Antimicrobial Resistance in Non-fermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 3719

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
French National Reference Center for Antibiotic Resistance, CHU de Besançon, UMR 6249 (CNRS—Université de Franche-Comté), Besançon, France
Interests: Acinetobacter baumannii; antibiotic resistance mechanisms; epidemiology; genomics; gene transfer mechanisms; diagnostics of antimicrobial resistance

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Guest Editor
Team Resist, UMR-1184 (INSERM—Université Paris-Saclay—CEA), LabEx Lermit, Faculty of Medicine, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
Interests: genetic; genomics; epidemiology; antibiotic resistance; acinetobacter; enterobacterales; horizontal gene transfer
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli are opportunistic pathogens, mostly involved in healthcare-associated infections. Some of them, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii, significantly contribute to the morbidity and mortality of infected patients, while others are being steadily recognized as clinical pathogens. Most non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli display high intrinsic resistance to antibiotics and are able to acquire and accumulate various resistance mechanisms, leading to multidrug resistance with few or even no therapeutic options to combat them. Besides the production of ß-lactamases, which hinder the efficacity of new or old ß-lactams by hydrolyzing them, other antibiotics resistance mechanisms such as the overproduction of efflux pumps, modifications of the antibiotics’ target, or impermeability can play an important role. Furthermore, the dissemination of high-risk clones strengthens the global emergence of various resistance determinants.

In light of this, for this Special Issue, we invite you to contribute original research and review papers in the following areas:

  • Characterization of emerging antimicrobial resistance determinants in non-fermenters
  • Genetic basis at the origin of their acquisition and diffusion
  • Epidemiology of multiresistant non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli
  • Structure–function analysis of antimicrobial resistance gene products
  • Regulation of antimicrobial resistance gene expression

Dr. Anais Potron
Dr. Rémy A. Bonnin
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli
  • epidemiology
  • horizontal gene transfer
  • regulation
  • structure–function analysis

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

8 pages, 637 KiB  
Article
Performance of the Disc Diffusion Method, MTS Gradient Tests and Two Commercially Available Microdilution Tests for the Determination of Cefiderocol Susceptibility in Acinetobacter spp.
by Katy Jeannot, Susie Gaillot, Pauline Triponney, Sylvain Portets, Valentin Pourchet, Damien Fournier and Anaïs Potron
Microorganisms 2023, 11(8), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11081971 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
Cefiderocol is a siderophore-conjugated cephalosporin with potent activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens including Acinetobacter baumannii. The aim of this study was to evaluate cefiderocol testing methods on a relevant collection of 97 Acinetobacter spp. isolates. Commercialized broth microdilution methods (ComASP®, [...] Read more.
Cefiderocol is a siderophore-conjugated cephalosporin with potent activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens including Acinetobacter baumannii. The aim of this study was to evaluate cefiderocol testing methods on a relevant collection of 97 Acinetobacter spp. isolates. Commercialized broth microdilution methods (ComASP®, Liofilchem and UMIC®, Bruker), MIC test strips (Liofilchem) and disc diffusion using discs of three different brands (Mast Diagnostic, Liofilchem and Oxoid—Thermo Fisher Scientific) were compared with the broth microdilution reference method. None of the methods tested fulfilled acceptable criteria (essential agreement [EA] ≥ 90%; bias = ±30%) but both BMD methods achieved acceptable categorical agreement rates (CA = 95.9% [93/97, 95% CI 89.9–98.4] and CA = 93.8% [91/97, 95% CI 87.2–97.1] for ComASP® and UMIC®, respectively) and bias < 30% (−7.2% and −25.2% for ComASP® and UMIC®, respectively). The use of MIC gradient testing is strongly discouraged due to misclassification of 55% (n = 23/42) of resistant strains. Finally, the disc diffusion method could be used to rapidly screen for susceptible strains by setting a critical diameter of 22 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Non-fermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli)
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16 pages, 2007 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic and Molecular Characteristics of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Bulgarian Intensive Care Unit Patients
by Tanya V. Strateva, Ivo Sirakov, Temenuga J. Stoeva, Alexander Stratev and Slavil Peykov
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11040875 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is designated as an urgent public health threat, both due to its remarkable multidrug resistance and propensity for clonal spread. This study aimed to explore the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of antimicrobial resistance in CRAB isolates (n = [...] Read more.
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is designated as an urgent public health threat, both due to its remarkable multidrug resistance and propensity for clonal spread. This study aimed to explore the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of antimicrobial resistance in CRAB isolates (n = 73) from intensive care unit (ICU) patients in two university hospitals in Bulgaria (2018–2019). The methodology included antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and phylogenomic analysis. The resistance rates were as follows: imipenem, 100%; meropenem, 100%; amikacin, 98.6%; gentamicin, 89%; tobramycin, 86.3%; levofloxacin, 100%; trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, 75.3%; tigecycline, 86.3%; colistin, 0%; and ampicillin–sulbactam, 13.7%. All isolates harbored blaOXA-51-like genes. The frequencies of distribution of other antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) were: blaOXA-23-like, 98.6%; blaOXA-24/40-like, 2.7%; armA, 86.3%; and sul1, 75.3%. The WGS of selected extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDR-AB) isolates (n = 3) revealed the presence of OXA-23 and OXA-66 carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases in all isolates, and OXA-72 carbapenemase in one of them. Various insertion sequencies, such as ISAba24, ISAba31, ISAba125, ISVsa3, IS17, and IS6100, were also detected, providing increased ability for horizontal transfer of ARGs. The isolates belonged to the widespread high-risk sequence types ST2 (n = 2) and ST636 (n = 1) (Pasteur scheme). Our results show the presence of XDR-AB isolates, carrying a variety of ARGs, in Bulgarian ICU settings, which highlights the crucial need for nationwide surveillance, especially in the conditions of extensive antibiotic usage during COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Non-fermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli)
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