Special Issue "Metal Additive Manufacturing – State of the Art 2021"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Additive Manufacturing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 2865

Special Issue Editor

School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden
Interests: digital transformation; materials and technologies for a circular economy; development and operation/use of sustainable products and manufacturing systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Additive manufacturing (AM), more popularly known as 3D printing, comprises a group of technologies used to produce objects through the addition (rather than the removal) of material. AM is used in many industries—aerospace, defense, automotive, consumer products, industrial products, medical devices, and architecture. AM is transforming the industry, and this industrial transformation is expected to become more comprehensive and reach a higher pace during the coming years.

Additive manufacturing of metal components with virtually no geometric limitations has enabled new product design options and opportunities, increased product performance, shortened the cycle time of part production, reduced total costs, shortened lead time, improved material efficiency, allowed the realization of more sustainable products and processes, and promoted full circularity in the economy and new revenue streams.

This Special Issue of Metals focuses on metal additive manufacturing with respect to the topics mentioned below (please see the Keywords/Topics). The papers presented in this Special Issue will give an account of the 2021 scientific, technological, and industrial state of the art for metal additive manufacturing from different perspectives. Your contribution to this 2021 report is highly valuable and will be appreciated.

Prof. Dr. Nader Asnafi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • Business models and engineering
  • Product/component design (including generative design, topology optimization, lattice and surface optimization, etc.)
  • Industrial applications (aerospace, defense, automotive, consumer, medical, and industrial products, etc.)
  • Material and process design and engineering
  • New materials
  • Powder production and characterization
  • Systems and equipment engineering
  • Post-processing
  • Process control and optimization and quality assurance

Published Papers (1 paper)

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How Austenitic Is a Martensitic Steel Produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion? A Cautionary Tale
Metals 2021, 11(12), 1924; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11121924 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2007
Accurate phase fraction analysis is an essential element of the microstructural characterization of alloys and often serves as a basis to quantify effects such as heat treatment or mechanical deformation. Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals, due to the intrinsic nonequilibrium solidification and spatial [...] Read more.
Accurate phase fraction analysis is an essential element of the microstructural characterization of alloys and often serves as a basis to quantify effects such as heat treatment or mechanical deformation. Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals, due to the intrinsic nonequilibrium solidification and spatial variability, creates additional challenges for the proper quantification of phase fraction. Such challenges are exacerbated when the alloy itself is prone to deformation-induced phase transformation. Using commonly available in-house X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and less commonly used synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction, we characterized nitrogen-atomized 17-4 precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steel, a class of AM alloy that has received broad attention within the AM research community. On the same build, our measurements recovered the entire range of reported values on the austenite phase fractions of as-built AM 17-4 in literature, from ≈100% martensite to ≈100% austenite. Aided by Calphad simulation, our experimental findings established that our as-built AM 17-4 is almost fully austenitic and that in-house XRD and EBSD measurements are subject to significant uncertainties created by the specimen’s surface finish. Hence, measurements made using these techniques must be understood in their correct context. Our results carry significant implications, not only to AM 17-4 but also to AM alloys that are susceptible to deformation-induced structure transformation and suggest that characterizations with less accessible but bulk sensitive techniques such as synchrotron-based high energy X-ray diffraction or neutron diffraction may be required for proper understanding of these materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Additive Manufacturing – State of the Art 2021)
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