High-Performance Applications of Metals and Alloys: Material Properties, Behaviour Modeling, Optimal Design and Advanced Processes

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 12180

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Department of Industrial Engineering, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Viale del Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna, Italy
Interests: mechanical engineering; advanced materials; materials engineering; structural analysis; composite material; mechanical design; manufacturing engineering; quality in industry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
IWT, Department Physical Analysis. Leibniz Institute for Materials Engineering, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Interests: material characterization; steel; heat treatment; mechanical behaviour of materials; microstructure; X-ray diffraction; residual stresses; surface integrity; materials processing; additive manufacturing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is focused on the recent evolution of metals and alloys with the scope of presenting the state of the art of solutions, where metallic materials have become established, without a doubt, as a successful design solution thanks to their unique—improved—properties. The Special Issue also intends to outline the fundamental development trends in the field and the most recent advances in the use of metallic materials. Synthesis, advanced experimental characterization, material modelling, and engineering applications are between the proposed Special Issue's prevalent aspects. All these topics will be covered in this collection of contributions referring to a large assortment of metals and metallic alloys, including steel, cast iron, aluminium, light alloys, precious and non-precious alloys, metal matrix composites, etc., together with their use. The processes covered include traditional techniques such as casting, deformation or material removal, but special attention will also be paid to the newest processes, such as laser sintering, rapid manufacturing, and so on. Contributions will be considered noteworthy if they represent a real element of novelty in the world of metallic materials as well as in the advanced characterization and use of metals for effective design solutions. It is also highly recommended to expect papers related to applying new technologies with respect to mechanical performance and materials behaviour in terms of modelling various phenomena (creep, fatigue) and many other factors that constitute materials reliability in engineering applications.

Prof. Dr. Cristiano Fragassa
Dr. Grzegorz Lesiuk
Dr. Jeremy Epp
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Design solutions
  • Material design
  • Material properties
  • Metal and alloys
  • Metalworking
  • Advanced characterization methods
  • Processes and treatments
  • Numerical modelling

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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7 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
High-Performance Applications of Metals and Alloys: Material Properties, Behaviour Modeling, Optimal Design and Advanced Processes
by Cristiano Fragassa, Grzegorz Lesiuk and Jeremy Epp
Metals 2023, 13(8), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13081485 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 903
Abstract
Metals have played an immensely significant role throughout the history of humanity, to the extent that different periods of human development have been marked by the dominance of specific materials, such as the Bronze Age and the Iron Age [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

