Controls of Micromachines

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2023) | Viewed by 9108

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada
Interests: microsystems; sensing (inertial, flow, load, strain); design of MEMS; data processing; modeling of coupled micro and macro systems; packaging of microsensors; MEMS for turbulence control; microfabrication; non-conventional microfabrication; rapid prototyping; migration from auto to aero; reliability of MEMS; failure models; test methodologies
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Micromachines are functional devices which are usually built on the same chip as functional microelectronics. The operation of MEMS devices is possible only if suitable control algorithms are implemented. However, these algorithms rarely use advanced concepts in their implementation, which leads to a lack of interest among the control community despite the fact that the developed algorithms are essential to the operation of a useful, practical MEMS device. Over the past few years, the number of such contributions “in between fields” has become more frequent, as have the submissions of contributions to Micromachines that focus on this. Hence, we have decided to launch this Special Issue, which will “test the waters”, so to speak, as regards the interest of the micromachines research community in a title that accommodates papers which may not fit in the field of advanced control or hardware related to micromachines. This Special Issue will accept papers for review which fall under this category. Thus, papers covering principles, algorithms, implementations, codes, and novel principles of control principles which enable the operation of micromachines such as inertial sensors, displacement sensors, position sensors, flow sensors, etc. are invited, as are papers on modeling of microsystems under the assumption of full control loop operation, performance evaluation of microsystems, and automatic design of MEMS.

Prof. Dr. Ion Stiharu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • MEMS
  • microsystems
  • controls
  • space state
  • Luenberger observer
  • observability
  • controllability
  • stability
  • time-response
  • dynamic response
  • frequency response
  • dynamic performance
  • stability
  • linearity
  • non-linear systems
  • linearization
  • predictive performance
  • Kalman filters
  • machine learning
  • AFM
  • flow control in microfluidics
  • performance control of: mixers, microfluidics, micro-accelerometers, micro-gyroscopes, micro-tweezers, AFM probes, inkjet printing heads

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 7086 KiB  
Article
MIMU Optimal Redundant Structure and Signal Fusion Algorithm Based on a Non-Orthogonal MEMS Inertial Sensor Array
by Liang Xue, Bo Yang, Xinguo Wang, Guangbin Cai, Bin Shan and Honglong Chang
Micromachines 2023, 14(4), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14040759 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
A micro-inertial measurement unit (MIMU) is usually used to sense the angular rate and acceleration of the flight carrier. In this study, multiple MEMS gyroscopes were used to form a spatial non-orthogonal array to construct a redundant MIMU system, and an optimal Kalman [...] Read more.
A micro-inertial measurement unit (MIMU) is usually used to sense the angular rate and acceleration of the flight carrier. In this study, multiple MEMS gyroscopes were used to form a spatial non-orthogonal array to construct a redundant MIMU system, and an optimal Kalman filter (KF) algorithm was established by a steady-state KF gain to combine array signals to improve the MIMU’s accuracy. The noise correlation was used to optimize the geometric layout of the non-orthogonal array and reveal the mechanisms of influence of correlation and geometric layout on MIMU’s performance improvement. Additionally, two different conical configuration structures of a non-orthogonal array for 4,5,6,8-gyro were designed and analyzed. Finally, a redundant 4-MIMU system was designed to verify the proposed structure and KF algorithm. The results demonstrate that the input signal rate can be accurately estimated and that the gyro’s error can also be effectively reduced through fusion of non-orthogonal array. The results for the 4-MIMU system illustrate that the gyro’s ARW and RRW noise can be decreased by factors of about 3.5 and 2.5, respectively. In particular, the estimated errors (1σ) on the axes of Xb, Yb and Zb were 4.9, 4.6 and 2.9 times lower than that of the single gyroscope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controls of Micromachines)
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21 pages, 6652 KiB  
Article
Design and Characterization of an Adjustable Passive Flow Regulator and Application to External CSF Drainage
by Eric Chappel
Micromachines 2023, 14(3), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030675 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
Passive valves that deliver a constant flow rate regardless of inlet pressure changes have numerous applications in research, industry, and medical fields. The present article describes a passive spring valve that can be adjusted manually to deliver the required flow rate. The valve [...] Read more.
