State-of-the-Art Antenna Technology for Wireless Communication System

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "E:Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 April 2023) | Viewed by 17787

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Hugher Education, Manipal 576104, India
Interests: microstrip antenna; ultrawideband; MIMO antenna; metamaterial antennas; array antennas; near field communication; millimeter wave antennas; flexible and werable antennas; microwave imaging; AI for antenna engineering

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Guest Editor
Discipline of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, School of Engineering, Howard College Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa
Interests: microstrip antenna; ultrawideband and broadband antennas; MIMO antennas and Flexible and wearable antennas

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechatronics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, India
Interests: AI for antenna engineering; SAR based antennas; Radar Technologies; ultrawideband and broadband antennas and MIMO antennas

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing complexity and compactness of IoT, wireless communication, automotive, and medical devices and other wirelessly connected technologies poses several challenges. To supersede or supplement the creation and evaluation of parametric design, antenna researchers need to provide promising, distinctive, robust, accurate, and reliable solutions using pertinent computational resources for the future wireless communication system. It is within this context that we announce the Special Issue of Micromachines on “State-of-the-Art Antenna Technology for wireless communication System”.

This Special Issue intends to provide state-of-the-art antennas and to discuss the best and most innovative approaches for future wireless communication systems. The progress of electronic devices demands a wide range of antennas operating in a frequency spectrum from 3KHz to 300GHz. The new and existing spectrum distributions at the low and high frequencies are attracting a variety of short- and long-range commercial communication applications and posing new challenges in antenna design in terms of miniaturization, directive, polarization, flexibility, wider bandwidth, array,  MIMO, beamforming, and application-specific additional features.

We encourage experts from academia and industry to contribute to this Special Issue with their enduring research and predictions of the emerging developments in antennas technology to stimulate meaningful conversation and provide an outline of cutting-edge technology. We request that submissions to this issue on antennas meet several criteria. These include novelty, relevant mathematics, technical integrity, practical relevance and application, thorough and broad evaluation, appropriate and compelling illustrations, and fair and transparent comparison with other methods and approaches.

We look forward to your submissions.

Dr. Tanweer Ali
Dr. Pradeep Kumar
Dr. Shweta Vincent
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • multiband antennas
  • narrowband, wideband, ultrawideband, super wideband antennas
  • microwave and millimeter wave antennas
  • flexible antennas
  • wearable antennas
  • array and MIMO antennas
  • filtering antennas
  • over-the-air (OTA) antenna measurement
  • antennas for biomedical, precision farming agriculture, IoT
  • metamaterial and metasurface based antennas
  • fractal antennas
  • artificial intelligence approach applied to antennas
  • liquid antennas
  • plasmonic nano antennas
  • photonic nano antennas
  • optical antennas
  • terahertz antennas

