Oral, Dental, and Periodontal Microorganisms of the Oral Cavity: Physiological Conditions, Pathologies and Preventive and Therapeutic Approaches

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 6830

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The oral cavity harbours a diverse and complex microbial community that includes bacteria, fungi, viruses, and archaea. More than 700 species of bacteria are estimated to live in the oral cavity alone. Other microorganisms commonly found in the oral cavity include fungi such as Candida albicans and viruses such as Herpes Simplex Virus and Human Papillomavirus. While most of these microorganisms are commensal and contribute to oral homeostasis, certain species can become pathogenic and cause oral disease under certain conditions. Physiologically resident microorganisms in the oral cavity play an important role in maintaining homeostasis, digestion, and immune function and preventing the overgrowth of pathogenic microorganisms. Disruptions to the balance of these resident microorganisms termed oral dysbiosis, can lead to the overgrowth of pathogenic microorganisms and the development of pathologic conditions such as dental caries, periodontitis, and oral mucosal infections, as well as systemic infections, due to factors such as poor oral hygiene, the use of certain medications, and changes in diet. In addition, oral microorganisms and dysbiosis have been linked to inflammatory and degenerative disorders, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, preventing and treating oral dysbiosis and infections can positively impact general health. Therapeutic approaches include mechanical and chemical control of the dental, periodontal, and peri-implant microbial biofilm, antimicrobials and probiotics, laser therapy, and others. In addition, primitive viral, bacterial, and mycotic infections of the oral mucosa and systemic infections that manifest in the oral cavity should also be considered. Diagnosis and treatment of these infections requires a thorough understanding of the pathogens and their pathogenic mechanisms. Depending on the type of infection, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal agents may be used. Prevention of these infections may include good oral hygiene, appropriate infection control measures, and vaccination. This special issue, which focuses on oral, dental, and periodontal microbiota, associated pathologies, and therapeutic approaches, solicits submissions of original articles and reviews that contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the oral microbial community in oral homeostasis and dysbiosis, oral dental and periodontal infections, and associated preventive and therapeutic approaches.

Dr. Francesco D'Ambrosio
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • microorganisms
  • bacteria
  • virus, fungi
  • oral
  • plaque
  • biofilm
  • caries
  • periodontitis
  • gingivitis
  • peri-implantitis
  • infection
  • infectious disease
  • sepsis

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
Oral Mycobiome and COVID-19
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11040982 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
The most common signs and symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, dyspnea, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, and olfactory and gustatory disturbances [...] Full article

Review

Jump to: Editorial

26 pages, 972 KiB  
Review
Periodontal Pathogens and Their Links to Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration
Microorganisms 2023, 11(7), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11071832 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3558
Abstract
Pathogens that play a role in the development and progression of periodontitis have gained significant attention due to their implications in the onset of various systemic diseases. Periodontitis is characterized as an inflammatory disease of the gingival tissue that is mainly caused by [...] Read more.
Pathogens that play a role in the development and progression of periodontitis have gained significant attention due to their implications in the onset of various systemic diseases. Periodontitis is characterized as an inflammatory disease of the gingival tissue that is mainly caused by bacterial pathogens. Among them, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Tannerella forsythia are regarded as the main periodontal pathogens. These pathogens elicit the release of cytokines, which in combination with their virulence factors induce chronic systemic inflammation and subsequently impact neural function while also altering the permeability of the blood–brain barrier. The primary objective of this review is to summarize the existing information regarding periodontal pathogens, their virulence factors, and their potential association with neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. We systematically reviewed longitudinal studies that investigated the association between periodontal disease and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Out of the 24 studies examined, 20 showed some degree of positive correlation between periodontal disease and neurodegenerative disorders, with studies focusing on cognitive function demonstrating the most robust effects. Therefore, periodontal pathogens might represent an exciting new approach to develop novel preventive treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
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18 pages, 1123 KiB  
Review
Characterization of the Oral Microbiome in Wearers of Fixed and Removable Implant or Non-Implant-Supported Prostheses in Healthy and Pathological Oral Conditions: A Narrative Review
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11041041 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Oral commensal microorganisms perform very important functions such as contributing to the health of the host. However, the oral microbiota also plays an important role in the pathogenesis and development of various oral and systemic diseases. The oral microbiome may be characterized by [...] Read more.
Oral commensal microorganisms perform very important functions such as contributing to the health of the host. However, the oral microbiota also plays an important role in the pathogenesis and development of various oral and systemic diseases. The oral microbiome may be characterized by a higher prevalence of some microorganisms than others in subjects with removable or fixed prostheses, depending on oral health conditions, the prosthetic materials used, and any pathological conditions brought about by inadequate prosthetic manufacturing or poor oral hygiene. Both biotic and abiotic surfaces of removable and fixed prostheses can be easily colonized by bacteria, fungi, and viruses, which can become potential pathogens. The oral hygiene of denture wearers is often inadequate, and this can promote oral dysbiosis and the switch of microorganisms from commensal to pathogens. In light of what emerged from this review, fixed and removable dental prostheses on teeth and on implants are subject to bacterial colonization and can contribute to the formation of bacterial plaque. It is of fundamental importance to carry out the daily hygiene procedures of prosthetic products, to design the prosthesis to facilitate the patient’s home oral hygiene practices, and to use products against plaque accumulation or capable of reducing oral dysbiosis to improve patients’ home oral practices. Therefore, this review primarily aimed to analyze the oral microbiome composition in fixed and removable implant or non-implant-supported prostheses wearers in healthy and pathological oral conditions. Secondly, this review aims to point out related periodontal self-care recommendations for oral dysbiosis prevention and periodontal health maintenance in fixed and removable implant or non-implant-supported prostheses wearers. Full article
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