oct 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3209
Abstract
As many as 99% of illnesses caused by Listeria monocytogenes are foodborne in nature, leading to 94% hospitalizations, and are responsible for the collective annual deaths of 266 American adults. The current study is a summary of microbiological hurdle validation studies to investigate [...] Read more.
As many as 99% of illnesses caused by Listeria monocytogenes are foodborne in nature, leading to 94% hospitalizations, and are responsible for the collective annual deaths of 266 American adults. The current study is a summary of microbiological hurdle validation studies to investigate synergism of mild heat (up to 55 °C) and elevated hydrostatic pressure (up to 380 MPa) for decontamination of Listeria monocytogenes and natural background microflora in raw milk and phosphate-buffered saline. At 380 MPa, for treatments of 0 to 12 min, d-values of 3.47, 3.15, and 2.94 were observed for inactivation of the pathogen at 4, 25, and 50 °C. Up to 3.73 and >4.26 log CFU/mL reductions (p < 0.05) of habituated Listeria monocytogenes were achieved using pressure at 380 MPa for 3 and 12 min, respectively. Similarly, background microflora counts were reduced (p < 0.05) by 1.3 and >2.4 log CFU/mL after treatments at 380 MPa for 3 and 12 min, respectively. Treatments below three min were less efficacious (p ≥ 0.05) against the pathogen and background microflora, in the vast majority of time and pressure combinations. Results of this study could be incorporated as part of a risk-based food safety management system and risk assessment analyses for mitigating the public health burden of listeriosis. Full article
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Review

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19 pages, 1693 KiB  
Review
Microfluidic-Based Approaches for Foodborne Pathogen Detection
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100381 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 6204
Abstract
Food safety is of obvious importance, but there are frequent problems caused by foodborne pathogens that threaten the safety and health of human beings worldwide. Although the most classic method for detecting bacteria is the plate counting method, it takes almost three to [...] Read more.
Food safety is of obvious importance, but there are frequent problems caused by foodborne pathogens that threaten the safety and health of human beings worldwide. Although the most classic method for detecting bacteria is the plate counting method, it takes almost three to seven days to get the bacterial results for the detection. Additionally, there are many existing technologies for accurate determination of pathogens, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), but they are not suitable for timely and rapid on-site detection due to time-consuming pretreatment, complex operations and false positive results. Therefore, an urgent goal remains to determine how to quickly and effectively prevent and control the occurrence of foodborne diseases that are harmful to humans. As an alternative, microfluidic devices with miniaturization, portability and low cost have been introduced for pathogen detection. In particular, the use of microfluidic technologies is a promising direction of research for this purpose. Herein, this article systematically reviews the use of microfluidic technology for the rapid and sensitive detection of foodborne pathogens. First, microfluidic technology is introduced, including the basic concepts, background, and the pros and cons of different starting materials for specific applications. Next, the applications and problems of microfluidics for the detection of pathogens are discussed. The current status and different applications of microfluidic-based technologies to distinguish and identify foodborne pathogens are described in detail. Finally, future trends of microfluidics in food safety are discussed to provide the necessary foundation for future research efforts. Full article
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18 pages, 591 KiB  
Review
Development of Salmonellosis as Affected by Bioactive Food Compounds
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090364 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3187
Abstract
Infections caused by Salmonella serovars are the leading cause of foodborne hospitalizations and deaths in Americans, extensively prevalent worldwide, and pose a considerable financial burden on public health infrastructure and private manufacturing. While a comprehensive review is lacking for delineating the role of [...] Read more.
Infections caused by Salmonella serovars are the leading cause of foodborne hospitalizations and deaths in Americans, extensively prevalent worldwide, and pose a considerable financial burden on public health infrastructure and private manufacturing. While a comprehensive review is lacking for delineating the role of dietary components on prevention of Salmonellosis, evidence for the role of diet for preventing the infection and management of Salmonellosis symptoms is increasing. The current study is an evaluation of preclinical and clinical studies and their underlying mechanisms to elaborate the efficacy of bioactive dietary components for augmenting the prevention of Salmonella infection. Studies investigating dietary components such as fibers, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, phenolic compounds, and probiotics exhibited efficacy of dietary compounds against Salmonellosis through manipulation of host bile acids, mucin, epithelial barrier, innate and adaptive immunity and gut microbiota as well as impacting the cellular signaling cascades of the pathogen. Pre-clinical studies investigating synergism and/or antagonistic activities of various bioactive compounds, additional randomized clinical trials, if not curtailed by lack of equipoise and ethical concerns, and well-planned epidemiological studies could augment the development of a validated and evidence-based guideline for mitigating the public health burden of human Salmonellosis through dietary compounds. Full article
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22 pages, 299 KiB  
Review
Outbreak History, Biofilm Formation, and Preventive Measures for Control of Cronobacter sakazakii in Infant Formula and Infant Care Settings
Microorganisms 2019, 7(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7030077 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 77 | Viewed by 7809
Abstract
Previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii from 1980 to 2007, Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterium that survives and persists in dry and low-moisture environments, such as powdered infant formula. Although C. sakazakii causes disease in all age groups, infections caused by this pathogen [...] Read more.
Previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii from 1980 to 2007, Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterium that survives and persists in dry and low-moisture environments, such as powdered infant formula. Although C. sakazakii causes disease in all age groups, infections caused by this pathogen are particularly fatal in infants born premature and those younger than two months. The pathogen has been isolated from various environments such as powdered infant formula manufacturing facilities, healthcare settings, and domestic environments, increasing the chance of infection through cross-contamination. The current study discusses the outbreak history of C. sakazakii and the ability of the microorganism to produce biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces. The study further discusses the fate of the pathogen in low-moisture environments, articulates preventive measures for healthcare providers and nursing parents, and delineates interventions that could be utilized in infant formula manufacturing to minimize the risk of contamination with Cronobacter sakazakii. Full article
15 pages, 260 KiB  
Review
Role of Natural Volatiles and Essential Oils in Extending Shelf Life and Controlling Postharvest Microorganisms of Small Fruits
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040104 - 05 Oct 2018
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4656
Abstract
Small fruits are a multi-billion dollar industry in the US, and are economically important in many other countries. However, they are perishable and susceptible to physiological disorders and biological damage. Food safety and fruit quality are the major concerns of the food chain [...] Read more.
Small fruits are a multi-billion dollar industry in the US, and are economically important in many other countries. However, they are perishable and susceptible to physiological disorders and biological damage. Food safety and fruit quality are the major concerns of the food chain from farm to consumer, especially with increasing regulations in recent years. At present, the industry depends on pesticides and fungicides to control food spoilage organisms. However, due to consumer concerns and increasing demand for safer produce, efforts are being made to identify eco-friendly compounds that can extend the shelf life of small fruits. Most volatiles and essential oils produced by plants are safe for humans and the environment, and lots of research has been conducted to test the in vitro efficacy of single-compound volatiles or multi-compound essential oils on various microorganisms. However, there are not many reports on their in vivo (in storage) and In situ (in the field) applications. In this review, we discuss the efficacy, minimum inhibitory concentrations, and mechanisms of action of volatiles and essential oils that control microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) on small fruits such as strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, and grapes under the three conditions. Full article
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