Simulation and Optimization Methods in Machining and Structure/Material Design

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Computation and Simulation on Metals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 15352

Special Issue Editors

Department of Electromechanical Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450000, China
Interests: precision machining; EDM; WEDM; glass molding process; microstructure; deep learning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Electromechanical Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450000, China
Interests: process parameter optimization; EDM; reliability analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Electromechanical Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450000, China
Interests: finite element simulation; mechanical design; nontraditional processing; process design; machine vision

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Finite element or other numerical simulation methods are effective methods to evaluate product performance and thus have great application prospects in many fields. Conducting parameter optimization based on numerical simulation can further enhance its potential to bring huge economic benefits in machining, structure design, or material design.

This Special Issue calls for papers (i.e., research articles, reviews, and perspectives) which deal with simulation or optimization methods in machining, structure, or material.

Priority areas of interest are:

  • Finite element and other numerical simulation methods in traditional and nontraditional machining;
  • Finite element and other numerical simulation methods in structure/material design;
  • Optimization methods in structural parameters, process parameters, or material parameters;
  • Machining method and optimization design in functional structure.

Papers on process-related topics such as structure or material design, as well as those on the relationship between the design parameters and the product performance, will also be considered.

Dr. Wuyi Ming
Dr. Xiaoke Li
Prof. Dr. Wenbin He
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • finite element method
  • numerical simulation
  • structural optimization
  • process optimization
  • simulation modeling
  • material optimization

