Advances in Voltammetric Sensors

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "C:Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2024 | Viewed by 4854

Special Issue Editors

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410017, China
Interests: diamond; boron-doped diamond; electrochemistry; electrochemical sensors; wastewater treatment
School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK
Interests: photoelectrochemical imaging; biosensors; electrochemistry; boron-doped diamond

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Voltammetric methods, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry, stripping voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and square wave voltammetry (SWV), have been widely used to detect or monitor diverse analytes, such as biomolecules (e.g., dopamine, glucose, uric acid), drug molecules (e.g., acetaminophen, caffeine), gases (e.g., oxygen, amine, hydrogen sulfide), and ions (e.g., Arsenite, mercury, and lead ions). Recently, the development of micro- and nano-scale manufacturing greatly contributes to the miniaturization of voltammetric sensors, such as portable, microfluidic, and wearable sensors. Miniaturized sensors have the apparent advantage of ultra-high sensitivity to allow the detection of trace amounts of analytes and are easy to integrate and assemble into customized sensors according to the detection environment. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, communications, and review articles that focus on: (i) novel methodological or fundamental developments in voltammetric sensors; (ii) novel designs, fabrication, and modeling of voltammetric sensors based on the sensory units and structure optimization; and (iii) new developments of applying voltammetric sensors of any kind in personalized health monitoring (e.g., sweat sensors and biosensors), environmental monitoring and protection (e.g., poisonous ions and chemical compounds) and gaseous environmental monitoring.

We look forward to receiving your submissions!

Dr. Zejun Deng
Dr. Bo Zhou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrochemical sensors or biosensors
  • screen-printed sensors
  • wearable sensors
  • portable sensors
  • miniaturized sensors
  • voltammetric methods
  • cyclic voltammetry
  • linear sweep voltammetry
  • stripping voltammetry
  • square wave voltammetry
  • differential pulse voltammetry

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 3502 KiB  
Article
Biopolymers Used for Receptor Immobilization for Nickel-Detection Biosensors in Food
by Liliana Anchidin-Norocel, Wesley K. Savage, Roxana Gheorghita and Sonia Amariei
Micromachines 2023, 14(8), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14081529 - 30 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Food is humans’ main source of nickel intake, which is responsible for the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis and other pathological afflictions. While robust, the classical methods for nickel detection—atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry—are expensive and laborious; in contrast, [...] Read more.
Food is humans’ main source of nickel intake, which is responsible for the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis and other pathological afflictions. While robust, the classical methods for nickel detection—atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry—are expensive and laborious; in contrast, modern methods that utilize sensors—of which most are electrochemical—have rapid run times, are cost-effective, and are easily assembled. Here, we describe the use of four biopolymers (alginate, agar, chitosan, and carrageenan) for receptor immobilization on biosensors to detect nickel ions and use an optimization approach with three biopolymer concentrations to assay analytical performance profiles. We measured the total performance of screen-printed carbon electrodes immobilized with the biopolymer–sensor combinations using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Voltammetric behavior favored the carrageenan biosensor, based on performance characteristics measured using CV, with sensitivities of 2.68 (for 1% biopolymer concentration) and 2.08 (for 0.5% biopolymer concentration). Our results indicated that among the four biopolymer combinations, carrageenan with urease affixed to screen-printed electrodes was effective at coupling for nickel detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Voltammetric Sensors)
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17 pages, 7690 KiB  
Article
Green Synthesis of NiO Nanoflakes Using Bitter Gourd Peel, and Their Electrochemical Urea Sensing Application
by Irum Naz, Aneela Tahira, Aqeel Ahmed Shah, Muhammad Ali Bhatti, Ihsan Ali Mahar, Mehnaz Parveen Markhand, Ghulam Murtaza Mastoi, Ayman Nafady, Shymaa S. Medany, Elmuez A. Dawi, Lama M. Saleem, Brigitte Vigolo and Zafar Hussain Ibupoto
Micromachines 2023, 14(3), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030677 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
To determine urea accurately in clinical samples, food samples, dairy products, and agricultural samples, a new analytical method is required, and non-enzymatic methods are preferred due to their low cost and ease of use. In this study, bitter gourd peel biomass waste is [...] Read more.
To determine urea accurately in clinical samples, food samples, dairy products, and agricultural samples, a new analytical method is required, and non-enzymatic methods are preferred due to their low cost and ease of use. In this study, bitter gourd peel biomass waste is utilized to modify and structurally transform nickel oxide (NiO) nanostructures during the low-temperature aqueous chemical growth method. As a result of the high concentration of phytochemicals, the surface was highly sensitive to urea oxidation under alkaline conditions of 0.1 M NaOH. We investigated the structure and shape of NiO nanostructures using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In spite of their flake-like morphology and excellent crystal quality, NiO nanostructures exhibited cubic phases. An investigation of the effects of bitter gourd juice demonstrated that a large volume of juice produced thin flakes measuring 100 to 200 nanometers in diameter. We are able to detect urea concentrations between 1–9 mM with a detection limit of 0.02 mM using our urea sensor. Additionally, the stability, reproducibility, repeatability, and selectivity of the sensor were examined. A variety of real samples, including milk, blood, urine, wheat flour, and curd, were used to test the non-enzymatic urea sensors. These real samples demonstrated the potential of the electrode device for measuring urea in a routine manner. It is noteworthy that bitter gourd contains phytochemicals that are capable of altering surfaces and activating catalytic reactions. In this way, new materials can be developed for a wide range of applications, including biomedicine, energy production, and environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Voltammetric Sensors)
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Review

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17 pages, 2359 KiB  
Review
LDH-Based Voltammetric Sensors
by Domenica Tonelli, Matteo Tonelli, Stefano Gianvittorio and Andreas Lesch
Micromachines 2024, 15(5), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15050640 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also named hydrotalcite-like compounds, are anionic clays with a lamellar structure which have been extensively used in the last two decades as electrode modifiers for the design of electrochemical sensors. These materials can be classified into LDHs containing or [...] Read more.
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also named hydrotalcite-like compounds, are anionic clays with a lamellar structure which have been extensively used in the last two decades as electrode modifiers for the design of electrochemical sensors. These materials can be classified into LDHs containing or not containing redox-active centers. In the former case, a transition metal cation undergoing a reversible redox reaction within a proper potential window is present in the layers, and, therefore, it can act as electron transfer mediator, and electrocatalyze the oxidation of an analyte for which the required overpotential is too high. In the latter case, a negatively charged species acting as a redox mediator can be introduced into the interlayer spaces after exchanging the anion coming from the synthesis, and, again, the material can display electrocatalytic properties. Alternatively, due to the large specific surface area of LDHs, molecules with electroactivity can be adsorbed on their surface. In this review, the most significant electroanalytical applications of LDHs as electrode modifiers for the development of voltammetric sensors are presented, grouping them based on the two types of materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Voltammetric Sensors)
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