Biopathology of Microbial Infections

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Public Health Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 10403

Special Issue Editors

School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
Interests: diagnosis; prevention; epidemiology of medical infections
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Thessaly, 224 Trikalon, 43100 Karditsa, Greece
Interests: goat; health management; mastitis; milk quality; sheep
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microbial infections continue to be a global threat for public health. Furthermore, microbial diseases of animals can have a significant economic impact, as well as zoonotic implications.

The use of antimicrobial agents enhances the emergence and dissemination of resistant microorganisms. The administration of antimicrobial agents to animals, especially food producing species, also plays a role in transferring resistance genes of an animal origin to humans.

In depth knowledge of the virulence and pathogenicity of microorganisms is important for the diagnosis and control of these infections. Research into improved diagnostic approaches for microbial diseases, particularly those encompassing the –omics approach, can contribute to the quick and accurate diagnosis of microbial infections. Work into new therapeutic approaches, targeting the virulence factors of microorganisms (e.g., toxins, spores, and biofilms) will improve the clinical therapeutics of infections. Studies into the development of novel immunological products or improved management approaches will contribute to the effective control of microbial infections.

This Special Issue will focus on publications covering human and animal microbial infections, with special reference to work relevant to their diagnosis, therapeutics, and control. Researchers in the field are invited to submit cutting-edge work for evaluation and potential publication as part of the Special Issue.

Prof. Efthymia Petinaki
Prof. Dr. George Fthenakis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antimicrobial resistance vehicles
  • biofilm
  • diagnosis
  • microbial infections
  • microcial omics
  • microbial targets
  • pathogenicity
  • prevention
  • staphylococci
  • spores
  • therapeutics
  • toxin
  • virulence factors
  • zoonoses