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 10595 KiB  
Article
Investigation into the Hot-Forming Limit for 22MnB5 Hot-Forming Steel under a Stamping Process
by Wenwu He, Bin Yang, Xuezhong Zhang, Min Li, Shuli Sun, Bao Wang and Qingxian Ma
Metals 2024, 14(5), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14050561 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Hot-forming technology for 22MnB5 hot-forming steel (22MnB5 HF steel) plates has been widely used in the automobile manufacturing industry in recent years. Physical simulation and numerical modeling were carried out in order to determine the forming limit of a 22MnB5 steel plate for [...] Read more.
Hot-forming technology for 22MnB5 hot-forming steel (22MnB5 HF steel) plates has been widely used in the automobile manufacturing industry in recent years. Physical simulation and numerical modeling were carried out in order to determine the forming limit of a 22MnB5 steel plate for the stamping process. The deformation experiments were performed in a temperature range of 600~900 °C and a strain rate range of 0.1~10 s−1. In the uniaxial tensile tests, it was found that at the forming temperature of 600 °C, the condition of dynamic recrystallization was not fully reached, and thus the corresponding tensile strength was much larger than that at other deformation temperatures. In the numerical simulation of bulging experiments, it was found that 22MnB5 steel had good formability when the initial deformation temperature was high and the forming speed was low by using the instability criterion, combining the maximum punch force and strain path transition. The forming limit diagram of 22MnB5 steel at a temperature of 700 °C and tool speed of 25 mm/s was obtained by means of simulation and a hot stamping experiment. The establishment of the forming limit of the 22MnB5 steel plate can provide theoretical and technical guidance for the hot-forming process. Full article
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16 pages, 8215 KiB  
Article
Study on Deformation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of 42CrMo High-Strength Steel with Multi-Station Warm Upsetting
by Zhiling Xiao, Hao Wang, Jinhua Liu, Junjie Jiang, Liming Yu and Yuhao Zhang
Metals 2024, 14(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14020135 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 945
Abstract
In order to find out the deformation behavior and mechanical properties of 42CrMo steel under warm upsetting conditions, the Gleeble-3500 thermal simulation testing machine was used to carry out a warm upsetting physical simulation experiment on 42CrMo steel. By controlling deformation temperature, strain [...] Read more.
In order to find out the deformation behavior and mechanical properties of 42CrMo steel under warm upsetting conditions, the Gleeble-3500 thermal simulation testing machine was used to carry out a warm upsetting physical simulation experiment on 42CrMo steel. By controlling deformation temperature, strain rate, and constant temperature deformation pass, the microstructure evolution rule under different warm upsetting conditions was analyzed, and its hardness value was measured. Then, the simulation experiment is carried out based on the Deform-3D finite element platform. The results show that, with the increase in deformation temperature, 42CrMo steel has a temperature rise softening effect, which significantly reduces the peak value of rheological stress. At 650 °C, the maximum peak value of rheological stress is only 45.3% of that of cold upsetting deformation at room temperature, and the stress-strain curve tends to be gentle at the plastic deformation stage, which is the most suitable temperature for warm upsetting deformation. The maximum peak flow stress of 42CrMo steel increases with the increase in strain rate, but the number of deformation channels has little influence on the stress-strain curve. The warm, upsetting deformation can refine the internal grain structure significantly, and the grain refinement mechanism is mechanical crushing. When the temperature is slightly higher, the broken grain will recover, and the grain size will grow. During the process of warm upsetting, the strain rate has a great influence on the microhardness of the sample. The deformation pass has little influence on the hardness, and the hardness increases slightly with the increase in the deformation pass. Through the Deform-3D simulation, the correlation coefficient R and the average absolute relative error (AARE) between the simulation value and the experimental value were calculated, and the correlation coefficient R-value was 0.9948, and the average absolute relative error (AARE) was 2.05%, indicating that the simulation can accurately reflect the relationship between displacement and applied load. Full article
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14 pages, 3231 KiB  
Article
Aerodynamics Optimization of Multi-Blade Centrifugal Fan Based on Extreme Learning Machine Surrogate Model and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm
by Fannian Meng, Liujie Wang, Wuyi Ming and Hongxiang Zhang
Metals 2023, 13(7), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13071222 - 2 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
The centrifugal fan is widely used in converting mechanical energy to aerodynamic energy. To improve the pressure of the multi-blade centrifugal fan used in an air purifier, an optimization process was proposed based on extreme learning machine (ELM) combined with particle swarm optimization [...] Read more.
The centrifugal fan is widely used in converting mechanical energy to aerodynamic energy. To improve the pressure of the multi-blade centrifugal fan used in an air purifier, an optimization process was proposed based on extreme learning machine (ELM) combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO). The blade definition position parameter and blade definition radian parameter were designed using the full-factor simulation experimental method. The steady numerical simulation of each experimental point was carried out using ANSYS CFX software. The total pressure of the multi-blade centrifugal fan was selected as the optimization response. The optimized ELM combined with the PSO algorithm considering the total pressure response value and the two multi-blade centrifugal fan parameters were built. The PSO algorithm was used to optimize the approximation blade profile to obtain the optimum parameters of the multi-blade centrifugal fan. The total pressure was improved from 140.6 Pa to 151 Pa through simulation experiment design and improved surrogate optimization. The method used in the article is meant for improving multi-blade centrifugal total pressure. The coupling optimization of impellers, volutes, and air intakes should be comprehensively considered to further improve the performance of centrifugal fans. Full article
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16 pages, 6539 KiB  
Article
Study of Heat Transfer Strategy of Metal Heating/Conduction Plates for Energy Efficiency of Large-Sized Automotive Glass Molding Process
by Yanyan Chen, Shengfei Zhang, Shunchang Hu, Yangjing Zhao, Guojun Zhang, Yang Cao and Wuyi Ming
Metals 2023, 13(7), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13071218 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
