Surface Modification of Metallic Biomaterials

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Biobased and Biodegradable Metals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 12430

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Interests: biomaterials; electrochemistry; corrosion; degradation; polymer coatings; surface engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ever-growing demand for advanced and high-performance biomedical materials entails continuing technological advancements toward improving biocompatibility, mechanical integrity and wear and degradation properties. In particular, the higher performance of implantable metallic biomaterials translates into more dependable prosthetics and bio-scaffolds that improve patients’ lives by enhanced comfort and lowering the chance of premature failure. Metallic biomaterials such as stainless steel, titanium and magnesium alloys are among the most prominent implant materials due to their unique load-bearing property and innate biocompatibility. Prosthetic implants made of titanium alloys are commonly used because of their bone-like mechanical properties despite the fact that titanium alloys have relatively poor wear resistance and the generated wear debris triggers inflammatory reactions in the surrounding tissue. Magnesium alloys generated tremendous interest in the past decade as a viable choice in biodegradable materials with load-bearing characteristic for scaffolding and stenting applications. However, the initial rapid corrosion/degradation rate leads to premature failure and inflammatory responses. While the bulk properties of the material dictate the general mechanics and load-bearing properties of a biomedical scaffold, the surface properties control its biocompatibility and interaction with the surrounding environment/tissue. Effective control of the degradation rate and biocompatibility can be achieved by proper surface modification to reduce the risk of premature failure of the implant and the agonizing repeated medical procedure.

This Special Issue on “Surface Modification of Metallic Biomaterials” is dedicated to contributions in the field of surface engineering that aim to improve the performance of metallic implant materials. This issue also welcomes contributions concerning novel characterization techniques that enable more realistic and representative assessment of the metallic biomaterials for prediction of their performance in vivo.

Dr. Sina Jamali
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • metallic biomaterials
  • biocompatibility
  • wear, corrosion and degradation
  • surface engineering
  • organic and inorganic coatings
  • in vitro performance
  • surface characterization