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 10093 KiB  
Article
A Design of Quad-Element Dual-Band MIMO Antenna for 5G Application
by Chengxin Shi, Zhuolin Zhao and Chengzhu Du
Micromachines 2023, 14(7), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14071316 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
A dual-band four-element MIMO antenna was designed and fabricated with enhanced isolation. The introduced antenna was fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) and consisted of four identical monopole antenna elements placed perpendicular to each other. A cross-shaped stub and orthogonal placement of four [...] Read more.
A dual-band four-element MIMO antenna was designed and fabricated with enhanced isolation. The introduced antenna was fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) and consisted of four identical monopole antenna elements placed perpendicular to each other. A cross-shaped stub and orthogonal placement of four elements were introduced for high isolation. Modified ground structure was used for extending bandwidths. The measured results demonstrate that the introduced antenna has double bands (S11 < −10 dB) covering 3.28–4.15 GHz and 4.69–6.01 GHz, with fractional bandwidths of 23.4% and 24.7% and a high isolation S21, S31 better than 19 dB. The curves of the envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) and diversity gain (DG) were less than 0.0025 and higher than 9.999, respectively, indicating a low correlation between antenna elements. Furthermore, gain, efficiency, channel capacity loss (CCL), total active reflection coefficient (TARC) and mean effective gain (MEG) have all been investigated over the operating band to determine the antenna’s diversity performance. In accordance with the simulated and measured results, it confirms that the proposed antenna is appropriate for 5G applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Antenna Technology for Wireless Communication System)
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22 pages, 43289 KiB  
Article
Development of Split Ring Resonator Shaped Six Element 2 × 3 Multiple Input Multiple Output Antenna for the C/X/Ku/K Band Applications
by Meshari Alsharari, Vishal Sorathiya, Ammar Armghan, Kavan Dave and Khaled Aliqab
Micromachines 2023, 14(4), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14040874 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
In this manuscript, we have numerically investigated and experimentally verified the six-element split ring resonator and circular patch-shaped multiple input, multiple output antenna operating in the 1–25 GHz band. MIMO antennas are analyzed in terms of several physical parameters, such as reflectance, gain, [...] Read more.
In this manuscript, we have numerically investigated and experimentally verified the six-element split ring resonator and circular patch-shaped multiple input, multiple output antenna operating in the 1–25 GHz band. MIMO antennas are analyzed in terms of several physical parameters, such as reflectance, gain, directivity, VSWR, and electric field distribution. The parameters of the MIMO antenna, for instance, the envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), channel capacity loss (CCL), the total active reflection coefficient (TARC), directivity gain (DG), and mean effective gain (MEG), are also investigated for identification of a suitable range of these parameters for multichannel transmission capacity. Ultrawideband operation at 10.83 GHz is possible for the theoretically designed and practically executed antenna with the return loss and gain values of −19 dB and −28 dBi, respectively. Overall, the antenna offers minimum return loss values of −32.74 dB for the operating band of 1.92 to 9.81 GHz with a bandwidth of 6.89 GHz. The antennas are also investigated in terms of a continuous ground patch and a scattered rectangular patch. The proposed results are highly applicable for the ultrawideband operating MIMO antenna application in satellite communication with C/X/Ku/K bands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Antenna Technology for Wireless Communication System)
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13 pages, 3801 KiB  
Article
Bandwidth and Gain Enhancement of a CPW Antenna Using Frequency Selective Surface for UWB Applications
by Musa Hussain, Md. Abu Sufian, Mohammed S. Alzaidi, Syeda Iffat Naqvi, Niamat Hussain, Dalia H. Elkamchouchi, Mohamed Fathy Abo Sree and Sara Yehia Abdel Fatah
Micromachines 2023, 14(3), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030591 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2693
Abstract
In this article, a single-layer frequency selective surface (FSS)-loaded compact coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed antenna is proposed for very high-gain and ultra-wideband applications. At the initial stage, a geometrically simple ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna is designed which contains CPW feed lines and a multi-stub-loaded hexagonal [...] Read more.
In this article, a single-layer frequency selective surface (FSS)-loaded compact coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed antenna is proposed for very high-gain and ultra-wideband applications. At the initial stage, a geometrically simple ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna is designed which contains CPW feed lines and a multi-stub-loaded hexagonal patch. The various stubs are inserted to improve the bandwidth of the radiator. The antenna operates at 5–17 GHz and offers 6.5 dBi peak gain. Subsequently, the proposed FSS structure is designed and loaded beneath the proposed UWB antenna to improve bandwidth and enhance gain. The antenna loaded with FSS operates at an ultra-wideband of 3–18 GHz and offers a peak gain of 10.5 dBi. The FSS layer contains 5 × 5 unit cells with a total dimension of 50 mm × 50 mm. The gap between the FSS layer and UWB antenna is 9 mm, which is fixed to obtain maximum gain. The proposed UWB antenna and its results are compared with the fabricated prototype to verify the results. Moreover, the performance parameters such as bandwidth, gain, operational frequency, and the number of FSS layers used in the proposed antenna are compared with existing literature to show the significance of the proposed work. Overall, the proposed antenna is easy to fabricate and has a low profile and simple geometry with a compact size while offering a very wide bandwidth and high gain. Due to all of its performance properties, the proposed antenna system is a strong candidate for upcoming wideband and high-gain applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Antenna Technology for Wireless Communication System)