13 pages, 8739 KiB  
Article
Strength Analysis of Eight-Wheel Bogie of Bucket Wheel Excavator
by Snezana Vulovic, Miroslav Zivkovic, Ana Pavlovic, Rodoljub Vujanac and Marko Topalovic
Metals 2023, 13(3), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030466 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Crawler travel gear is a type of heavy vehicle propulsion that is commonly found in tanks, excavators, and specialized off-road vehicles. They have an advantage over wheels when it comes to robust vehicle weight distribution over soft terrain, and some disadvantages as well. [...] Read more.
Crawler travel gear is a type of heavy vehicle propulsion that is commonly found in tanks, excavators, and specialized off-road vehicles. They have an advantage over wheels when it comes to robust vehicle weight distribution over soft terrain, and some disadvantages as well. They can damage paved roads and have complex design so, considering the enormous weight they must carry, their reliability must be determined and verified. The main parts of the assembly are the drive wheels, which move the crawler, and the supporting structure that holds four-wheel bogies and two-wheel bogies. In this paper, we present a methodology for FEM analysis of parts of an eight-wheel bogie according to DIN 22261-2 standard. Full article
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18 pages, 5551 KiB  
Article
Life Assessment of Corroded Wire for Prestressing
by Dejan Momcilovic, Ivana Atanasovska, Snezana Vulovic and Ana Pavlovic
Metals 2023, 13(2), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020387 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
The repair of structural elements for the prestressing of reinforced concrete is necessary when existing prestressing wires are damaged or after a certain period of time. The objective of this paper is to describe the methodology for the life assessment of corroded prestressing [...] Read more.
The repair of structural elements for the prestressing of reinforced concrete is necessary when existing prestressing wires are damaged or after a certain period of time. The objective of this paper is to describe the methodology for the life assessment of corroded prestressing wires, sampled from prestressed concrete elements after a few decades of use. The aim of the presented research was to determine the real properties of corroded wire in terms of the evaluation of remaining load capacity using the Theory of Critical Distances (TCD). The methodology also includes spatial 3D characterization of corroded surfaces, determination of mechanical properties, and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of a model of wire with corrosion pits. The final goal of the presented methodology is to enable more efficient evaluation of repair range and options for the elements of mechanical prestressing systems within various structures. The results and conclusions indicate that the developed methodology, based on the interdisciplinary approach and implementation of state-of-the-art methods, has a high applicability potential for both static and fatigue fracture prediction in the case of prestressed wires. The proposed method has a huge potential for simple and fast prediction of the life assessment of engineering structures, particularly for damaged elements with arbitrary geometry features. Full article
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12 pages, 10893 KiB  
Article
Influence on Fatigue Strength of Post-Process Treatments on Thin-Walled AlSi10Mg Structures Made by Additive Manufacturing
by Nicola Spignoli and Giangiacomo Minak
Metals 2023, 13(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010126 - 08 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
This work aims to study the fatigue behavior of thin-walled structures and the possible influence of post-process treatments. Specimens with novel geometry were manufactured in AlSi10Mg with different inner diameter values using selective laser melting (SLM) technology and then treated. The different processes [...] Read more.
This work aims to study the fatigue behavior of thin-walled structures and the possible influence of post-process treatments. Specimens with novel geometry were manufactured in AlSi10Mg with different inner diameter values using selective laser melting (SLM) technology and then treated. The different processes applied to the specimens were T6 quenching, microshot peening, and controlled roughness machining. The fracture data were analyzed to obtain the fatigue strength values at 2×106 cycles. The results showed that the mechanical treatments and the T6 quenching improved the fatigue strength by over 55% and over 80%, respectively. Relative density and per cent porosity were measured, and microscopic observations by electron microscope, metallographic microscope, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were performed. It was possible to conclude that thickness did not affect fatigue life in the studied cases. Full article
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21 pages, 2070 KiB  
Article
Elastic Thermal Deformation of an Infinite Copper Material Due to Cyclic Heat Supply Using Higher-Order Nonlocal Thermal Modeling
by Ahmed E. Abouelregal and Hamid M. Sedighi
Metals 2022, 12(11), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111927 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
Thermoelastic modeling at nanoscale is becoming more important as devices shrink and heat sources are more widely used in modern industries, such as nanoelectromechanical systems. However, the conventional thermoelastic theories are no longer applicable in high-temperature settings. This study provides an insight into [...] Read more.
