Nanomaterials Processing and Emerging Applications

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 November 2023) | Viewed by 5513

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Advanced Materials and Devices Laboratory, Department of Bio-Convergence Science, Advance Science Campus, Jeonbuk National University, Jeongeup 56212, Republic of Korea
Interests: nanomaterials; electronic materials; opto-electronic devices; heterostructure devices; field emission transistors (FETs); solid state solar cells; organic solar cells (OSCs); perovskite solar cells (PSCs); heterojuction in catalysts
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials offer greatly improved ionic transport and electronic conductivity and enable the occupation of all intercalation sites available in the particle volume, leading to high specific capacities and fast ion diffusion. Nanomaterial-based electrodes are capable of withstanding high currents, offering a promising solution for high-energy and high-power energy storage. The development of nanomaterials and their related processing into electrodes and devices can improve the performance and/or development of the existing energy storage systems, catalytic adsorption applications and solve the environmental issues. Nanostructuring is becoming key in controlling electrochemical performance and exploiting various charge storage mechanisms, such as surface-based ion adsorption, reversion faradic reactions, and diffusion-limited intercalation processes. There are several underlying factors, such as multiple root causes of pollution, including industrialization and poor electrode performances (lack of improved ionic transport and electronic conductivity) that limit the uses of nanomaterials in energy technology, environmental remediation and catalytic processes. Thus, improvement of nanomaterials and processing is essential to address this challenging issue.

This Special Issue will provide a concise reference on the synthesis and processing of nanomaterials for the next generation of devices used in renewable energy, conversion and storage, environmental remediation and catalytic applications. The Special Issue will report the synthesis and processing of bio-organic materials, environmentally friendly organic and inorganic sources of materials, synthetic green chemistry, metal oxides, and the concept of sustainable material design for energy technology, in an attempt to address the current environmental issues and limited catalytic applications.

I am looking forward to your contribution!

Dr. Sadia Ameen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • growth processing mechanism
  • crystalline properties
  • structural analysis
  • nanomaterials
  • catalytic surfaces
  • electrical properties
  • energy applications