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10 pages, 4848 KiB  
Article
A Frequency Reconfigurable Folded Antenna for Cognitive Radio Communication
by Ahmed A. Ibrahim, Wael A. E. Ali, Moath Alathbah and Hesham A. Mohamed
Micromachines 2023, 14(3), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030527 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
In this work, a spectrum-sensing monopole antenna was used to operate in different frequency bands for cognitive radio applications. The proposed antenna consists of a folded monopole antenna with a partial ground plane, and it can be used for various wireless technologies operated [...] Read more.
In this work, a spectrum-sensing monopole antenna was used to operate in different frequency bands for cognitive radio applications. The proposed antenna consists of a folded monopole antenna with a partial ground plane, and it can be used for various wireless technologies operated at various frequencies from 1.5 to 3.5 GHz. The suggested antenna was printed on a RO4003 substrate with 3.38 permittivity and an overall size of 60 × 60 × 0.813 mm3. To achieve reconfigurability of the antenna, PIN diodes (HPND-4005) were inserted at different lengths along the antenna to obtain the desired performance. The antenna was fabricated and experimentally tested to validate the simulation outcomes, and distinct consistency between the simulation and measurement outcomes was obtained. Computer simulation tool (CST) software was used to design and simulate the suggested antenna and then the model was fabricated to validate the simulation outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Antenna Technology for Wireless Communication System)
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18 pages, 5221 KiB  
Article
A Microstrip Antenna Using I-Shaped Metamaterial Superstrate with Enhanced Gain for Multiband Wireless Systems
by Bukola Ajewole, Pradeep Kumar and Thomas Afullo
Micromachines 2023, 14(2), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020412 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2279
Abstract
This paper presents the design of a rectangular microstrip patch antenna (MPA) using the I-shaped metamaterial (MTM) superstrate. A seven × seven array of the I-shaped MTM unit cell is used as the superstrate to enhance the antenna performance. The antenna is fed [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design of a rectangular microstrip patch antenna (MPA) using the I-shaped metamaterial (MTM) superstrate. A seven × seven array of the I-shaped MTM unit cell is used as the superstrate to enhance the antenna performance. The antenna is fed by a microstrip feeding technique and a 50 Ω coaxial connector. An in-phase electric field area is created on the top layer of the superstrate to improve the performance of the antenna. The proposed I-shaped MTM-based rectangular MPA produces three operating frequencies at 6.18 GHz, 9.65 GHz, and 11.45 GHz. The gain values of the proposed antenna at 6.18 GHz, 9.65 GHz and 11.45 GHz are 4.19 dBi, 2.4 dBi, and 5.68 dBi, respectively. The obtained bandwidth at frequencies 6.18 GHz, 9.65 GHz and 11.45 GHz are 240 MHz (3.88%), 850 MHz (8.8%), and 1010 MHz (8.82%), respectively. The design and simulation of the antenna are done using the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) studio suite and MATLAB. The proposed I-shaped MTM-based rectangular MPA is fabricated on a low-cost FR-4 substrate and measured using the Agilent 8719ET network analyzer. The proposed antenna has an overall dimension of 70 × 70 × 1.6 mm3. A significant improvement in the gain of the antenna up to 74.28% is achieved. The obtained results confirm that the proposed multiband antenna has a high gain, and enhancement in bandwidth and radiation efficiency. These properties make the proposed antenna suitable for the multiband wireless communications systems such as Wi-Fi devices, radar systems, short- and long-range tracking systems, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Antenna Technology for Wireless Communication System)
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15 pages, 6127 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of Circular Polarized Two-Port MIMO Antennas with Various Antenna Element Orientations
by Fatma Taher, Hussam Al Hamadi, Mohammed S. Alzaidi, Hesham Alhumyani, Dalia H. Elkamchouchi, Yasser H. Elkamshoushy, Mohammad T. Haweel, Mohamed Fathy Abo Sree and Sara Yehia Abdel Fatah
Micromachines 2023, 14(2), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020380 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
This article presents the circularly polarized antenna operating over 28 GHz mm-wave applications. The suggested antenna has compact size, simple geometry, wideband, high gain, and offers circular polarization. Afterward, two-port MIMO antenna are designed to get Left Hand Circular Polarization (LHCP) and Right-Hand [...] Read more.