Passive valves that deliver a constant flow rate regardless of inlet pressure changes have numerous applications in research, industry, and medical fields. The present article describes a passive spring valve that can be adjusted manually to deliver the required flow rate. The valve consists of a movable rod with an engraved microchannel. The fluidic resistance of the device varies together with the inlet pressure to regulate the flow rate. A prototype was made and characterized. Flow-rate adjustment up to +/−30% of the nominal flow rate was shown. A simple numerical model of the fluid flow through the device was made to adapt the design to external ventricular drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Some insights about the implementation of this solution are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controls of Micromachines)
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13 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
A Control Method Based on a Simple Dynamic Optimizer: An Application to Micromachines with Friction
by Leonardo Acho
Micromachines 2023, 14(2), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020387 - 04 Feb 2023
Viewed by 995
Abstract
In Micromachines, like any mechanical system, friction compensation is an important topic for control design application. In real applications, a nonlinear control scheme has proven to be an efficient method to mitigate the effects of friction. Therefore, a new regulation control method based [...] Read more.
In Micromachines, like any mechanical system, friction compensation is an important topic for control design application. In real applications, a nonlinear control scheme has proven to be an efficient method to mitigate the effects of friction. Therefore, a new regulation control method based on a simple dynamic optimizer is proposed. The used optimizer has a finite-time convergence to the optimal value of a given performance index. This dynamic process is then modified to produce a new control scheme to resolve the regulation control statement. A stability test is also provided along with numerical simulations to support our approach. We used the Lyapunov theory to confirm the stability, in finite-time, of the obtained closed-loop system. Furthermore, we tested this controller in a scenario where the reference signal was a time-varying function applied to a micromachine with friction. Numerical experiments showed acceptable performance in mitigating the effects of friction in the mechanism. In the simulations, the well-known LuGre friction model was invoked. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controls of Micromachines)
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11 pages, 1141 KiB  
Article
A Non-Invasive Physiological Control System of a Rotary Blood Pump Based on Preload Sensitivity: Use of Frank–Starling-Like Mechanism
by Fangqun Wang, Shaojun Wang, Zhijian Li, Chenyang He, Fan Xu and Teng Jing
Micromachines 2022, 13(11), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13111981 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
Implanting rotary blood pumps (RBPs) has become the principal treatment for patients suffering from severe heart failure. There are still many challenges to address for RBP control systems. These problems include meeting the patient’s physiological perfusion, eliminating postoperative complications, as well as debugging [...] Read more.
Implanting rotary blood pumps (RBPs) has become the principal treatment for patients suffering from severe heart failure. There are still many challenges to address for RBP control systems. These problems include meeting the patient’s physiological perfusion, eliminating postoperative complications, as well as debugging the patient’s physiological control system (automatically and indiscriminately). This paper proposes a non-invasive adaptive control system based on the Frank–Starling-like mechanism (NAC-FSL) to solve these problems. This control system uses the motor speed of the rotary blood pump as the only input variable, and the pump flow was estimated by the motor speed for achieving non-invasive detection. Simultaneously, a cardiovascular reference model was developed to provide an appropriate real-time preload for heart failure patients. The Frank–Starling-like control baseline was tracked to obtain the desired reference average pump flow by using the preload. Avoiding suction was done by adopting the control baseline (CLn), which included a flat slope under a high preload. Moreover, the NAC-FSL system could potentially unload the left ventricle and provide a higher pump flow with a smaller error during the exercise state, as compared to the CSC system. Finally, the K value indicating the preload sensitivity in the NAC-FSL controller was optimized to meet the perfusion needs according to the hemodynamic parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controls of Micromachines)
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14 pages, 4908 KiB  
Article
An Adaptive Fusion Attitude and Heading Measurement Method of MEMS/GNSS Based on Covariance Matching
by Wei Sun, Peilun Sun and Jiaji Wu
Micromachines 2022, 13(10), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13101787 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1261
Abstract
Aimed at the problem of filter divergence caused by unknown noise statistical characteristics or variable noise characteristics in an MEMS/GNSS integrated navigation system in a dynamic environment, on the basis of revealing the parameter adjustment logic of covariance matching adaptive technology, a fusion [...] Read more.
