Recent Advances in Micro/Nano-Fabrication

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "E:Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2024 | Viewed by 7995

Special Issue Editors

School of Mechanical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China
Interests: micromachining; micro-3D printing; laser machining; textured surface; microdevice

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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China
Interests: ultrasonic transducer; micro instrument; micro defect detection in industry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, micro/nano-fabrication technologies have been widely used to prepare non-destruction testing transducers, semiconductors, special functional surfaces, and medical interventional key components. These kinds of micro/nano-fabrication technologies include traditional cutting/dicing, laser machining, micro-3D printing, printed circuits, chemical machining, and optical machining. Micro/nano-fabrication technologies are the key factors with which to determine the functions of micro/nano-devices. We are pleased to invite you to submit your recent research papers and reviews on the micro/nano-fabrication, construction, performance, and functional integration of microdevices, as well as their multiple applications. This Special Issue aims to collect and present the recent advances in micro/nano-fabrication, as well as provide deep insights for future works. In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but not limited to) micro/nano-materials and processing as well as related engineering and technology.

I/We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Yao Liu
Dr. Jinjie Zhou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • micromachining
  • micro-3D printing
  • laser machining
  • textured surface
  • microdevice

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 6669 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Effect of Dispersant Rheology and Binder Decomposition on 3D Printing of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
by Man Yang, Santosh Kumar Parupelli, Zhigang Xu and Salil Desai
Micromachines 2024, 15(5), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15050636 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a green energy technology that offers a cleaner and more efficient alternative to fossil fuels. The efficiency and utility of SOFCs can be enhanced by fabricating miniaturized component structures within the fuel cell footprint. In this research [...] Read more.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a green energy technology that offers a cleaner and more efficient alternative to fossil fuels. The efficiency and utility of SOFCs can be enhanced by fabricating miniaturized component structures within the fuel cell footprint. In this research work, the parallel-connected inter-digitized design of micro-single-chamber SOFCs (µ-SC-SOFCs) was fabricated by a direct-write microfabrication technique. To understand and optimize the direct-write process, the cathode electrode slurry was investigated. Initially, the effects of dispersant Triton X-100 on LSCF (La0.6Sr0.2Fe0.8Co0.2O3-δ) slurry rheology was investigated. The effect of binder decomposition on the cathode electrode lines was evaluated, and further, the optimum sintering profile was determined. Results illustrate that the optimum concentration of Triton X-100 for different slurries was around 0.2–0.4% of the LSCF solid loading. A total of 60% of solid loading slurries had high viscosities and attained stability after 300 s. In addition, 40–50% solid loading slurries had relatively lower viscosity and attainted stability after 200 s. Solid loading and binder affected not only the slurry’s viscosity but also its rheology behavior. Based on the findings of this research, a slurry with 50% solid loading, 12% binder, and 0.2% dispersant was determined to be the optimal value for the fabricating of SOFCs using the direct-write method. This research work establishes guidelines for fabricating the micro-single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells by optimizing the direct-write slurry deposition process with high accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Micro/Nano-Fabrication)
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13 pages, 3470 KiB  
Article
Micromirror Array with Adjustable Reflection Characteristics Based on Different Microstructures and Its Application
by Hao Cao, Zhishuang Xue, Hongfeng Deng, Shuo Chen, Deming Wang and Chengqun Gui
Micromachines 2024, 15(4), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15040506 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 623
Abstract
The conventional reflective optical surface with adjustable reflection characteristics requires a complex external power source. The complicated structure and preparation process of the power system leads to the limited modulation of the reflective properties and difficulty of use in large-scale applications. Inspired by [...] Read more.