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 7257 KiB  
Article
BBD Driven Fabrication of Hydroxyapatite Engineered Risedronate Loaded Thiolated Chitosan Nanoparticles and Their In Silico, In Vitro, and Ex Vivo Studies
by Zoya Saifi, Tanya Ralli, Md. Rizwanullah, Meraj Alam, Divya Vohora, Showkat R. Mir, Saima Amin and Sadia Ameen
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122182 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Risedronate sodium (RIS) exhibits limited bioavailability and undesirable gastrointestinal effects when administered orally, necessitating the development of an alternative formulation. In this study, mPEG-coated nanoparticles loaded with RIS-HA-TCS were created for osteoporosis treatment. Thiolated chitosan (TCS) was synthesized using chitosan and characterized using [...] Read more.
Risedronate sodium (RIS) exhibits limited bioavailability and undesirable gastrointestinal effects when administered orally, necessitating the development of an alternative formulation. In this study, mPEG-coated nanoparticles loaded with RIS-HA-TCS were created for osteoporosis treatment. Thiolated chitosan (TCS) was synthesized using chitosan and characterized using DSC and FTIR, with thiol immobilization assessed using Ellman’s reagent. RIS-HA nanoparticles were fabricated and conjugated with synthesized TCS. Fifteen batches of RIS-HA-TCS nanoparticles were designed using the Box–Behnken design process. The nanoparticles were formulated through the ionic gelation procedure, employing tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a crosslinking agent. In silico activity comparison of RIS and RIS-HA-TCS for farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase enzyme demonstrated a higher binding affinity for RIS. The RIS-HA-TCS nanoparticles exhibited 85.4 ± 2.21% drug entrapment efficiency, a particle size of 252.1 ± 2.44 nm, and a polydispersity index of 0.2 ± 0.01. Further conjugation with mPEG resulted in a particle size of 264.9 ± 1.91 nm, a PDI of 0.120 ± 0.01, and an encapsulation efficiency of 91.1 ± 1.17%. TEM confirmed the spherical particle size of RIS-HA-TCS and RIS-HA-TCS-mPEG. In vitro release studies demonstrated significantly higher release for RIS-HS-TCS-mPEG (95.13 ± 4.64%) compared to RIS-HA-TCS (91.74 ± 5.13%), RIS suspension (56.12 ± 5.19%), and a marketed formulation (74.69 ± 3.98%). Ex vivo gut permeation studies revealed an apparent permeability of 0.5858 × 10−1 cm/min for RIS-HA-TCS-mPEG, surpassing RIS-HA-TCS (0.4011 × 10−4 cm/min), RIS suspension (0.2005 × 10−4 cm/min), and a marketed preparation (0.3401 × 10−4 cm/min). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Processing and Emerging Applications)
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13 pages, 3867 KiB  
Article
Towards Low-Temperature CVD Synthesis and Characterization of Mono- or Few-Layer Molybdenum Disulfide
by Sachin Shendokar, Frederick Aryeetey, Moha Feroz Hossen, Tetyana Ignatova and Shyam Aravamudhan
Micromachines 2023, 14(9), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14091758 - 11 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) transistors are a promising alternative for the semiconductor industry due to their large on/off current ratio (>1010), immunity to short-channel effects, and unique switching characteristics. MoS2 has drawn considerable interest due to its intriguing electrical, [...] Read more.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) transistors are a promising alternative for the semiconductor industry due to their large on/off current ratio (>1010), immunity to short-channel effects, and unique switching characteristics. MoS2 has drawn considerable interest due to its intriguing electrical, optical, sensing, and catalytic properties. Monolayer MoS2 is a semiconducting material with a direct band gap of ~1.9 eV, which can be tuned. Commercially, the aim of synthesizing a novel material is to grow high-quality samples over a large area and at a low cost. Although chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth techniques are associated with a low-cost pathway and large-area material growth, a drawback concerns meeting the high crystalline quality required for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications. This research presents a lower-temperature CVD for the repeatable synthesis of large-size mono- or few-layer MoS2 using the direct vapor phase sulfurization of MoO3. The samples grown on Si/SiO2 substrates demonstrate a uniform single-crystalline quality in Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning transmission electron microscopy. These characterization techniques were targeted to confirm the uniform thickness, stoichiometry, and lattice spacing of the MoS2 layers. The MoS2 crystals were deposited over the entire surface of the sample substrate. With a detailed discussion of the CVD setup and an explanation of the process parameters that influence nucleation and growth, this work opens a new platform for the repeatable synthesis of highly crystalline mono- or few-layer MoS2 suitable for optoelectronic application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Processing and Emerging Applications)
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14 pages, 4054 KiB  
Article
Bismuth-Rich Co/Ni Bimetallic Metal–Organic Frameworks as Photocatalysts toward Efficient Removal of Organic Contaminants under Environmental Conditions
by Ayesha Siddiqa, Toheed Akhter, Muhammad Faheem, Shumaila Razzaque, Asif Mahmood, Waheed Al-Masry, Sohail Nadeem, Sadaf Ul Hassan, Hyunseung Yang and Chan Ho Park
Micromachines 2023, 14(5), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14050899 - 22 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
Active photocatalysts with an efficiency of 99% were prepared for the degradation of the industrial dye, methylene blue (MB), under visible light irradiation. These photocatalysts comprised Co/Ni-metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), to which bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) was added as a filler to prepare Co/Ni-MOF@BiOI composites. [...] Read more.
Active photocatalysts with an efficiency of 99% were prepared for the degradation of the industrial dye, methylene blue (MB), under visible light irradiation. These photocatalysts comprised Co/Ni-metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), to which bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) was added as a filler to prepare Co/Ni-MOF@BiOI composites. The composites exhibited remarkable photocatalytic degradation of MB in aqueous solutions. The effects of various parameters, including the pH, reaction time, catalyst dose, and MB concentration, on the photocatalytic activity of the prepared catalysts were also evaluated. We believe that these composites are promising photocatalysts for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions under visible light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Processing and Emerging Applications)
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32 pages, 12833 KiB  
Article
Development and Optimization of 3D-Printed Flexible Electronic Coatings: A New Generation of Smart Heating Fabrics for Automobile Applications
by Léopold Diatezo, Minh-Quyen Le, Christine Tonellato, Lluis Puig, Jean-Fabien Capsal and Pierre-Jean Cottinet
Micromachines 2023, 14(4), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14040762 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
Textile-based Joule heaters in combination with multifunctional materials, fabrication tactics, and optimized designs have changed the paradigm of futuristic intelligent clothing systems, particularly in the automobile field. In the design of heating systems integrated into a car seat, conductive coatings via 3D printing [...] Read more.
Textile-based Joule heaters in combination with multifunctional materials, fabrication tactics, and optimized designs have changed the paradigm of futuristic intelligent clothing systems, particularly in the automobile field. In the design of heating systems integrated into a car seat, conductive coatings via 3D printing are expected to have further benefits over conventional rigid electrical elements such as a tailored shape and increased comfort, feasibility, stretchability, and compactness. In this regard, we report on a novel heating technique for car seat fabrics based on the use of smart conductive coatings. For easier processes and integration, an extrusion 3D printer is employed to achieve multilayered thin films coated on the surface of the fabric substrate. The developed heater device consists of two principal copper electrodes (so-called power buses) and three identical heating resistors made of carbon composites. Connections between the copper power bus and the carbon resistors are made by means of sub-divide the electrodes, which is critical for electrical–thermal coupling. Finite element models (FEM) are developed to predict the heating behavior of the tested substrates under different designs. It is pointed out that the most optimized design solves important drawbacks of the initial design in terms of temperature regularity and overheating. Full characterizations of the electrical and thermal properties, together with morphological analyses via SEM images, are conducted on different coated samples, making it possible to identify the relevant physical parameters of the materials as well as confirm the printing quality. It is discovered through a combination of FEM and experimental evaluations that the printed coating patterns have a crucial impact on the energy conversion and heating performance. Our first prototype, thanks to many design optimizations, entirely meets the specifications required by the automobile industry. Accordingly, multifunctional materials together with printing technology could offer an efficient heating method for the smart textile industry with significantly improved comfort for both the designer and user. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Processing and Emerging Applications)
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