In recent years, as an important functional material, glass has been widely used in architecture, electronics, optics, and other fields. As an emerging glass processing technology, the glass molding process (GMP) has received widespread attention and research in recent years. In this paper, [...] Read more.
In recent years, as an important functional material, glass has been widely used in architecture, electronics, optics, and other fields. As an emerging glass processing technology, the glass molding process (GMP) has received widespread attention and research in recent years. In this paper, we study the modeling and analysis of different heat transfer strategies for the energy efficiency of large-sized automotive instrument glass. The heat transfer model of the metal heating plate–conducting plate mold is established, the thermal energy efficiency in the forming process of large automobile glass is analyzed, and the energy efficiency of the mold in the heating stage is compared. The energy consumption per piece generated by the GMP heating device is reduced from 4865.2 to 4668.5 kJ, a reduction of 4.04%. By optimizing the heat flow density, the energy consumption per piece generated by the GMP heating device was reduced from 4865.2 to 4625.5 kJ, a reduction of 4.92%, meeting the sustainable manufacturing requirements. Full article
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13 pages, 18946 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Microstructures, Texture and Mechanical Properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloy under Different Welding Speeds during Friction Stir Welding
by Zhang Luo, Youping Sun, Wangzhen Li, Jiangmei He, Guojian Luo and Huashen Liu
Metals 2023, 13(6), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13061120 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
The effects of different welding speeds on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-0.75Mg-0.75Si-0.8Cu alloys were investigated using optical metallographic microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, an ETM105D electronic universal testing machine and field emission electron microscopy (SEM). The results reveal that during [...] Read more.
The effects of different welding speeds on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-0.75Mg-0.75Si-0.8Cu alloys were investigated using optical metallographic microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, an ETM105D electronic universal testing machine and field emission electron microscopy (SEM). The results reveal that during the friction stir welding process, the welded joint forms the base material (BM), heat-affected zone (HAZ), thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and nugget zone (NZ), under the action of shear force and friction heat. The textures present in the BM are mainly C ({001}<100>) recrystallised cubic texture and P({110}<112>) recrystallised texture, Goss (G) texture, brass (B) texture and {112}<110> rotating copper texture. The organisation of the NZ undergoes dynamic recrystallisation, forming fine isometric crystals with large angular grain boundaries, accounting for more than 75% of the total. The geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) in the NZ grow as the welding speed rises. Moreover, {111}<110> and {111}<110> shearing textures, {001}<110> recrystallisation textures and fibre textures are mainly present in NZs. The average grain size in the NZ was the smallest, and the mechanical properties were the best at a welding speed of 125 mm/min. The grain size and the tensile strength and elongation of the NZ were 2.945 µm, 200.7 MPa and 12.7% for the joint at a welding speed of 125 mm/min, respectively. Full article
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28 pages, 13000 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Lightweight Optimization Design of the Aluminium Alloy Front Subframe of a Vehicle
by Xiangchao Meng, Youping Sun, Jiangmei He, Wangzhen Li and Zhifeng Zhou
Metals 2023, 13(4), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040705 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
The aluminium alloy front subframe of an automobile was developed through multi-operating condition topology optimization and multi-objective optimization methods. By considering the influences of loads on the strength, static stiffness, and modal of the aluminium alloy front subframe under typical operating conditions, the [...] Read more.
The aluminium alloy front subframe of an automobile was developed through multi-operating condition topology optimization and multi-objective optimization methods. By considering the influences of loads on the strength, static stiffness, and modal of the aluminium alloy front subframe under typical operating conditions, the performance parameters of the aluminium alloy front subframe after topology optimization were obtained. After topology optimization was performed, the parametric model of the aluminium alloy front subframe was established. Based on the Isight optimization platform, sample points were generated with the optimal Latin hypercube test method, and the response surface approximate model was constructed. The minimum mass and maximum first-order frequency were taken as the objectives, the stress under typical working conditions did not exceed the set target value, and the maximum displacement of the installation point was taken as the constraint condition. The multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to optimize the aluminium alloy front subframe. The error of the free modal and finite element free modal analysis of the aluminium alloy front subframe samples was less than 15%. The optimized aluminium alloy front subframe was 2.4 kg lighter than the original subframe under the premise of satisfying various performance indices, and the lightweight rate was up to 12%. Full article
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13 pages, 1962 KiB  
Article
Design Optimization of Chute Structure Based on E-SVR Surrogate Model
by Xiaoke Li, Qianlong Jiang, Yu Long, Zhenzhong Chen, Wenbo Zhao, Wuyi Ming, Yang Cao and Jun Ma
Metals 2023, 13(3), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030635 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
To reduce the wear and damage of the chute caused by long-term impact of coke, a structure parameter optimization model was established in this paper, which takes the minimum impact force as the objective and the coke-conveying speed as the constraint. Furthermore, the [...] Read more.
To reduce the wear and damage of the chute caused by long-term impact of coke, a structure parameter optimization model was established in this paper, which takes the minimum impact force as the objective and the coke-conveying speed as the constraint. Furthermore, the ensemble of support vector regression (E-SVR) with different kernel functions was developed to replace the implicit relationship between the conveying speed, the impact force, and the structure parameters. Using the numerical examples, the effectiveness of the E-SVR model was verified. Finally, the optimal chute structure parameters were obtained by using the E-SVR model. After optimization, the maximum impact force was reduced by 17.07% and the maximum conveying speed was reduced by 6.59%, which still falls within the specified range. Therefore, the feasibility of the optimization results and the effectiveness of the E-SVR surrogate model were verified. Full article
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Review