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 9363 KiB  
Article
The Role of Microparticles of β-TCP and Wollastonite in the Creation of Biocoatings on Mg0.8Ca Alloy
by Mariya Sedelnikova, Olga Bakina, Anna Ugodchikova, Tatiana Tolkacheva, Margarita Khimich, Pavel Uvarkin, Alexander Kashin, Andrey Miller, Vladimir Egorkin, Juergen Schmidt and Yurii Sharkeev
Metals 2022, 12(10), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12101647 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
The introduction of particles into the composition of coatings can significantly expand the range of properties and possibilities of the modified materials. In this work, the coatings containing microparticles of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and wollastonite separately and in combination with each other were [...] Read more.
The introduction of particles into the composition of coatings can significantly expand the range of properties and possibilities of the modified materials. In this work, the coatings containing microparticles of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and wollastonite separately and in combination with each other were created on the surface of an Mg0.8Ca alloy. The morphology and microstructure of the coatings were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Their phase composition was determined with the help of X-ray diffraction analysis. The coating-to-substrate adhesion evaluation was carried out via the scratch-test method. Potentiodynamic polarization curves of the coatings were obtained during their immersion in 0.9% NaCl solution and their electrochemical properties were determined. Cytotoxic properties of the coatings were investigated by means of the MTT assay and flow cytometry in the course of the biological studies. In addition, NIH/3T3 cell morphology was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The structure, morphology, physical and mechanical, corrosive, and biological properties of the coatings depended on the type of particles they contained. Whereas the coating with β-TCP microparticles had higher adhesive properties, the coatings with wollastonite microparticles, as well as the combined coating, were less soluble and more biocompatible. In addition, the wollastonite-containing coating had the highest corrosion resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Metallic Biomaterials)
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28 pages, 7858 KiB  
Article
Surface Modification of Ti–30Ta Alloy by Deposition of P(VDF-TrFE)/BaTiO3 Coating for Biomedical Applications
by Larissa Mayra Silva Ribeiro, Luziane Aparecida Costa da Rosa Simões, Melina Espanhol-Soares, Vinicius Carvalho Teles, Tainara Aparecida Nunes Ribeiro, Patrícia Capellato, Lucas Victor Benjamim Vasconcelos Fré, Bruna Horta Bastos Kuffner, Stephen Edward Saddow, Daniela Sachs, Ana Paula Rosifini Alves Claro and Rossano Gimenes
Metals 2022, 12(9), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12091409 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
This study aims to promote an adequate methodology for coating an experimental Ti-30Ta alloy with P(VDF-TrFE)/BaTiO3. The combination of a copolymer with a ceramic has not been used until now. Ti-30Ta is an excellent choice to replace current alloys in the [...] Read more.
This study aims to promote an adequate methodology for coating an experimental Ti-30Ta alloy with P(VDF-TrFE)/BaTiO3. The combination of a copolymer with a ceramic has not been used until now. Ti-30Ta is an excellent choice to replace current alloys in the global market. The composite deposition on the Ti-30Ta substrate was performed by a spray coating process and at low temperature using two different surface modifications: surface acidic etching and surface polishing. Characterization was divided into four areas: (I) the substrate surface treatments used and their influences on the adhesion process were evaluated using surface energy, wettability, and roughness analyses; (II) the properties of the composite film, which were carried out using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); (III) the study of the adhesion of the film on the substrate, which was performed by a scratch test; (IV) the final product, which was evaluated to determine the surface properties after the coating process. Biofilm formation using Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains and a hemocompatibility test were performed as biological assays. The results indicated that the P(VDF-TrFE)/BaTiO3 film showed high thermal stability (up to ≈450 °C); the FTIR and DSC tests indicated the presence of the β phase, which means that the material presents a piezoelectric nature; and the scratch test showed that the samples with the polish treatment provided a better adhesion of the film with an adhesion strength of ~10 MPa. From the SEM analysis, it was possible to determine that the spray deposition coating process resulted in a well-applied film as evidenced by its homogeneity. Microbiological tests showed that for Staphylococcus aureus, the bacterial growth in the coated Ti-30Ta presented no significant differences when compared to the alloy without coating. However, for Staphylococcus epidermidis, there was considerable growth on the coated Ti-30Ta, when compared to the non-coated alloy, indicating that the film surface may have favored bacterial growth. The hemolysis assay showed that the coated material presents hemocompatible characteristics when in contact with blood cells. The results obtained indicate that the Ti-30Ta alloy coated with P(VDF-TrFE)/BaTiO3 is a promising alternative for implant applications, due to its biocompatible properties, simplicity, and low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Metallic Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 1702 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Ultraviolet Treatment on TiO2 Nanotubes: A Study of Surface Characteristics, Bacterial Adhesion, and Gingival Fibroblast Response
by Masahiko Kobayashi, Aous A. Abdulmajeed, Jongyun Moon, Khalil Shahramian, Risto Punkkinen, Jun Shimada, Pekka K. Vallittu and Lippo V. Lassila
Metals 2022, 12(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12010080 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes are emerging as a provocative target for oral implant research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV on the wettability behavior, bacterial colonization, and fibroblast proliferation rate of TiO2 nanotube surfaces [...] Read more.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes are emerging as a provocative target for oral implant research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV on the wettability behavior, bacterial colonization, and fibroblast proliferation rate of TiO2 nanotube surfaces prepared using different anodization voltages and aimed for use as implant abutment materials. Four different experimental materials were prepared: (1) TiO2 nanotube 10 V; (2) TiO2 nanotube 15 V; (3) TiO2 nanotube 20 V; and (4) commercial pure titanium as a control group. TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared in an aqueous electrolyte solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF, 0.5 vol.%). Different anodization voltages were used to modify the morphology of the TiO2 nanotubes. Equilibrium contact angles were measured using the sessile drop method with a contact angle meter. The investigated surfaces (n = 3) were incubated at 37 °C in a suspension of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) for 30 min for bacterial adhesion and 3 days for biofilm formation. Human gingival fibroblasts were plated and cultured on the experimental substrates for up to 7 days and the cell proliferation rate was assessed using the AlamarBlue assayTM (BioSource International, Camarillo, CA, USA). The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test. Water contact angle measurements on the TiO2 after UV treatment showed an overall hydrophilic behavior regardless of the anodization voltage. The ranking of the UV-treated surfaces of experimental groups from lowest to highest for bacterial adhesion was: TiO2 nanotube 20 V < Ti and TiO2 nanotube 15 V < TiO2 nanotube 10 V (p < 0.05), and for bacterial biofilm formation was: TiO2 nanotube 20 V-TiO2 nanotube 10 V < Ti-TiO2 nanotube 15 V (p < 0.05). Fibroblast cell proliferation was lower on TiO2 nanotube surfaces throughout the incubation period and UV light treatment showed no enhancement in cellular response. UV treatment enhances the wettability behavior of TiO2 nanotube surfaces and could result in lower bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Metallic Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 2464 KiB  