Thermoelastic modeling at nanoscale is becoming more important as devices shrink and heat sources are more widely used in modern industries, such as nanoelectromechanical systems. However, the conventional thermoelastic theories are no longer applicable in high-temperature settings. This study provides an insight into the thermomechanical features of a nonlocal viscous half-space exposed to a cyclic heat source. Using a novel concept of fractional derivatives, introduced by Atangana and Baleanu, it is assumed that the viscoelastic properties follow the fractional Kelvin–Voigt model. The nonlocal differential form of Eringen’s nonlocal theory is employed to consider the impact of small-scale behavior. It is also proposed that the rule of dual-phase thermal conductivity can be generalized to thermoelastic materials to include the higher-order time derivatives. The numerical results for the examined physical variables are presented using the Laplace transform technique. Furthermore, several numerical analyses are performed in-depth, focusing on the effects of nonlocality, structural viscoelastic indicator, fractional order, higher-order and phase-lag parameters on the behavior of the nanoscale half-space. According to the presented findings, it appears that the higher-order terms have a major impact on reactions and may work to mitigate the impact of thermal diffusion. Furthermore, these terms provide a novel approach to categorize the materials based on their thermal conductivities. Full article
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17 pages, 4366 KiB  
Article
Two-Intervals Hardening Function in a Phase-Field Damage Model for the Simulation of Aluminum Alloy Ductile Behavior
by Vladimir Dunić, Jelena Živković, Vladimir Milovanović, Ana Pavlović, Andreja Radovanović and Miroslav Živković
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1685; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111685 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1404
Abstract
The aluminum alloys (AA) are among the most utilized materials in engineering structures, which induces the need for careful investigation, testing, and possibilities for accurate simulation of the structure’s response. AA 5083-H111 specimens were used to investigate the possibility of employing a Phase-Field [...] Read more.
The aluminum alloys (AA) are among the most utilized materials in engineering structures, which induces the need for careful investigation, testing, and possibilities for accurate simulation of the structure’s response. AA 5083-H111 specimens were used to investigate the possibility of employing a Phase-Field Damage Model (PFDM) for the simulation of AA structures’ behavior. The specimens were mechanically tested by uniaxial tensile loading tests. Based on the obtained results, the PFDM was employed with a von Mises plasticity model, implemented in the Finite Element Method software. The plasticity model was extended by modification of the hardening function defined in two-intervals: a linear hardening and a Simo-type hardening. An excellent superposition of the simulation and experimental force-displacement response was recorded. These findings suggest that the AA structures’ response can be successfully simulated in the elastic-plastic domain, as well as its failure by damage being controlled. Full article
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32 pages, 19160 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Former Process Steps on Changes in Hardness, Lattice and Micro Structure of AISI 4140 Due to Manufacturing Processes
by Florian Borchers, Brigitte Clausen, Lisa C. Ehle, Marco Eich, Jérémy Epp, Friedhelm Frerichs, Matthias Hettig, Andreas Klink, Ewald Kohls, Yang Lu, Heiner Meyer, Bob Rommes, Sebastian Schneider, Rebecca Strunk and Tjarden Zielinski
Metals 2021, 11(7), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071102 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2616
Abstract
The surface and subsurface conditions of components are critical for their functional properties. Every manufacturing process modifies the surface condition as a consequence of its mechanical, chemical, and thermal impact or combinations of the three. The depth of the affected zone varies for [...] Read more.
The surface and subsurface conditions of components are critical for their functional properties. Every manufacturing process modifies the surface condition as a consequence of its mechanical, chemical, and thermal impact or combinations of the three. The depth of the affected zone varies for different machining operations and is related to the process parameters and characteristics. Furthermore, the initial material state has a decisive influence on the modifications that lead to the final surface conditions. With this knowledge, the collaborative research center CRC/Transregio 136 “Process Signatures” started a first joint investigation to analyze the influence of several machining operations on the surface modifications of uniformly premanufactured samples in a broad study. The present paper focusses on four defined process chains which were analyzed in detail regarding the resulting surface conditions as a function of the initial state. Two different workpiece geometries of the same initial material (AISI 4140, 42CrMo4 (1.7225) classified according to DIN EN ISO 683-2) were treated in two different heat treating lines. Samples annealed to a ferritic-perlitic microstructure were additionally deep rolled as starting condition. Quenched and tempered samples were induction hardened before further process application. These two states were then submitted to six different manufacturing processes, i.e., grinding (with mainly mechanical or thermal impact), precision turning (mainly mechanical), laser processing (mainly thermal), electrical discharge machining (EDM, mainly thermal) and electrochemical machining (ECM, (mainly chemical impact). The resulting surface conditions were investigated after each step of the manufacturing chain by specialized analysis techniques regarding residual stresses, microstructure, and hardness distribution. Based on the process knowledge and on the systematic characterizations, the characteristics and depths of the material modifications, as well as their underlying mechanisms and causes, were investigated. Mechanisms occurring within AISI 4140 steel (42CrMo4) due to thermal, mechanical or mixed impacts were identified as work hardening, stress relief, recrystallization, re-hardening and melting, grain growth, and rearrangement of dislocations. Full article
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