The conventional reflective optical surface with adjustable reflection characteristics requires a complex external power source. The complicated structure and preparation process of the power system leads to the limited modulation of the reflective properties and difficulty of use in large-scale applications. Inspired by the biological compound eye, different microstructures are utilized to modulate the optical performance. Convex aspheric micromirror arrays (MMAs) can increase the luminance gain while expanding the field of view, with a luminance gain wide angle > 90° and a field-of-view wide angle close to 180°, which has the reflective characteristics of a large gain wide angle and a large field-of-view wide angle. Concave aspheric micromirror arrays can increase the luminance gain by a relatively large amount of up to 2.66, which has the reflective characteristics of high gain. Industrial-level production and practical applications in the projection display segment were carried out. The results confirmed that convex MMAs are able to realize luminance gain over a wide spectrum and a wide range of angles, and concave MMAs are able to substantially enhance luminance gain, which may provide new opportunities in developing advanced reflective optical surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Micro/Nano-Fabrication)
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10 pages, 2264 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Etchant on via Hole Taper Angle and Selectivity in Selective Laser Etching
by Jonghyeok Kim, Byungjoo Kim, Jiyeon Choi and Sanghoon Ahn
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030320 - 25 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
This research focuses on the manufacturing of a glass interposer that has gone through glass via (TGV) connection holes. Glass has unique properties that make it suitable for 3D integrated circuit (IC) interposers, which include low permittivity, high transparency, and adjustable thermal expansion [...] Read more.
This research focuses on the manufacturing of a glass interposer that has gone through glass via (TGV) connection holes. Glass has unique properties that make it suitable for 3D integrated circuit (IC) interposers, which include low permittivity, high transparency, and adjustable thermal expansion coefficient. To date, various studies have suggested numerous techniques to generate holes in glass. In this study, we adopt the selective laser etching (SLE) technique. SLE consists of two processes: local modification via an ultrashort pulsed laser and chemical etching. In our previous study, we found that the process speed can be enhanced by changing the local modification method. For further enhancement in the process speed, in this study, we focus on the chemical etching process. In particular, we try to find a proper etchant for TGV formation. Here, four different etchants (HF, KOH, NaOH, and NH4F) are compared in order to improve the etching speed. For a quantitative comparison, we adopt the concept of selectivity. The results show that NH4F has the highest selectivity; therefore, we can tentatively claim that it is a promising candidate etchant for generating TGV. In addition, we also observe a taper angle variation according to the etchant used. The results show that the taper angle of the hole is dependent on the concentration of the etchant as well as the etchant itself. These results may be applicable to various industrial fields that aim to adjust the taper angle of holes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Micro/Nano-Fabrication)
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16 pages, 5453 KiB  
Article
An Improved 3D OPC Method for the Fabrication of High-Fidelity Micro Fresnel Lenses
by Fei Peng, Chao Sun, Hui Wan and Chengqun Gui
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122220 - 9 Dec 2023
Viewed by 980
Abstract
Based on three-dimensional optical proximity correction (3D OPC), recent advancements in 3D lithography have enabled the high-fidelity customization of 3D micro-optical elements. However, the micron-to-millimeter-scale structures represented by the Fresnel lens design bring more stringent requirements for 3D OPC, which poses significant challenges [...] Read more.
Based on three-dimensional optical proximity correction (3D OPC), recent advancements in 3D lithography have enabled the high-fidelity customization of 3D micro-optical elements. However, the micron-to-millimeter-scale structures represented by the Fresnel lens design bring more stringent requirements for 3D OPC, which poses significant challenges to the accuracy of models and the efficiency of algorithms. Thus, a lithographic model based on optical imaging and photochemical reaction curves is developed in this paper, and a subdomain division method with a statistics principle is proposed to improve the efficiency and accuracy of 3D OPC. Both the simulation and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed 3D OPC method in the fabrication of Fresnel lenses. The computation memory requirements of the 3D OPC are reduced to below 1%, and the profile error of the fabricated Fresnel lens is reduced 79.98%. Applying the Fresnel lenses to an imaging system, the average peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of the image is increased by 18.92%, and the average contrast of the image is enhanced by 36%. We believe that the proposed 3D OPC method can be extended to the fabrication of vision-correcting ophthalmological lenses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Micro/Nano-Fabrication)
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Review