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35 pages, 6311 KiB  
Review
Progress in Simulation Modeling Based on the Finite Element Method for Electrical Discharge Machining
by Liwei Li, Shuo Sun, Wenbo Xing, Yuyan Zhang, Yonglei Wu, Yingjie Xu, Hongyan Wang, Guojun Zhang and Guofu Luo
Metals 2024, 14(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14010014 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1185
Abstract
Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a machining method commonly used to produce complex shapes and deep holes by eroding hard metals with an electric arc. There is a growing demand for process simulation using finite element models in order to improve the quality [...] Read more.
Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a machining method commonly used to produce complex shapes and deep holes by eroding hard metals with an electric arc. There is a growing demand for process simulation using finite element models in order to improve the quality and efficiency of EDM, to reduce costs, to improve resource efficiency, and to facilitate its application in critical areas such as aerospace and mechanical engineering. Finite element models have greatly improved the prediction accuracy of EDM processes, simulated complex hybrid machining processes, and provided important guidance for the optimization of EDM processes. This paper systematically reviews the research progress of finite element modeling for EDM. Finite element method modeling is evaluated mainly in terms of four indicators: material removal rate, surface roughness, tool wear ratio, and recast layer thickness. Firstly, the importance and application of EDM are described, and the EDM finite element method modeling and its advantages are summarized. Then, the single-spark simulation model and the multi-spark simulation model of EDM are compared and discussed. Among the mainstream finite element models, the prediction error of the material removal rate for single-spark simulation ranges from 8.2% to 14.75%, while the prediction error of the recast layer thickness for multi-spark simulation can be as low as 1.98%. Finally, the applications of finite element modeling in EDM hybrid machining processes’ performance prediction and new material machining are summarized, and future research directions and trends in EDM finite element modeling are predicted. Full article
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26 pages, 4904 KiB  
Review
Parameters Optimization of Electrical Discharge Machining Process Using Swarm Intelligence: A Review
by Yanyan Chen, Shunchang Hu, Ansheng Li, Yang Cao, Yangjing Zhao and Wuyi Ming
Metals 2023, 13(5), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13050839 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) can use soft tool electrodes to process hard workpieces to achieve “soft against hard”, because it directly uses electrical energy and thermal energy to remove metal materials. Then, it can generate complex features on harder materials and meet the [...] Read more.
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) can use soft tool electrodes to process hard workpieces to achieve “soft against hard”, because it directly uses electrical energy and thermal energy to remove metal materials. Then, it can generate complex features on harder materials and meet the requirements of excellent surface quality. Since EDM involves many process parameters, including electrical parameters, non-electrical parameters, and materials properties, it is essential to optimize its process parameters to obtain good performance. In this direction, the application of the swarm intelligence (SI) technique has become popular. In this paper, the existing literature is comprehensively reviewed, and the application of the SI technique in the optimization of EDM process parameters is summarized. Sinker-EDM (SEDM), wire-EDM (WEDM), and micro-EDM (MEDM) with various hybrid techniques are among the EDM methods considered in this study because of their broad adoption in industrial sections. The fundamental nature of all review articles will assist engineers/workers in determining the process parameters and processing performance, the SI algorithm, and the optimal technique by which to obtain the desired process parameters. In addition, discussions from the perspectives of the similarity, individuality, and complementarity of various SI algorithms are proposed, and necessary outlooks are predicted, which provides references for the high performance of the EDM processes in the future. Full article
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23 pages, 14384 KiB  
Review
Review: The Metal Additive-Manufacturing Technology of the Ultrasonic-Assisted Wire-and-Arc Additive-Manufacturing Process
by Yang Cao, Yanchao Zhang, Wuyi Ming, Wenbin He and Jun Ma
Metals 2023, 13(2), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020398 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2753
Abstract
Ultrasonic-assisted wire–arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) can refine microstructures, enhancing performance and improving stress concentration and anisotropy. It has important application prospects in aerospace, weaponry, energy, transportation, and other frontier fields. However, the process parameters of ultrasonic treatment as an auxiliary technology in the [...] Read more.
Ultrasonic-assisted wire–arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) can refine microstructures, enhancing performance and improving stress concentration and anisotropy. It has important application prospects in aerospace, weaponry, energy, transportation, and other frontier fields. However, the process parameters of ultrasonic treatment as an auxiliary technology in the WAAM process still have an important impact on product performance indicators, such as the amplitude of the ultrasonic tool, the distance between the points of action of the product, and the scanning speed. The number of ultrasonic impacts influences the performance indexes. Therefore, these parameters must be optimized. This paper describes the advantages and the defects of WAAM components, as well as the principle and development status of ultrasonic treatment technology. Subsequently, this paper also briefly describes how ultrasonic-assisted technology can refine the crystal and improve the mechanical properties of WAAM components. Finally, we review the influence of process parameters (such as ultrasonic amplitude, application direction, and impact times) on the product materials. In this paper, a comprehensive optimization method for ultrasonic parameters is proposed to improve the mechanical properties of WAAM components. Full article
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