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 457 KiB  
Article
Detection of Zoonotic Gastrointestinal Pathogens in Dairy Sheep and Goats by Using FilmArray® Multiplex-PCR Technology
Microorganisms 2022, 10(4), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040714 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
The objectives of this study were (a) to detect gastrointestinal pathogens in faecal samples of sheep and goats using the FilmArray® GI Panel and (b) to evaluate factors that were associated with their presence. Faecal samples from ewes or does in 70 [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were (a) to detect gastrointestinal pathogens in faecal samples of sheep and goats using the FilmArray® GI Panel and (b) to evaluate factors that were associated with their presence. Faecal samples from ewes or does in 70 sheep flocks and 24 goat herds in Greece were tested for the presence of 22 gastrointestinal pathogens by means of the BioFire® FilmArray® Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel. The most frequently detected pathogens were Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli stx1/stx2 (94.7% of farms), Giardia lamblia (59.6%), and Campylobacter spp. (50.0% of farms). Other pathogens detected were Cryptosporidium spp., Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli lt/st, Yersinia enterocolitica, E. coli O157, Rotavirus A, Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli, and Plesiomonasshigelloides. There was a difference in the prevalence of detection of pathogens between sheep and goat farms only for Salmonella spp.: 18.3% versus 0.0%, respectively. Mixed infections were detected in 76 farms (80.9% of farms), specifically 57 sheep flocks and 19 goat herds, with on average, 2.5 ± 0.1 pathogens detected per farm. The body condition score of ewes in farms, in which only one pathogen was detected in faecal samples, was significantly higher than that of ewes in farms, in which at least two pathogens were detected: 2.55 ± 0.11 versus 2.31 ± 0.04. In sheep flocks, the number of pathogens in faecal samples was significantly higher in farms with semi-extensive management. In goat herds, the number of pathogens in faecal samples was positively correlated with average precipitation and inversely correlated with temperature range in the respective locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopathology of Microbial Infections)
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16 pages, 1949 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Anti-Biofilm Activity of Bacteriophage K (ATCC 19685-B1) and Daptomycin against Staphylococci
Microorganisms 2021, 9(9), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091853 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to investigate anti-staphylococcal activity of daptomycin and bacteriophage K, alone or in combination, against biofilm-producers and non-producers S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains, under biofilm forming and cells’ proliferation conditions. Daptomycin and bacteriophage K (ATCC 19685B1), [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate anti-staphylococcal activity of daptomycin and bacteriophage K, alone or in combination, against biofilm-producers and non-producers S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains, under biofilm forming and cells’ proliferation conditions. Daptomycin and bacteriophage K (ATCC 19685B1), in different concentrations, were tested against 10 Staphylococcus aureus and 10 S. epidermidis, characterized by phenotypes and genotypes. The quantitative microtiter plate (crystal violet, CV), methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT), and growth curve (GC) assays were performed. No statistically significant difference was found between species, whereas daptomycin alone performed better using medium and high concentrations of the drug and bacteriophage K was more active against strains with higher susceptibility, by CV and MTT assays. Best results were achieved using both agents combined in high concentrations. Bacteriophage K was effective within 3.8 and 2.4 h, depending on the concentration used, by the GC assay. Combination of daptomycin with bacteriophage K was more effective against staphylococci, depending on the concentrations used and strains’ susceptibility. Further studies are needed to evaluate if this approach might be a choice for prevention or therapy of biofilm-associated infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopathology of Microbial Infections)
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14 pages, 2208 KiB  
Article
Tick Ecdysteroid Hormone, Global Microbiota/Rickettsia Signaling in the Ovary versus Carcass during Vitellogenesis in Part-Fed (Virgin) American Dog Ticks, Dermacentor variabilis
Microorganisms 2021, 9(6), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9061242 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
The transovarial transmission of tick-borne bacterial pathogens is an important mechanism for their maintenance in natural populations and transmission, causing disease in humans and animals. The mechanism for this transmission and the possible role of tick hormones facilitating this process have never been [...] Read more.
The transovarial transmission of tick-borne bacterial pathogens is an important mechanism for their maintenance in natural populations and transmission, causing disease in humans and animals. The mechanism for this transmission and the possible role of tick hormones facilitating this process have never been studied. Injections of physiological levels of the tick hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), into part-fed (virgin) adult females of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, attached to the host caused a reduction in density of Rickettsia montanensis in the carcass and an increase in the ovaries compared to buffer-injected controls. This injection initiates yolk protein synthesis and uptake by the eggs but has no effect on blood feeding. Francisella sp. and R. montanensis were the predominant bacteria based on the proportionality in the carcass and ovary. The total bacteria load increased in the carcass and ovaries, and bacteria in the genus Pseudomonas increased in the carcass after the 20E injection. The mechanism of how the Rickettsia species respond to changes in tick hormonal regulation needs further investigation. Multiple possible mechanisms for the proliferation of R. montanensis in the ovaries are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopathology of Microbial Infections)
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11 pages, 1435 KiB  
Communication
Growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Surface of Teatcups from Milking Parlours
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040852 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
The growth of two Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates (one biofilm-forming and one not) on teatcups for cattle (made of rubber) or sheep (made of silicone) were assessed in nine multiplicates for 24 h post-smearing on the teatcup surface. Staphylococci were smeared on an area [...] Read more.
The growth of two Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates (one biofilm-forming and one not) on teatcups for cattle (made of rubber) or sheep (made of silicone) were assessed in nine multiplicates for 24 h post-smearing on the teatcup surface. Staphylococci were smeared on an area of 0.0003142 m2 on the material and their growth and expansion further on were monitored for 24 h. There were no differences in the frequency of recoveries between the two isolates (p > 0.82 for all comparisons). There were more recoveries from sheep teatcups than from cattle teatcups: 1280/1728 (74.1%) versus 942/1728 (54.5%), for both isolates (p < 0.0001). Significance was observed only 6 h to 15 h after smearing (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). The median speed of linear dissemination of the isolates was 0.00000021 m s−1 on cattle teatcups and 0.00000033 m s−1 on sheep teatcups (p < 0.0001). The increased growth and faster expansion of staphylococci on silicone teatcups raise important points from a clinical viewpoint. The model could be used in the testing of staphylococcal growth in the material of milking parlours in various conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopathology of Microbial Infections)
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Review

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14 pages, 309 KiB  
Review
Clostridioides difficile as a Dynamic Vehicle for the Dissemination of Antimicrobial-Resistance Determinants: Review and In Silico Analysis
Microorganisms 2021, 9(7), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071383 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
The present paper is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on the role of Clostridioides difficile in the accumulation of genes associated with antimicrobial resistance and then the transmission of them to other pathogenic bacteria occupying the same human intestinal niche. [...] Read more.
The present paper is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on the role of Clostridioides difficile in the accumulation of genes associated with antimicrobial resistance and then the transmission of them to other pathogenic bacteria occupying the same human intestinal niche. The second part describes an in silico analysis of the genomes of C. difficile available in GenBank, with regard to the presence of mobile genetic elements and antimicrobial resistance genes. The diversity of the C. difficile genome is discussed, and the current status of resistance of the organisms to various antimicrobial agents is reviewed. The role of transposons associated with antimicrobial resistance is appraised; the importance of plasmids associated with antimicrobial resistance is discussed, and the significance of bacteriophages as a potential shuttle for antimicrobial resistance genes is presented. In the in silico study, 1101 C. difficile genomes were found to harbor mobile genetic elements; Tn6009, Tn6105, CTn7 and Tn6192, Tn6194 and IS256 were the ones more frequently identified. The genes most commonly harbored therein were: ermB, blaCDD, vanT, vanR, vanG and vanS. Tn6194 was likely associated with resistance to erythromycin, Tn6192 and CTn7 with resistance to the β-lactams and vancomycin, IS256 with resistance to aminoglycoside and Tn6105 to vancomycin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopathology of Microbial Infections)
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