Aimed at the problem of filter divergence caused by unknown noise statistical characteristics or variable noise characteristics in an MEMS/GNSS integrated navigation system in a dynamic environment, on the basis of revealing the parameter adjustment logic of covariance matching adaptive technology, a fusion adaptive filtering scheme combining innovation-based adaptive estimation (IAE) and the adaptive fading Kalman filter (AFKF) is proposed. By setting two system tuning parameters, for the process noise covariance adaptation loop and the measurement noise covariance adaptation loop, covariance matching is sped up and achieves an effective suppression of filter divergence. The vehicle-mounted experimental results show that the mean square error of the combined attitude error obtained based on the fusion filtering method proposed in this paper is better than 0.5°, and the mean square error of the heading error is better than 1.5°. The results can provide technical support for the continuous extraction of low-cost attitude information from mobile platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controls of Micromachines)
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21 pages, 875 KiB  
Article
Optimization and Its Implementation Impact of Two-Modes Controller Fractional Approximation for Buck Converters
by Allan G. S. Sánchez, Francisco-Javier Perez-Pinal and Alejandro Espinosa-Calderón
Micromachines 2022, 13(10), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13101600 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Additional degrees of freedom in a fractional-order control strategy for power electronic converters are well received despite the lack of reliable tuning methods. Despite artificial/swarm intelligence techniques have been used to adjust controller parameters to improve more than one characteristic/property at the same [...] Read more.
Additional degrees of freedom in a fractional-order control strategy for power electronic converters are well received despite the lack of reliable tuning methods. Despite artificial/swarm intelligence techniques have been used to adjust controller parameters to improve more than one characteristic/property at the same time, smart tuning not always leads to realizable structures or reachable parameter values. Thus, adjustment boundaries to ensure controller viability are needed. In this manuscript the fractional-order approach is described in terms of El-Khazali biquadratic module, which produces the lowest order approximation, instead of using a definition. A two-modes controller structure is synthesize depending on uncontrolled plant needs and parameters are adjusted through particle swarm and genetic optimization algorithms for comparison. Two error-based minimization criteria are used to consider output performance into the process. Two restrictions complement the optimization scheme, one seeks to ensure desired robustness while the other prevents from synthesizing a high-gain controller. Optimization results showed similarity between minima obtained and significant difference between parameters of those controller optimized without the proposed constraints was determined. Numerical and experimental results are provide to validate proposed approach effectiveness. Effective regulation, good tracking characteristic and robustness in the presence of load variations are the main results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controls of Micromachines)
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15 pages, 5058 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Modelling Study of New Robust Packaging Technology 1 mm2 VCSEL Packages and Their Mechanical Stress Properties
by Khairul Mohd Arshad, Muhamad Mat Noor, Asrulnizam Abd Manaf, Hiroshi Kawarada, Shaili Falina and Mohd Syamsul
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091513 - 13 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1737
Abstract
Face recognition is one of the most sophisticated disciplines of biometric systems. The use of VCSEL in automotive applications is one of the most recent advances. The existing VCSEL package with a diffuser on top of a lens intended for automotive applications could [...] Read more.
Face recognition is one of the most sophisticated disciplines of biometric systems. The use of VCSEL in automotive applications is one of the most recent advances. The existing VCSEL package with a diffuser on top of a lens intended for automotive applications could not satisfy the criteria of the automotive TS16949: 2009 specification because the package was harmed and developed a lens fracture during 100 thermal cycle tests. In order to complete a cycle, the temperature rises from −40 °C to 150 °C and then rises again from 150 °C to 260 °C. The package then needs to be tested 500 times to ensure it fits the requirements without failing in terms of appearance or functionality. To this extent, the goal of this research is to develop packaging for 1 mm2 VCSEL chips with a diffuser on top that prevents fractures or damage to the package during heat cycle testing with multiple materials. The package was created using the applications SolidWorks 2017 and AutoCAD Mechanical 2017. The ANSYS Mechanical Structural FEA Analysis program simulated all packages for mechanical stress to guarantee that all packages generated were resilient to high temperature conditions. All packages exhibit no abnormalities and are robust for various temperatures ranging from low to high. Therefore, these packaged 1 mm2 VCSEL chips with a diffuser on top provide an effective approach for the application of VCSEL suitable in high temperature conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controls of Micromachines)
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