Article
Complex Material and Surface Analysis of Anterolateral Distal Tibial Plate of 1.4441 Steel
by Josef Hlinka, Kamila Dostalova, Katerina Peterek Dedkova, Roman Madeja, Karel Frydrysek, Jan Koutecky, Pavel Sova and Timothy E. L. Douglas
Metals 2022, 12(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12010060 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Nickel-based austenitic stainless steels are still common for manufacture of implants intended for acute hard tissue reinforcement or stabilization, but the risk of negative reactions due to soluble nickel-rich corrosion products must be considered seriously. Corrosion processes may even be accelerated by the [...] Read more.
Nickel-based austenitic stainless steels are still common for manufacture of implants intended for acute hard tissue reinforcement or stabilization, but the risk of negative reactions due to soluble nickel-rich corrosion products must be considered seriously. Corrosion processes may even be accelerated by the evolution of microstructure caused by excessive heat during machining, etc. Therefore, this study also deals with the investigation of microstructure and microhardness changes near the threaded holes of the anterolateral distal tibial plate containing approx. 14wt.% Ni by composition. There were only insignificant changes of microhardness, grain size, or microstructure orientation found close to the area of machining. In addition, wettability measurements of surface energy demonstrated only minor differences for bulk material and areas close to machining. The cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed in isotonic physiological solution. The first cycle was used for the determination of corrosion characteristics of the implant after chemical passivation, the second cycle was used to simulate real material behavior under the condition of previous surface damage by excessive pitting corrosion occurring during previous polarization. It was found that the damaged and spontaneously repassived surface showed a three-time higher standard corrosion rate than the “as received” chemically passivated surface. One may conclude that previous surface damage may decrease the lifetime of the implant significantly and increase the amount of nickel-based corrosion products distributed into surrounding tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Metallic Biomaterials)
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21 pages, 13137 KiB  
Article
Surface Modification of Mg0.8Ca Alloy via Wollastonite Micro-Arc Coatings: Significant Improvement in Corrosion Resistance
by Mariya B. Sedelnikova, Anna V. Ugodchikova, Tatiana V. Tolkacheva, Valentina V. Chebodaeva, Ivan A. Cluklhov, Margarita A. Khimich, Olga V. Bakina, Marat I. Lerner, Vladimir S. Egorkin, Juergen Schmidt and Yurii P. Sharkeev
Metals 2021, 11(5), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11050754 - 02 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
Biodegradable materials are currently attracting the attention of scientists as materials for implants in reconstructive medicine. At the same time, ceramics based on calcium silicates are promising materials for bone recovery, because Ca2+ and Si2+ ions are necessary for the mineralization [...] Read more.
Biodegradable materials are currently attracting the attention of scientists as materials for implants in reconstructive medicine. At the same time, ceramics based on calcium silicates are promising materials for bone recovery, because Ca2+ and Si2+ ions are necessary for the mineralization process, and they take an active part in the formation of apatite. In the presented research, the protective silicate biocoatings on a Mg0.8Ca alloy were formed by means of the micro-arc oxidation method, and the study of their morphology, structure, phase composition, corrosion, and biological properties was carried out. Elongated crystals and pores were uniformly distributed over the surface of the coatings. The coated samples exhibited remarkable anti-corrosion properties in comparison with bare magnesium alloy because their corrosion current decreased 10 times, and their corrosion resistance increased almost 100 times. The coatings did not significantly affect the viability of the cells, even without the additional dilution of the extract, and were non-toxic according to ISO 10993-5: 2009. In this case, there was a significant difference in toxicity of the pure Mg0.8Ca alloy and the coated samples. Thus, the results demonstrated that the applied coatings significantly reduced the toxicity of the alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Metallic Biomaterials)
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20 pages, 3046 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Chemical Etching and Ultra-Fine Grain Structure of Titanium on MG-63 Cells Response
by Denis Nazarov, Elena Zemtsova, Vladimir Smirnov, Ilya Mitrofanov, Maxim Maximov, Natalia Yudintceva and Maxim Shevtsov
Metals 2021, 11(3), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11030510 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2771
Abstract
In this work, we study the influence of the surface properties of ultrafine grained (UFG) and coarse grained (CG) titanium on the morphology, viability, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. Wet chemical etching in H2SO4/H2O2 [...] Read more.
In this work, we study the influence of the surface properties of ultrafine grained (UFG) and coarse grained (CG) titanium on the morphology, viability, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. Wet chemical etching in H2SO4/H2O2 and NH4OH/H2O2 solutions was used for producing surfaces with varying morphology, topography, composition and wettability. The topography and morphology have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The composition was determined by time of flight mass-spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that it is possible to obtain samples with different compositions, hydrophilicity, topography and nanoscale or/and microscale structures by changing the etching time and the type of etching solution. It was found that developed topography and morphology can improve spreading and proliferation rate of MG-63 cells. A significant advantage of the samples of the UFG series in comparison with CG in adhesion, proliferation at later stages of cultivation (7 days), higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and faster achievement of its maximum values was found. However, there is no clear benefit of the UFG series on osteopontin (OPN) expression. All studied samples showed no cytotoxicity towards MG-63 cells and promoted their osteogenic differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Metallic Biomaterials)
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