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26 pages, 24565 KiB  
Review
A Review of Femtosecond Laser Processing of Silicon Carbide
by Quanjing Wang, Ru Zhang, Qingkui Chen and Ran Duan
Micromachines 2024, 15(5), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15050639 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising semiconductor material as well as a challenging material to machine, owing to its unique characteristics including high hardness, superior thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness. The ultrafast nature of femtosecond lasers enables precise and controlled material removal and [...] Read more.
Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising semiconductor material as well as a challenging material to machine, owing to its unique characteristics including high hardness, superior thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness. The ultrafast nature of femtosecond lasers enables precise and controlled material removal and modification, making them ideal for SiC processing. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the process properties, progress, and applications by discussing the various methodologies involved in femtosecond laser processing of SiC. These methodologies encompass direct processing, composite processing, modification of the processing environment, beam shaping, etc. In addition, we have explored the myriad applications that arise from applying femtosecond laser processing to SiC. Furthermore, we highlight recent advancements, challenges, and future prospects in the field. This review provides as an important direction for exploring the progress of femtosecond laser micro/nano processing, in order to discuss the diversity of processes used for manufacturing SiC devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Micro/Nano-Fabrication)
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30 pages, 17885 KiB  
Review
Review on Abrasive Machining Technology of SiC Ceramic Composites
by Huiyun Zhang, Zhigang Zhao, Jiaojiao Li, Linzheng Ye and Yao Liu
Micromachines 2024, 15(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15010106 - 7 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Ceramic matrix composites have the advantages of low density, high specific strength, high specific die, high-temperature resistance, wear resistance, chemical corrosion resistance, etc., which are widely used in aerospace, energy, transportation, and other fields. CMCs have become an important choice for engine components [...] Read more.
Ceramic matrix composites have the advantages of low density, high specific strength, high specific die, high-temperature resistance, wear resistance, chemical corrosion resistance, etc., which are widely used in aerospace, energy, transportation, and other fields. CMCs have become an important choice for engine components and other high-temperature component manufacturing. However, ceramic matrix composite is a kind of multi-phase structure, anisotropy, high hardness material, due to the brittleness of the ceramic matrix, the weak bonding force between fiber and matrix, and the anisotropy of composite material. Burr, delamination, tearing, chips, and other surface damage tend to generate in the machining, resulting in surface quality and strength decline. This paper reviewed the latest abrasive machining technology for SiC ceramic composites. The characteristics and research directions of the main abrasive machining technology, including grinding, laser-assisted grinding, ultrasonic-assisted grinding, and abrasive waterjet machining, are introduced first. Then, the commonly used numerical simulation research for modeling and simulating the machining of ceramic matrix composites is briefly summarized. Finally, the processing difficulties and research hotspots of ceramic matrix composites are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Micro/Nano-Fabrication)
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24 pages, 6607 KiB  
Review
Scanning Strategies in Laser Surface Texturing: A Review
by Denys Moskal, Jiří Martan and Milan Honner
Micromachines 2023, 14(6), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14061241 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
Laser surface texturing (LST) is one of the most promising technologies for controllable surface structuring and the acquisition of specific physical surface properties needed in functional surfaces. The quality and processing rate of the laser surface texturing strongly depend on the correct choice [...] Read more.
Laser surface texturing (LST) is one of the most promising technologies for controllable surface structuring and the acquisition of specific physical surface properties needed in functional surfaces. The quality and processing rate of the laser surface texturing strongly depend on the correct choice of a scanning strategy. In this paper, a comparative review of the classical and recently developed scanning strategies of laser surface texturing is presented. The main attention is paid to maximal processing rate, precision and existing physical limitations. Possible ways of further development of the laser scanning strategies are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Micro/Nano-Fabrication)
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