This article presents the circularly polarized antenna operating over 28 GHz mm-wave applications. The suggested antenna has compact size, simple geometry, wideband, high gain, and offers circular polarization. Afterward, two-port MIMO antenna are designed to get Left Hand Circular Polarization (LHCP) and Right-Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP). Four different cases are adopted to construct two-port MIMO antenna of suggested antenna. In case 1, both of the elements are placed parallel to each other; in the second case, the element is parallel but the radiating patch of second antenna element are rotated by 180°. In the third case, the second antenna element is placed orthogonally to the first antenna element. In the final case, the antenna is parallel but placed in the opposite end of substrate material. The S-parameters, axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW) gain, and radiation efficiency are studied and compared in all these cases. The two MIMO systems of all cases are designed by using Roger RT/Duroid 6002 with thickness of 0.79 mm. The overall size of two-port MIMO antennas is 20.5 mm × 12 mm × 0.79 mm. The MIMO configuration of the suggested CP antenna offers wideband, low mutual coupling, wide ARBW, high gain, and high radiation efficiency. The hardware prototype of all cases is fabricated to verify the predicated results. Moreover, the comparison of suggested two-port MIMO antenna is also performed with already published work, which show the quality of suggested work in terms of various performance parameters over them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Antenna Technology for Wireless Communication System)
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10 pages, 2257 KiB  
Article
An Ultra-Compact 28 GHz Arc-Shaped Millimeter-Wave Antenna for 5G Application
by Praveen Kumar, Tanweer Ali, Om Prakash Kumar, Shweta Vincent, Pradeep Kumar, Yashwanth Nanjappa and Sameena Pathan
Micromachines 2023, 14(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14010005 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
The 5th generation (5G) network was planned to provide a fast, stable, and future-proof mobile communication network to existing society. This research presents a highly compact arc shape structure antenna resonating at 28 GHz for prospective millimeter-wave purposes in the 5G frequency spectrum. [...] Read more.
The 5th generation (5G) network was planned to provide a fast, stable, and future-proof mobile communication network to existing society. This research presents a highly compact arc shape structure antenna resonating at 28 GHz for prospective millimeter-wave purposes in the 5G frequency spectrum. The circular monopole antenna is designed with a radius of 1.3 mm. An elliptical slot on the radiating plane aids in achieving an enhanced bandwidth resonating at the frequency of 28 GHz. Including an elliptical slot creates new resonance and helps improve the bandwidth. The antenna has an ultra-compact dimension of 5 × 3 × 1.6 mm3, which corresponds to an electrical length of 0.46λ × 0.28λ × 0.14λ, where λ is free space wavelength at the resonant frequency. The projected antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 15.73 % (25.83–30.24 GHz). The antenna has a good radiation efficiency of 89%, and the average gain is almost 4 dB over the entire impedance bandwidth. The simulated and experimental S11 findings are in good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Antenna Technology for Wireless Communication System)
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14 pages, 6268 KiB  
Article
Isolation Improvement of Parasitic Element-Loaded Dual-Band MIMO Antenna for Mm-Wave Applications
by Musa Hussain, Wahaj Abbas Awan, Esraa Musa Ali, Mohammed S. Alzaidi, Mohammad Alsharef, Dalia H. Elkamchouchi, Abdullah Alzahrani and Mohamed Fathy Abo Sree
Micromachines 2022, 13(11), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13111918 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 2376
Abstract
A dual-band, compact, high-gain, simple geometry, wideband antenna for 5G millimeter-wave applications at 28 and 38 GHz is proposed in this paper. Initially, an antenna operating over dual bands of 28 and 38 GHz was designed. Later, a four-port Multiple Input Multiple Output [...] Read more.
A dual-band, compact, high-gain, simple geometry, wideband antenna for 5G millimeter-wave applications at 28 and 38 GHz is proposed in this paper. Initially, an antenna operating over dual bands of 28 and 38 GHz was designed. Later, a four-port Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna was developed for the same dual-band applications for high data rates, low latency, and improved capacity for 5G communication devices. To bring down mutual coupling between antenna elements, a parasitic element of simple geometry was loaded between the MIMO elements. After the insertion of the parasitic element, the isolation of the antenna improved by 25 dB. The suggested creation was designed using a Rogers/Duroid RT-5870 laminate with a thickness of 0.79 mm. The single element proposed has an overall small size of 13 mm × 15 mm, while the MIMO configuration of the proposed work has a miniaturized size of 28 mm × 28 mm. The parasitic element-loaded MIMO antenna offers a high gain of 9.5 and 11.5 dB at resonance frequencies of 28 GHz and 38 GHz, respectively. Various MIMO parameters were also examined, and the results generated by the EM tool CST Studio Suite® and hardware prototype are presented. The parasitic element-loaded MIMO antenna offers an Envelop Correlation Coefficient (ECC) < 0.001 and Channel Capacity Loss (CCL) < 0.01 bps/Hz, which are quite good values. Moreover, a comparison with existing work in the literature is given to show the superiority of the MIMO antenna. The suggested MIMO antenna provides good results and is regarded as a solid candidate for future 5G applications according to the comparison with the state of the art, results, and discussion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Antenna Technology for Wireless Communication System)
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