Creep and Deformation of Metals and Alloys at Elevated Temperatures II

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Failure Analysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 4122

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Laboratory for Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials and Superalloys, Belgorod State University, 308015 Belgorod, Russia
Interests: mechanical and microstructural characterization of advanced creep-resistant steels and superalloys: heat treatment, creep, low cycle fatigue, long-term aging, impact toughness, phase transformation, dispersed precipitates
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Various aspects of the creep and deformation behavior of metals and alloys at elevated temperatures are of great interest to materials scientists. Creep resistance is an extremely important characteristic to be evaluated for structural materials that are used, for example, in aircraft gas turbines, fossil power plants, nuclear reactors, etc. New heat-resistant materials such as nickel-based superalloys, heat-resistant austenitic and martensitic steels, light alloys are being developed to meet the requirements for components operating at high temperatures. Advanced materials are designed to withstand creep based on the different approaches, increasing their strengthening from solid solution, second-phase particles and dislocation structure. On the other hand, an understanding of the deformation behavior of metals and alloys can help us to increase their hot workability and obtain the desired microstructure and properties of the finished product.

The previous Special Issue collected very interesting papers on the different aspects of the creep and deformation behavior of various Ni-based superalloys, CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy, heat-resistant martensitic and austenitic steels, including ultra-high interstitial austenitic steel, presented by leading material science research groups. Perhaps not all interested authors have shared their scientific results. In this issue, we seek to emphasize the mechanisms of plastic deformation and creep in advanced materials. We cordially invite submissions related to the experimental and theoretical investigations on this topic, including the simulations and modeling of microstructural, textural evolutions, technological and operational properties.

Dr. Nadezhda Dudova
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • alloys and steels
  • plastic deformation
  • mechanical testing
  • elevated temperatures
  • microstructural characterization

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 7176 KiB  
Article
Q&P Response of a Medium Carbon Low Alloy Steel
by Roman Mishnev, Yuliya Borisova, Sergey Gaidar, Tatiana Kniaziuk, Olga Vagina and Rustam Kaibyshev
Metals 2023, 13(4), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040689 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
An Fe-0.44%C-1.8%Si-1.3%Mn-0.82%Cr-0.28%Mo steel was subjected to quenching followed by low-temperature tempering (Q&T) and quenching and partitioning (Q&P) processing after full austenitization. The Q&P treatment led to an increase in the volume fraction of retained austenite (RA) by factors ranging from 30 to 40 [...] Read more.
An Fe-0.44%C-1.8%Si-1.3%Mn-0.82%Cr-0.28%Mo steel was subjected to quenching followed by low-temperature tempering (Q&T) and quenching and partitioning (Q&P) processing after full austenitization. The Q&P treatment led to an increase in the volume fraction of retained austenite (RA) by factors ranging from 30 to 40 depending on the quenching temperature, Tq, and an additional precipitation of transition η-carbides in the martensitic matrix. The Q&P processing provided a decrease in the yield stress (YS) from 1730 to 1350 MPa and an increase in the ductility by a factor of 3; the product of strength and elongation (PSE) increased from 13.7 to 32 GPa·%. The novelty of the work lies in establishing the origin of the good ductility and high YS of Q&P steel. Blocky-type RA plays a vital role in the effect of Q&P processing on mechanical properties. The main feature of RA is a very high dislocation density proving the strength of ~1000 MPa of this structural component. The strength of RA controls the YS of the steel if its volume fraction is ≥25%. Ductility is provided by the almost full transformation of RA into strain-induced martensite under tension. The localization of plastic deformation in the form of deformation bands is associated with the γ→α′ transformation. Medium carbon Q&P steel with a high volume fraction of RA meets the requirements for advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) belonging to the third generation of AHSS due to the combination of the YS > 1050 MPa with the PSE > 30 GPa·%. Full article
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28 pages, 6507 KiB  
Article
Correlation Analysis of Established Creep Failure Models through Computational Modelling for SS-304 Material
by Mohsin Sattar, Abdul Rahim Othman, Muhammad Muzamil, Shahrul Kamaruddin, Maaz Akhtar and Rashid Khan
Metals 2023, 13(2), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020197 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
To maintain safety and reliability in power plants, creep-life prediction models have received much attention over the years. This article was designed to focus on the conditions when a material structure is exposed to extremely high temperatures and pressures with the help of [...] Read more.
To maintain safety and reliability in power plants, creep-life prediction models have received much attention over the years. This article was designed to focus on the conditions when a material structure is exposed to extremely high temperatures and pressures with the help of finite element analysis. A direct comparison of the feasibility of different models’ fitness and suitability in predicting creep damage was presented in this article by simulating the damage evolution of a uniaxial SS-304 specimen under a pre-defined load, using established constitutive creep models. Comparative assessments of minimum creep strain rate, creep deformation, and stress rupture were demonstrated using the Norton–Bailey (NB), Kachanov–Rabotnov (KR), Theta projection (TP), and sine-hyperbolic (SH) models while standardizing them with the Omega model. The FE results of a dog-bone specimen, while implementing the models, were compared with the actual creep experiment results to check for the models’ reliability and validation. Subsequently, sensitivity studies of the established creep models were conducted using the statistical tools RSM and ANOVA, with an analysis of how the parameters for operation, design, and material dependency came into effect. Thus, quantitative and qualitative correlation analyses of the FE creep response for these five established models were conducted together, resulting in finalizing the selection of the most suitable model, the sine-hyperbolic model, for the SS-304 material under the defined boundary conditions. The 0.84 R2 value of the sine-hyperbolic model proved the model’s selection for predicting the creep response of stainless steel 304. The method can be applied to select a suitable creep damage model as per the feasibility of the operating conditions. Full article
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Review

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32 pages, 5265 KiB  
Review
9–12% Cr Heat-Resistant Martensitic Steels with Increased Boron and Decreased Nitrogen Contents
by Nadezhda Dudova
Metals 2022, 12(7), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12071119 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
As a promising alloying approach, the modification of chemical composition by increasing the B content and decreasing the N content has been applied to improve the creep resistance of various 9–12% Cr heat-resistant martensitic steels. This paper presents an overview of the creep [...] Read more.
As a promising alloying approach, the modification of chemical composition by increasing the B content and decreasing the N content has been applied to improve the creep resistance of various 9–12% Cr heat-resistant martensitic steels. This paper presents an overview of the creep strength and related microstructural features of the 9% Cr and 10–12% Cr martensitic steels with high B and low N contents. The factors that determine the optimal B/N ratio in steels are considered. The creep properties are compared with those for similar steels with conventional B and N contents. The relationships between the stability of lath structure and precipitates of M23C6, Laves, and MX phases and the creep strength of steels are considered. Further perspectives of this modification of alloying by high boron and low nitrogen are outlined. Full article
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